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Easton's Bible Dictionary (C)

          Hollow (R.V., “kab”), occurs only in 2 Kings 6:25; a dry
          measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of an
          ephah, equal to about two English quarts.

          Only in Jer. 37:16 (R.V., “cells”), arched vaults or recesses
          off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of

          How little! as nothing. (1.) A town on the eastern border of
          Asher (Josh. 19:27), probably one of the towns given by Solomon
          to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho, on the
          very borders of Galilee.

          (2.) A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre,
          containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward
          for various services rendered to him in building the temple (1
          Kings 9:13), and as payment of the six score talents of gold he
          had borrowed from him. Hiram gave the cities this name because
          he was not pleased with the gift, the name signifying “good for
          nothing.” Hiram seems afterwards to have restored these cities
          to Solomon (2 Chr. 8:2).

          The title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In
          the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as
          sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive
          proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to
          Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of
          appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New
          Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22),
          Claudius (Acts 11:28), and Nero (Acts 25:8; Phil. 4:22).

   Caesara Philippi
          A city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120
          miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of
          Galilee, at the “upper source” of the Jordan, and near the base
          of Mount Hermon. It is mentioned in Matt. 16:13 and Mark 8:27 as
          the northern limit of our Lord’s public ministry. According to
          some its original name was Baal-Gad (Josh. 11:17), or
          Baal-Hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), when it was a Canaanite
          sanctuary of Baal. It was afterwards called Panium or Paneas,
          from a deep cavern full of water near the town. This name was
          given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of
          Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which
          were always associated with the worship of their god Pan. Its
          modern name is Banias. Here Herod built a temple, which he
          dedicated to Augustus Caesar. This town was afterwards enlarged
          and embellished by Herod Philip, the tetrarch of Trachonitis, of
          whose territory it formed a part, and was called by him Caesarea
          Philippi, partly after his own name, and partly after that of
          the emperor Tiberius Caesar. It is thus distinguished from the
          Caesarea of Palestine. (See [87]JORDAN.)

          (Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the
          great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of
          Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It
          was built by Herod the Great (B.C. 10), who named it after
          Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos =
          “Augustus”), on the site of an old town called “Strato’s Tower.”
          It was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of
          the governors or procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman
          troops. It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a
          spacious artificial harbour. It was adorned with many buildings
          of great splendour, after the manner of the Roman cities of the
          West. Here Cornelius the centurion was converted through the
          instrumentality of Peter (Acts 10:1, 24), and thus for the first
          time the door of faith was opened to the Gentiles. Philip the
          evangelist resided here with his four daughters (21:8). From
          this place Saul sailed for his native Tarsus when forced to flee
          from Jerusalem (9:30), and here he landed when returning from
          his second missionary journey (18:22). He remained as a prisoner
          here for two years before his voyage to Rome (Acts 24:27; 25:1,
          4, 6, 13). Here on a “set day,” when games were celebrated in
          the theatre in honour of the emperor Claudius, Herod Agrippa I.
          appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the
          idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an angel,
          and carried out a dying man. He was “eaten of worms” (12:19-23),
          thus perishing by the same loathsome disease as his granfather,
          Herod the Great. It still retains its ancient name Kaiseriyeh,
          but is now desolate. “The present inhabitants of the ruins are
          snakes, scorpions, lizards, wild boars, and jackals.” It is
          described as the most desolate city of all Palestine.

          (Heb. kelub’, Jer. 5:27, marg. “coop;” rendered “basket” in Amos
          8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after
          being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek
          phulake, properly a prison or place of confinement.

          The Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our
          Lord’s public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and
          also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt.
          26:3, 57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the
          whole of Pilate’s administration. His wife was the daughter of
          Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the
          vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of
          the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when
          he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death “for the
          people, and that the whole nation perish not” (John 11:50). In
          these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. “Like Saul, he
          was a prophet in spite of himself.” Caiaphas had no power to
          inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to
          Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the
          sentence against him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period
          his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See

          A possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve
          (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel
          followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was “a sullen,
          self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious
          element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude
          towards God.” It came to pass “in process of time” (marg. “at
          the end of days”), i.e., probably on the Sabbath, that the two
          brothers presented their offerings to the Lord. Abel’s offering
          was of the “firstlings of his flock and of the fat,” while
          Cain’s was “of the fruit of the ground.” Abel’s sacrifice was
          “more excellent” (Heb. 11:4) than Cain’s, and was accepted by
          God. On this account Cain was “very wroth,” and cherished
          feelings of murderous hatred against his brother, and was at
          length guilty of the desperate outrage of putting him to death
          (1 John 3:12). For this crime he was expelled from Eden, and
          henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon him some mark
          which God had set upon him in answer to his own cry for mercy,
          so that thereby he might be protected from the wrath of his
          fellow-men; or it may be that God only gave him some sign to
          assure him that he would not be slain (Gen. 4:15). Doomed to be
          a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth into the
          “land of Nod”, i.e., the land of “exile”, which is said to have
          been in the “east of Eden,” and there he built a city, the first
          we read of, and called it after his son’s name, Enoch. His
          descendants are enumerated to the sixth generation. They
          gradually degenerated in their moral and spiritual condition
          till they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption
          prevailed, and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent
          the final triumph of evil. (See [89]ABEL.)

          (2.) A town of the Kenites, a branch of the Midianites (Josh.
          15:57), on the east edge of the mountain above Engedi; probably
          the “nest in a rock” mentioned by Balaam (Num. 24:21). It is
          identified with the modern Yekin, 3 miles south-east of Hebron.

          Possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the
          eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his
          eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen.
          5:9-14), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called
          Kenan (1 Chr. 1:2).

          (2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the
          Old Testament. He is usually called the “second Cainan.”

          Cakes made of wheat or barley were offered in the temple. They
          were salted, but unleavened (Ex. 29:2; Lev. 2:4). In idolatrous
          worship thin cakes or wafers were offered “to the queen of
          heaven” (Jer. 7:18; 44:19).

          Pancakes are described in 2 Sam. 13:8, 9. Cakes mingled with oil
          and baked in the oven are mentioned in Lev. 2:4, and “wafers
          unleavened anointed with oil,” in Ex. 29:2; Lev. 8:26; 1 Chr.
          23:29. “Cracknels,” a kind of crisp cakes, were among the things
          Jeroboam directed his wife to take with her when she went to
          consult Ahijah the prophet at Shiloh (1 Kings 14:3). Such hard
          cakes were carried by the Gibeonites when they came to Joshua
          (9:5, 12). They described their bread as “mouldy;” but the
          Hebrew word nikuddim, here used, ought rather to be rendered
          “hard as biscuit.” It is rendered “cracknels” in 1 Kings 14:3.
          The ordinary bread, when kept for a few days, became dry and
          excessively hard. The Gibeonites pointed to this hardness of
          their bread as an evidence that they had come a long journey.

          We read also of honey-cakes (Ex. 16:31), “cakes of figs” (1 Sam.
          25:18), “cake” as denoting a whole piece of bread (1 Kings
          17:12), and “a [round] cake of barley bread” (Judg. 7:13). In
          Lev. 2 is a list of the different kinds of bread and cakes which
          were fit for offerings.

          One of the most ancient cities of Assyria. “Out of that land he
          [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh,
          Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen” (Gen. 10:11, R.V.). Its site
          is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of
          the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are
          second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite
          Mosul. This city was at one time the capital of the empire, and
          was the residence of Sardanapalus and his successors down to the
          time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the modern Khorsabad.
          It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Gen.
          10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh

          The Latin for cane, Hebrew Kaneh, mentioned (Ex. 30:23) as one
          of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet
          scents (Cant. 4:14), and among the articles sold in the markets
          of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). The word designates an Oriental plant
          called the “sweet flag,” the Acorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is
          elsewhere called “sweet cane” (Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20). It has an
          aromatic smell, and when its knotted stalk is cut and dried and
          reduced to powder, it forms an ingredient in the most precious
          perfumes. It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported
          from Arabia Felix or from India. It was probably that which is
          now known in India by the name of “lemon grass” or “ginger
          grass,” the Andropogon schoenanthus. (See [90]CANE.)

          (1 Chr. 2:6), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (1 Kings
          4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom;
          for “he was wiser than all men.”

          A dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of
          Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1 Chr. 2:9). His descendants
          are enumerated (18-20, 42-49).

          (2.) A “son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah” (1 Chr. 2:50).
          Some would read the whole passage thus: “These [i.e., the list
          in ver. 42-49] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the
          firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc.” Thus Hur would be the
          name of the son and not the father of Caleb (ver. 19).

          (3.) The son of Jephunneh (Num. 13:6; 32:12; Josh. 14:6, 14). He
          was one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the
          second year after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of
          the tribe of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only
          two of the whole number who encouraged the people to go up and
          possess the land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke
          out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14). All the
          people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward,
          perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we
          have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he
          came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had
          gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise
          Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain
          portion of the land of Kirjath-arba as his inheritance (Josh.
          14:6-15; 15:13-15; 21:10-12; 1 Sam. 25:2, 3; 30:14). He is
          called a “Kenezite” in Josh. 14:6, 14. This may simply mean “son
          of Kenez” (Num. 32:12). Some, however, read “Jephunneh, the son
          of Kenez,” who was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a
          grandson of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). This Caleb may possibly be
          identical with (2).

          (4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south
          country (1 Sam. 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and
          Carmel, which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city
          of Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained
          possession of the surrounding country (Josh. 21:11, 12; comp. 1
          Sam. 25:3).

          Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are
          therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The “fatted calf”
          was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently
          also offered as a special sacrifice (1 Sam. 28:24; Amos 6:4;
          Luke 15:23). The words used in Jer. 34:18, 19, “cut the calf in
          twain,” allude to the custom of dividing a sacrifice into two
          parts, between which the parties ratifying a covenant passed
          (Gen. 15:9, 10, 17, 18). The sacrifice of the lips, i.e.,
          priase, is called “the calves of our lips” (Hos. 14:2, R.V., “as
          bullocks the offering of our lips.” Comp. Heb. 13:15; Ps. 116:7;
          Jer. 33:11).

          The golden calf which Aaron made (Ex. 32:4) was probably a copy
          of the god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the sacred ox or
          calf of Egypt. The Jews showed all through their history a
          tendency toward the Babylonian and Canaanitish idolatry rather
          than toward that of Egypt.

          Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set up two idol
          calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he might thus
          prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem for worship
          (1 Kings 12:28). These calves continued to be a snare to the
          people till the time of their captivity. The calf at Dan was
          carried away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser, and that
          at Bethel ten years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by
          Shalmaneser (2 Kings 15:29; 17:33). This sin of Jeroboam is
          almost always mentioned along with his name (2 Kings 15:28

          Workmen skilled in stopping the seams of the deck or sides of
          vessels. The inhabitants of Gebel were employed in such work on
          Tyrian vessels (Ezek. 27:9, 27; marg., “strengtheners” or
          “stoppers of chinks”).

          (1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are
          said to “call upon the name of the Lord” (Acts 2:21; 7:59; 9:14;
          Rom. 10:12; 1 Cor. 1:2).

          (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to
          some special office (Ex. 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when
          he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13; 11:28;

          In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men,
          to Jews and Gentiles alike (Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15; Rom. 9:24,
          25). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with
          salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable
          if they reject it (John 3:14-19; Matt. 22:14).

          An effectual call is something more than the outward message of
          the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the
          enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit (John
          16:14; Acts 26: 18; John 6:44), effectually drawing men to
          Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth
          (John 6:45; Acts 16:14; Eph. 1:17).

          A profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1 Cor. 7:20).
          The “hope of your calling” in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting
          from your being called into the kingdom of God.

          Fort, one of the four cities founded by Nimrod (Gen. 10:10). It
          is the modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish
          situated in the marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of the
          Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and
          about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as
          one of the towns with which Tyre carried on trade. It was
          finally taken and probably destroyed by one of the Assyrian
          kings (Amos 6:2). It is called Calno (Isa. 10:9) and Canneh
          (Ezek. 27:23).

          Only in Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a
          translation of the Greek word Kranion, by which the Hebrew word
          Gulgoleth was interpreted, “the place of a skull.” It probably
          took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded,
          bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull. It is
          nowhere in Scripture called a “hill.” The crucifixion of our
          Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and near
          the public thoroughfare. “This thing was not done in a corner.”
          (See [91]GOLGOTHA.)

          From the Hebrew gamal, “to repay” or “requite,” as the camel
          does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of
          camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being
          “ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming
          oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and
          extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by
          claws, the limbs long, the abdomen drawn up, while the neck,
          long and slender, is bent up and down, the reverse of that of a
          horse, which is arched.”

          (1.) The Bactrian camel is distinguished by two humps. It is a
          native of the high table-lands of Central Asia.

          (2.) The Arabian camel or dromedary, from the Greek dromos, “a
          runner” (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23), has but one hump, and is a
          native of Western Asia or Africa.

          The camel was early used both for riding and as a beast of
          burden (Gen. 24:64; 37:25), and in war (1 Sam. 30:17; Isa.
          21:7). Mention is made of the camel among the cattle given by
          Pharaoh to Abraham (Gen. 12:16). Its flesh was not to be eaten,
          as it was ranked among unclean animals (Lev. 11:4; Deut. 14:7).
          Abraham’s servant rode on a camel when he went to fetch a wife
          for Isaac (Gen. 24:10, 11). Jacob had camels as a portion of his
          wealth (30:43), as Abraham also had (24:35). He sent a present
          of thirty milch camels to his brother Esau (32:15). It appears
          to have been little in use among the Jews after the conquest. It
          is, however, mentioned in the history of David (1 Chr. 27:30),
          and after the Exile (Ezra 2:67; Neh. 7:69). Camels were much in
          use among other nations in the East. The queen of Sheba came
          with a caravan of camels when she came to see the wisdom of
          Solomon (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 9:1). Benhadad of Damascus also
          sent a present to Elisha, “forty camels’ burden” (2 Kings 8:9).

          To show the difficulty in the way of a rich man’s entering into
          the kingdom, our Lord uses the proverbial expression that it was
          easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle (Matt.

          To strain at (rather, out) a gnat and swallow a camel was also a
          proverbial expression (Matt. 23:24), used with reference to
          those who were careful to avoid small faults, and yet did not
          hesitate to commit the greatest sins. The Jews carefully
          filtered their wine before drinking it, for fear of swallowing
          along with it some insect forbidden in the law as unclean, and
          yet they omitted openly the “weightier matters” of the law.

          The raiment worn by John the Baptist was made of camel’s hair
          (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6), by which he was distinguished from those
          who resided in royal palaces and wore soft raiment. This was
          also the case with Elijah (2 Kings 1:8), who is called “a hairy
          man,” from his wearing such raiment. “This is one of the most
          admirable materials for clothing; it keeps out the heat, cold,
          and rain.” The “sackcloth” so often alluded to (2 Kings 1:8;
          Isa. 15:3; Zech. 13:4, etc.) was probably made of camel’s hair.

          Full of stalks, a place (Judg. 10:5) where Jair was buried. It
          has usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the
          east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern
          Tell-el-Kaimun, on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of
          Carmel (Josh. 12:22; 1 Kings 4:12), since it is not at all
          unlikely that after he became judge, Jair might find it more
          convenient to live on the west side of Jordan; and that he was
          buried where he had lived.

          During their journeys across the wilderness, the twelve tribes
          formed encampments at the different places where they halted
          (Ex. 16:13; Num. 2:3). The diagram here given shows the position
          of the different tribes and the form of the encampment during
          the wanderings, according to Num. 1:53; 2:2-31; 3:29, 35, 38;

          The area of the camp would be in all about 3 square miles. After
          the Hebrews entered Palestine, the camps then spoken of were
          exclusively warlike (Josh. 11:5, 7; Judg. 5:19, 21; 7:1; 1 Sam.
          29:1; 30:9, etc.).

          (Heb. copher), mentioned in Cant. 1:14 (R.V., “henna-flowers”);
          4:13 (R.V., “henna”), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of
          Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous
          flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is
          made the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain
          their nails and the palms of their hands. It is found only at
          Engedi, on the shore of the Dead Sea. It is known to botanists
          by the name Lawsonia alba or inermis, a kind of privet, which
          grows 6 or 8 feet high. The margin of the Authorized Version of
          the passages above referred to has “or cypress,” not with
          reference to the conifer so called, but to the circumstance that
          one of the most highly appreciated species of this plant grew in
          the island of Cyprus.

          Reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. Here our Lord wrought
          his first miracle, the turning of water into wine (John 2:1-11;
          4:46). It is also mentioned as the birth-place of Nathanael
          (21:2). It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It has been
          identified with the modern Kana el-Jelil, also called Khurbet
          Kana, a place 8 or 9 miles north of Nazareth. Others have
          identified it with Kefr Kenna, which lies on the direct road to
          the Sea of Galilee, about 5 miles north-east of Nazareth, and 12
          in a direct course from Tiberias. It is called “Cana of
          Galilee,” to distinguish it from Cana of Asher (Josh. 19:28).

          (1.) The fourth son of Ham (Gen. 10:6). His descendants were
          under a curse in consequence of the transgression of his father
          (9:22-27). His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the
          Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the
          founders of as many tribes (10:15-18).

          (2.) The country which derived its name from the preceding. The
          name as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the maritime
          plain on which Sidon was built. But in the time of Moses and
          Joshua it denoted the whole country to the west of the Jordan
          and the Dead Sea (Deut. 11:30). In Josh. 5:12 the LXX. read,
          “land of the Phoenicians,” instead of “land of Canaan.”

          The name signifies “the lowlands,” as distinguished from the
          land of Gilead on the east of Jordan, which was a mountainous
          district. The extent and boundaries of Canaan are fully set
          forth in different parts of Scripture (Gen. 10:19; 17:8; Num.
          13:29; 34:8). (See [92]CANAANITES, [93]PALESTINE.)

          A name given to the apostle Simon (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). The
          word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is
          a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac
          word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered “Cananaen”), which designates the
          Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Luke
          6:15) “Simon Zelotes;” i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots.
          (See [94]SIMON.)

          The descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their
          original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and
          to have there sojourned for some time. They thence “spread to
          the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge
          of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later
          became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain
          chain of Taurus. This group was very numerous, and broken up
          into a great many peoples, as we can judge from the list of
          nations (Gen. 10), the sons of Canaan.'” Six different tribes
          are mentioned in Ex. 3:8, 17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11. In Ex. 13:5
          the “Perizzites” are omitted. The “Girgashites” are mentioned in
          addition to the foregoing in Deut. 7:1; Josh. 3:10.

          The “Canaanites,” as distinguished from the Amalekites, the
          Anakim, and the Rephaim, were “dwellers in the lowlands” (Num.
          13:29), the great plains and valleys, the richest and most
          important parts of Palestine. Tyre and Sidon, their famous
          cities, were the centres of great commercial activity; and hence
          the name “Canaanite” came to signify a “trader” or “merchant”
          (Job 41:6; Prov. 31:24, lit. “Canaanites;” comp. Zeph. 1:11;
          Ezek. 17:4). The name “Canaanite” is also sometimes used to
          designate the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land in general
          (Gen. 12:6; Num. 21:3; Judg. 1:10).

          The Israelites, when they were led to the Promised Land, were
          commanded utterly to destroy the descendants of Canaan then
          possessing it (Ex. 23:23; Num. 33:52, 53; Deut. 20:16, 17). This
          was to be done “by little and little,” lest the beasts of the
          field should increase (Ex. 23:29; Deut. 7:22, 23). The history
          of these wars of conquest is given in the Book of Joshua. The
          extermination of these tribes, however, was never fully carried
          out. Jerusalem was not taken till the time of David (2 Sam. 5:6,
          7). In the days of Solomon bond-service was exacted from the
          fragments of the tribes still remaining in the land (1 Kings
          9:20, 21). Even after the return from captivity survivors of
          five of the Canaanitish tribes were still found in the land.

          In the Tell-el-Amarna tablets Canaan is found under the forms of
          Kinakhna and Kinakhkhi. Under the name of Kanana the Canaanites
          appear on Egyptian monuments, wearing a coat of mail and helmet,
          and distinguished by the use of spear and javelin and the
          battle-axe. They were called Phoenicians by the Greeks and Poeni
          by the Romans. By race the Canaanites were Semitic. They were
          famous as merchants and seamen, as well as for their artistic
          skill. The chief object of their worship was the sun-god, who
          was addressed by the general name of Baal, “lord.” Each locality
          had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were summed up
          under the name of Baalim, “lords.”

   Canaan, the language of
          Mentioned in Isa. 19:18, denotes the language spoken by the Jews
          resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the
          Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the
          fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which
          show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the
          language of the “Canaanites” is very obscure. The cuneiform
          writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian language, was
          taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of
          Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries.
          Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by the Canaanites.

          The queen of the Ethiopians whose “eunuch” or chamberlain was
          converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the
          evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called
          by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of
          commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and
          hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14).

          It is somewhat singular that female sovereignty seems to have
          prevailed in Ethiopia, the name Candace (compare “Pharaoh,”
          “Ptolemy,” “Caesar”) being a title common to several successive
          queens. It is probable that Judaism had taken root in Ethiopia
          at this time, and hence the visit of the queen’s treasurer to
          Jerusalem to keep the feast. There is a tradition that Candace
          was herself converted to Christianity by her treasurer on his
          return, and that he became the apostle of Christianity in that
          whole region, carrying it also into Abyssinia. It is said that
          he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where
          he suffered martyrdom. (See [95]PHILIP.)

          Heb. ner, Job 18:6; 29:3; Ps. 18:28; Prov. 24:20, in all which
          places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have
          “lamp,” by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The
          Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or
          torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Prov. 20:27), of a
          Christian example (Matt. 5:14, 15), and of prosperity (Job
          21:17; Prov. 13:9).

          The lamp-stand, “candelabrum,” which Moses was commanded to make
          for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form
          is described in Ex. 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen
          represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the
          spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D.
          70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging
          to it was a talent in weight.

          The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial
          light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which,
          however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God,
          who are “the light of the world.” The light which “symbolizes
          the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an
          artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the
          knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men,
          but furnished over and above nature.”

          This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy Place,
          opposite the table of shewbread (Ex. 27:21; 30:7, 8; Lev. 24:3;
          1 Sam. 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished
          in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven
          lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden snuffers,
          carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Ex. 25:38), and
          supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What
          ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.

          In Solomon’s temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure
          gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place
          (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr. 4:7). Their structure is not mentioned.
          They were carried away to Babylon (Jer. 52:19).

          In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one
          candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was
          this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where
          it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered
          Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It
          was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to
          Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally

          A tall sedgy plant with a hollow stem, growing in moist places.
          In Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20, the Hebrew word kaneh is thus
          rendered, giving its name to the plant. It is rendered “reed” in
          1 Kings 14:15; Job 40:21; Isa. 19:6; 35:7. In Ps. 68:30 the
          expression “company of spearmen” is in the margin and the
          Revised Version “beasts of the reeds,” referring probably to the
          crocodile or the hippopotamus as a symbol of Egypt. In 2 Kings
          18:21; Isa. 36:6; Ezek. 29:6, 7, the reference is to the weak,
          fragile nature of the reed. (See [96]CALAMUS.)

          A gangrene or mortification which gradually spreads over the
          whole body (2 Tim. 2:17). In James 5:3 “cankered” means “rusted”
          (R.V.) or tarnished.

          (Heb. yelek), “the licking locust,” which licks up the grass of
          the field; probably the locust at a certain stage of its growth,
          just as it emerges from the caterpillar state (Joel 1:4; 2:25).
          The word is rendered “caterpillar” in Ps. 105:34; Jer. 51:14, 17
          (but R.V. “canker-worm”). “It spoileth and fleeth away” (Nah.
          3:16), or as some read the passage, “The cankerworm putteth off
          [i.e., the envelope of its wings], and fleeth away.”

          Mentioned only in Ezek. 27:23. (See [97]CALNEH.)

          This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a
          reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to
          keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or
          measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote
          that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and
          practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to
          be of canonical authority when it has a right to take a place
          with the other books which contain a revelation of the Divine
          will. Such a right does not arise from any ecclesiastical
          authority, but from the evidence of the inspired authorship of
          the book. The canonical (i.e., the inspired) books of the Old
          and New Testaments, are a complete rule, and the only rule, of
          faith and practice. They contain the whole supernatural
          revelation of God to men. The New Testament Canon was formed
          gradually under divine guidance. The different books as they
          were written came into the possession of the Christian
          associations which began to be formed soon after the day of
          Pentecost; and thus slowly the canon increased till all the
          books were gathered together into one collection containing the
          whole of the twenty-seven New Testament inspired books.
          Historical evidence shows that from about the middle of the
          second century this New Testament collection was substantially
          such as we now possess. Each book contained in it is proved to
          have, on its own ground, a right to its place; and thus the
          whole is of divine authority.

          The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament
          writers. Their evidence is conclusive. The quotations in the New
          from the Old are very numerous, and the references are much more
          numerous. These quotations and references by our Lord and the
          apostles most clearly imply the existence at that time of a
          well-known and publicly acknowledged collection of Hebrew
          writings under the designation of “The Scriptures;” “The Law and
          the Prophets and the Psalms;” “Moses and the Prophets,” etc. The
          appeals to these books, moreover, show that they were regarded
          as of divine authority, finally deciding all questions of which
          they treat; and that the whole collection so recognized
          consisted only of the thirty-nine books which we now posses.
          Thus they endorse as genuine and authentic the canon of the
          Jewish Scriptures. The Septuagint Version (q.v.) also contained
          every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to
          the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are
          many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah,
          immediately after the return from Babylonian exile. (See
          [98]BIBLE, [99]EZRA, [100]QUOTATIONS.)

          Nahum’s town, a Galilean city frequently mentioned in the
          history of our Lord. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament.
          After our Lord’s expulsion from Nazareth (Matt. 4:13-16; Luke
          4:16-31), Capernaum became his “own city.” It was the scene of
          many acts and incidents of his life (Matt. 8:5, 14, 15; 9:2-6,
          10-17; 15:1-20; Mark 1:32-34, etc.). The impenitence and
          unbelief of its inhabitants after the many evidences our Lord
          gave among them of the truth of his mission, brought down upon
          them a heavy denunciation of judgement (Matt. 11:23).

          It stood on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The “land
          of Gennesaret,” near, if not in, which it was situated, was one
          of the most prosperous and crowded districts of Palestine. This
          city lay on the great highway from Damascus to Acco and Tyre. It
          has been identified with Tell Hum, about two miles south-west of
          where the Jordan flows into the lake. Here are extensive ruins
          of walls and foundations, and also the remains of what must have
          been a beautiful synagogue, which it is conjectured may have
          been the one built by the centurion (Luke 7:5), in which our
          Lord frequently taught (John 6:59; Mark 1:21; Luke 4:33). Others
          have conjectured that the ruins of the city are to be found at
          Khan Minyeh, some three miles further to the south on the shore
          of the lake. “If Tell Hum be Capernaum, the remains spoken of
          are without doubt the ruins of the synagogue built by the Roman
          centurion, and one of the most sacred places on earth. It was in
          this building that our Lord gave the well-known discourse in
          John 6; and it was not without a certain strange feeling that on
          turning over a large block we found the pot of manna engraved on
          its face, and remembered the words, I am that bread of life:
          your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.'”,
          (The Recovery of Jerusalem.)

          A chaplet, the original seat of the Philistines (Deut. 2:23;
          Jer. 47:4; Amos 9:7). The name is found written in hieroglyphics
          in the temple of Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. But the exact
          situation of Caphtor is unknown, though it is supposed to be
          Crete, since the Philistines seem to be meant by the
          “Cherethites” in 1 Sam. 30:14 (see also 2 Sam. 8:18). It may,
          however, have been a part of Egypt, the Caphtur in the north
          Delta, since the Caphtorim were of the same race as the Mizraite
          people (Gen. 10:14; 1 Chr. 1:12).

          The easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor.
          Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Pet.
          1:1). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at
          Jerusalem (Acts 2:9).

          (1.) Heb. sar (1 Sam. 22:2; 2 Sam. 23:19). Rendered “chief,”
          Gen. 40:2; 41:9; rendered also “prince,” Dan. 1:7; “ruler,”
          Judg. 9:30; “governor,’ 1 Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word
          denotes a military captain (Ex. 18:21; 2 Kings 1:9; Deut. 1:15;
          1 Sam. 18:13, etc.), the “captain of the body-guard” (Gen.
          37:36; 39:1; 41:10; Jer. 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered,
          “chief of the executioners” (marg.). The officers of the king’s
          body-guard frequently acted as executioners. Nebuzar-adan (Jer.
          39:13) and Arioch (Dan. 2:14) held this office in Babylon.

          The “captain of the guard” mentioned in Acts 28:16 was the
          Praetorian prefect, the commander of the Praetorian troops.

          (2.) Another word (Heb. katsin) so translated denotes sometimes
          a military (Josh. 10:24; Judg. 11:6, 11; Isa. 22:3 “rulers;”
          Dan. 11:18) and sometimes a civil command, a judge, magistrate,
          Arab. kady, (Isa. 1:10; 3:6; Micah 3:1, 9).

          (3.) It is also the rendering of a Hebrew word (shalish) meaning
          “a third man,” or “one of three.” The LXX. render in plural by
          tristatai; i.e., “soldiers fighting from chariots,” so called
          because each war-chariot contained three men, one of whom acted
          as charioteer while the other two fought (Ex. 14:7; 15:4; 1
          Kings 9:22; comp. 2 Kings 9:25). This word is used also to
          denote the king’s body-guard (2 Kings 10:25; 1 Chr. 12:18; 2
          Chr. 11:11) or aides-de-camp.

          (4.) The “captain of the temple” mentioned in Acts 4:1 and 5:24
          was not a military officer, but superintendent of the guard of
          priests and Levites who kept watch in the temple by night.
          (Comp. “the ruler of the house of God,” 1 Chr. 9:11; 2 Chr.
          31:13; Neh. 11:11.)

          (5.) The Captain of our salvation is a name given to our Lord
          (Heb. 2:10), because he is the author and source of our
          salvation, the head of his people, whom he is conducting to
          glory. The “captain of the Lord’s host” (Josh. 5:14, 15) is the
          name given to that mysterious person who manifested himself to
          Abraham (Gen. 12:7), and to Moses in the bush (Ex. 3:2, 6, etc.)
          the Angel of the covenant. (See [101]ANGEL.)

          One taken in war. Captives were often treated with great cruelty
          and indignity (1 Kings 20:32; Josh. 10:24; Judg. 1:7; 2 Sam.
          4:12; Judg. 8:7; 2 Sam. 12:31; 1 Chr. 20:3). When a city was
          taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and
          children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isa. 20; 47:3;
          2 Chr. 28:9-15; Ps. 44:12; Joel 3:3), and exposed to the most
          cruel treatment (Nah. 3:10; Zech. 14:2; Esther 3:13; 2 Kings
          8:12; Isa. 13:16, 18). Captives were sometimes carried away into
          foreign countries, as was the case with the Jews (Jer. 20:5;
          39:9, 10; 40:7).

          (1.) Of Israel. The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively
          invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute
          on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver (2 Kings 15:19, 20; 1
          Chr. 5:26) (B.C. 762), and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah
          (B.C. 738), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the
          inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; Isa. 9:1).
          Subsequently Shalmaneser invaded Israel and laid siege to
          Samaria, the capital of the kingdom. During the siege he died,
          and was succeeded by Sargon, who took the city, and transported
          the great mass of the people into Assyria (B.C. 721), placing
          them in Halah and in Habor, and in the cities of the Medes (2
          Kings 17:3, 5). Samaria was never again inhabited by the
          Israelites. The families thus removed were carried to distant
          cities, many of them not far from the Caspian Sea, and their
          place was supplied by colonists from Babylon and Cuthah, etc. (2
          Kings 17:24). Thus terminated the kingdom of the ten tribes,
          after a separate duration of two hundred and fifty-five years
          (B.C. 975-721).

          Many speculations have been indulged in with reference to these
          ten tribes. But we believe that all, except the number that
          probably allied themselves with Judah and shared in their
          restoration under Cyrus, are finally lost.

          “Like the dew on the mountain, Like the foam on the river, Like
          the bubble on the fountain, They are gone, and for ever.”

          (2.) Of Judah. In the third year of Jehoiachim, the eighteenth
          king of Judah (B.C. 605), Nebuchadnezzar having overcome the
          Egyptians at Carchemish, advanced to Jerusalem with a great
          army. After a brief siege he took that city, and carried away
          the vessels of the sanctuary to Babylon, and dedicated them in
          the Temple of Belus (2 Kings 24:1; 2 Chr. 36:6, 7; Dan. 1:1, 2).
          He also carried away the treasures of the king, whom he made his
          vassal. At this time, from which is dated the “seventy years” of
          captivity (Jer. 25; Dan. 9:1, 2), Daniel and his companions were
          carried to Babylon, there to be brought up at the court and
          trained in all the learning of the Chaldeans. After this, in the
          fifth year of Jehoiakim, a great national fast was appointed
          (Jer. 36:9), during which the king, to show his defiance, cut up
          the leaves of the book of Jeremiah’s prophecies as they were
          read to him in his winter palace, and threw them into the fire.
          In the same spirit he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings
          24:1), who again a second time (B.C. 598) marched against
          Jerusalem, and put Jehoiachim to death, placing his son
          Jehoiachin on the throne in his stead. But Jehoiachin’s
          counsellors displeasing Nebuchadnezzar, he again a third time
          turned his army against Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon a
          second detachment of Jews as captives, to the number of 10,000
          (2 Kings 24:13; Jer. 24:1; 2 Chr. 36:10), among whom were the
          king, with his mother and all his princes and officers, also
          Ezekiel, who with many of his companions were settled on the
          banks of the river Chebar (q.v.). He also carried away all the
          remaining treasures of the temple and the palace, and the golden
          vessels of the sanctuary.

          Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, was now made king over what
          remained of the kingdom of Judah, under the name of Zedekiah (2
          Kings 24:17; 2 Chr. 36:10). After a troubled reign of eleven
          years his kingdom came to an end (2 Chr. 36:11). Nebuchadnezzar,
          with a powerful army, besieged Jerusalem, and Zedekiah became a
          prisoner in Babylon. His eyes were put out, and he was kept in
          close confinement till his death (2 Kings 25:7). The city was
          spoiled of all that was of value, and then given up to the
          flames. The temple and palaces were consumed, and the walls of
          the city were levelled with the ground (B.C. 586), and all that
          remained of the people, except a number of the poorest class who
          were left to till the ground and dress the vineyards, were
          carried away captives to Babylon. This was the third and last
          deportation of Jewish captives. The land was now utterly
          desolate, and was abondoned to anarchy.

          In the first year of his reign as king of Babylon (B.C. 536),
          Cyrus issued a decree liberating the Jewish captives, and
          permitting them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the city and
          the temple (2 Chr. 36:22, 23; Ezra 1; 2). The number of the
          people forming the first caravan, under Zerubbabel, amounted in
          all to 42,360 (Ezra 2:64, 65), besides 7,337 men-servants and
          maid-servants. A considerable number, 12,000 probably, from the
          ten tribes who had been carried away into Assyria no doubt
          combined with this band of liberated captives.

          At a later period other bands of the Jews returned (1) under
          Ezra (7:7) (B.C. 458), and (2) Nehemiah (7:66) (B.C. 445). But
          the great mass of the people remained still in the land to which
          they had been carried, and became a portion of the Jews of the
          “dispersion” (John 7:35; 1 Pet. 1:1). The whole number of the
          exiles that chose to remain was probably about six times the
          number of those who returned.

          (Ex. 28:17; 39:10; Ezek. 28:13). Heb. barkath; LXX. smaragdos;
          Vulgate, smaragdus; Revised Version, marg., “emerald.” The
          Hebrew word is from a root meaning “to glitter,” “lighten,”
          “flash.” When held up to the sun, this gem shines like a burning
          coal, a dark-red glowing coal, and hence is called
          “carbunculus”, i.e., a little coal. It was one of the jewels in
          the first row of the high priest’s breastplate. It has been
          conjectured by some that the garnet is meant. In Isa. 54:12 the
          Hebrew word is ‘ekdah, used in the prophetic description of the
          glory and beauty of the mansions above. Next to the diamond it
          is the hardest and most costly of all precious stones.

          Contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made
          whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law
          (Hag. 2:13; comp. Num. 19:16, 22; Lev. 11:39).

          Fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates
          (Jer. 46:2; 2 Chr. 35:20), not, as was once supposed, the
          Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but
          a city considerably higher up the river, and commanding the
          ordinary passage of the Euphrates; probably identical with
          Hierapolis. It was the capital of the kingdom of the northern
          Hittites. The Babylonian army, under Nebuchadnezzar, the son of
          Nabopolassar, here met and conquered the army of Pharaoh-necho,
          king of Egypt (B.C. 607). It is mentioned in monuments in B.C.
          1600 and down to B.C. 717.

          A park; generally with the article, “the park.” (1.) A prominent
          headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several connected
          hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the sea, a
          distance of some 12 miles or more. At the east end, in its
          highest part, it is 1,728 feet high, and at the west end it
          forms a promontory to the bay of Acre about 600 feet above the
          sea. It lay within the tribe of Asher. It was here, at the east
          end of the ridge, at a place called el-Mukhrakah (i.e., the
          place of burning), that Elijah brought back the people to their
          allegiance to God, and slew the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18).
          Here were consumed the “fifties” of the royal guard; and here
          also Elisha received the visit of the bereaved mother whose son
          was restored by him to life (2 Kings 4:25-37). “No mountain in
          or around Palestine retains its ancient beauty so much as
          Carmel. Two or three villages and some scattered cottages are
          found on it; its groves are few but luxuriant; it is no place
          for crags and precipices or rocks of wild goats; but its surface
          is covered with a rich and constant verdure.” “The whole
          mountain-side is dressed with blossom, and flowering shrubs, and
          fragrant herbs.” The western extremity of the ridge is, however,
          more rocky and bleak than the eastern. The head of the bride in
          Cant. 7:5 is compared to Carmel. It is ranked with Bashan on
          account of its rich pastures (Isa. 33:9; Jer. 50:19; Amos 1:2).
          The whole ridge is deeply furrowed with rocky ravines filled
          with dense jungle. There are many caves in its sides, which at
          one time were inhabited by swarms of monks. These caves are
          referred to in Amos 9:3. To them Elijah and Elisha often
          resorted (1 Kings 18:19, 42; 2 Kings 2:25). On its north-west
          summit there is an ancient establishment of Carmelite monks.
          Vineyards have recently been planted on the mount by the German
          colonists of Haifa. The modern Arabic name of the mount is
          Kurmul, but more commonly Jebel Mar Elyas, i.e., Mount St.
          Elias, from the Convent of Elias.

          (2.) A town in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:55), the
          residence of Nabal (1 Sam. 25:2, 5, 7, 40), and the native place
          of Abigail, who became David’s wife (1 Sam. 27:3). Here king
          Uzziah had his vineyards (2 Chr. 26:10). The ruins of this town
          still remain under the name of Kurmul, about 10 miles
          south-south-east of Hebron, close to those of Maon.

          Vine-dresser. (1.) The last named of the four sons of Reuben
          (Gen. 46:9).

          (2.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:1). He is elsewhere (2:18)
          called Caleb (q.v.).

          (3.) The son of Zimri, and the father of Achan (Josh. 7:1), “the
          troubler of Israel.”

          Unconverted men are so called (1 Cor. 3:3). They are represented
          as of a “carnal mind, which is enmity against God” (Rom. 8:6,
          7). Enjoyments that minister to the wants and desires of man’s
          animal nature are so called (Rom. 15:27; 1 Cor. 9:11). The
          ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken of as “carnal,” because
          it related to things outward, the bodies of men and of animals,
          and the purification of the flesh (Heb. 7:16; 9:10). The weapons
          of Christian warfare are “not carnal”, that is, they are not of
          man’s device, nor are wielded by human power (2 Cor. 10:4).

          An artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood (2
          Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 14:1; Mark 6:3). The tools used by carpenters
          are mentioned in 1 Sam. 13:19, 20; Judg. 4:21; Isa. 10:15;
          44:13. It was said of our Lord, “Is not this the carpenter’s
          son?” (Matt. 13:55); also, “Is not this the carpenter?” (Mark
          6:3). Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul
          was a tentmaker. “In the cities the carpenters would be Greeks,
          and skilled workmen; the carpenter of a provincial village could
          only have held a very humble position, and secured a very
          moderate competence.”

          In the Authorized Version this word is found as the rendering of
          many different words. In Judg. 18:21 it means valuables, wealth,
          or booty. In Isa. 46:1 (R.V., “the things that ye carried
          about”) the word means a load for a beast of burden. In 1 Sam.
          17:22 and Isa. 10:28 it is the rendering of a word (“stuff” in 1
          Sam. 10:22) meaning implements, equipments, baggage. The phrase
          in Acts 21:15, “We took up our carriages,” means properly, “We
          packed up our baggage,” as in the Revised Version.

          A vehicle moving on wheels, and usually drawn by oxen (2 Sam.
          6:3). The Hebrew word thus rendered, ‘agalah (1 Sam. 6:7, 8), is
          also rendered “wagon” (Gen. 45:19). It is used also to denote a
          war-chariot (Ps. 46:9). Carts were used for the removal of the
          ark and its sacred utensils (Num. 7:3, 6). After retaining the
          ark amongst them for seven months, the Philistines sent it back
          to the Israelites. On this occasion they set it in a new cart,
          probably a rude construction, with solid wooden wheels like that
          still used in Western Asia, which was drawn by two milch cows,
          which conveyed it straight to Beth-shemesh.

          A “cart rope,” for the purpose of fastening loads on carts, is
          used (Isa. 5:18) as a symbol of the power of sinful pleasures or
          habits over him who indulges them. (See [102]CORD.) In Syria and
          Palestine wheel-carriages for any other purpose than the
          conveyance of agricultural produce are almost unknown.

          The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the
          Jews. They were practised in connection with the construction of
          the tabernacle and the temple (Ex. 31:2, 5; 35:33; 1 Kings 6:18,
          35; Ps. 74:6), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly
          dresses (Ex. 28:9-36; Zech. 3:9; 2 Chr. 2:7, 14). Isaiah
          (44:13-17) gives a minute description of the process of carving
          idols of wood.

          A barrier of open-work placed before windows (Prov. 7:6). In
          Judg. 5:28 the Hebrew word is rendered “lattice,” in the LXX.
          “network,” an opening through which cool air is admitted.

          Silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo
          resided (Ezra 8:17); otherwise unknown.

          Fortified, a people descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:14; 1 Chr.
          1:12). Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower
          Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine.

          (1.) Hebrew kiddah’, i.e., “split.” One of the principal spices
          of the holy anointing oil (Ex. 30:24), and an article of
          commerce (Ezek. 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree
          resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of
          botanists, and was probably imported from India.

          (2.) Hebrew pl. ketzi’oth (Ps. 45:8). Mentioned in connection
          with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garments. It was
          probably prepared from the peeled bark, as the Hebrew word
          suggests, of some kind of cinnamon.

          Gr. adokimos, (1 Cor. 9:27), one regarded as unworthy (R.V.,
          “rejected”); elsewhere rendered “reprobate” (2 Tim. 3:8, etc.);
          “rejected” (Heb. 6:8, etc.).

          A military fortress (1 Chr. 11:7), also probably a kind of tower
          used by the priests for making known anything discovered at a
          distance (1 Chr. 6:54). Castles are also mentioned (Gen. 25:16)
          as a kind of watch-tower, from which shepherds kept watch over
          their flocks by night. The “castle” into which the chief captain
          commanded Paul to be brought was the quarters of the Roman
          soldiers in the fortress of Antonia (so called by Herod after
          his patron Mark Antony), which was close to the north-west
          corner of the temple (Acts 21:34), which it commanded.

   Castor and Pollux
          The “Dioscuri”, two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their
          figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the
          ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as
          the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens
          as the constellation Gemini.

          The consumer. Used in the Old Testament (1 Kings 8:37; 2 Chr.
          6:28; Ps. 78:46; Isa. 33:4) as the translation of a word (hasil)
          the root of which means “to devour” or “consume,” and which is
          used also with reference to the locust in Deut. 28:38. It may
          have been a species of locust, or the name of one of the
          transformations through which the locust passes, locust-grub. It
          is also found (Ps. 105:34; Jer. 51:14, 27; R.V., “cankerworm”)
          as the rendering of a different Hebrew word, yelek, a word
          elsewhere rendered “cankerworm” (q.v.), Joel 1:4; 2:25. (See

   Catholic epistles
          The epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because
          they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any
          church or person in particular.

          Abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them
          the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deut. 8:13; 12:21; 1
          Sam. 11:5; 12:3; Ps. 144:14; Jer. 3:24). They may be classified

          (1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in
          sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in
          Bashan, beyond Jordan (Num. 32:4). Large herds also pastured on
          the wide fertile plains of Sharon. They were yoked to the plough
          (1 Kings 19:19), and were employed for carrying burdens (1 Chr.
          12:40). They were driven with a pointed rod (Judg. 3:31) or goad

          According to the Mosaic law, the mouths of cattle employed for
          the threshing-floor were not to be muzzled, so as to prevent
          them from eating of the provender over which they trampled
          (Deut. 25:4). Whosoever stole and sold or slaughtered an ox must
          give five in satisfaction (Ex. 22:1); but if it was found alive
          in the possession of him who stole it, he was required to make
          double restitution only (22:4). If an ox went astray, whoever
          found it was required to bring it back to its owner (23:4; Deut.
          22:1, 4). An ox and an ass could not be yoked together in the
          plough (Deut. 22:10).

          (2.) Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed
          the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of
          Palestine (Gen. 12:16; 13:5; 26:14; 21:27; 29:2, 3). They are
          frequently mentioned among the booty taken in war (Num. 31:32;
          Josh. 6:21; 1 Sam. 14:32; 15:3). There were many who were owners
          of large flocks (1 Sam. 25:2; 2 Sam. 12:2, comp. Job 1:3). Kings
          also had shepherds “over their flocks” (1 Chr. 27:31), from
          which they derived a large portion of their revenue (2 Sam.
          17:29; 1 Chr. 12:40). The districts most famous for their flocks
          of sheep were the plain of Sharon (Isa. 65: 10), Mount Carmel
          (Micah 7:14), Bashan and Gilead (Micah 7:14). In patriarchal
          times the flocks of sheep were sometimes tended by the daughters
          of the owners. Thus Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her
          father’s sheep (Gen. 29:9); as also Zipporah and her six sisters
          had charge of their father Jethro’s flocks (Ex. 2:16). Sometimes
          they were kept by hired shepherds (John 10:12), and sometimes by
          the sons of the family (1 Sam. 16:11; 17:15). The keepers so
          familiarized their sheep with their voices that they knew them,
          and followed them at their call. Sheep, but more especially rams
          and lambs, were frequently offered in sacrifice. The shearing of
          sheep was a great festive occasion (1 Sam. 25:4; 2 Sam. 13:23).
          They were folded at night, and guarded by their keepers against
          the attacks of the lion (Micah 5:8), the bear (1 Sam. 17:34),
          and the wolf (Matt. 10:16; John 10:12). They were liable to
          wander over the wide pastures and go astray (Ps. 119:176; Isa.
          53:6; Hos. 4:16; Matt. 18:12).

          Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Palestine
          (Gen. 15:9; 32:14; 37:31). They were used both for sacrifice and
          for food (Deut. 14:4), especially the young males (Gen. 27:9,
          14, 17; Judg. 6:19; 13:15; 1 Sam. 16:20). Goat’s hair was used
          for making tent cloth (Ex. 26:7; 36:14), and for mattresses and
          bedding (1 Sam. 19:13, 16). (See [104]GOAT.)

          (Heb. yothe’reth; i.e., “something redundant”), the membrane
          which covers the upper part of the liver (Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev.
          3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; 7:4; marg., “midriff”). In Hos. 13:8 (Heb.
          seghor; i.e., “an enclosure”) the pericardium, or parts about
          the heart, is meant.

          In Isa. 3:18 this word (Heb. shebisim), in the marg. “networks,”
          denotes network caps to contain the hair, worn by females.
          Others explain it as meaning “wreaths worn round the forehead,
          reaching from one ear to the other.”

          A raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion
          and the temple (1 Chr. 26:16, 18). In 2 Chr. 9:11 the same word
          is translated “terrace.”

          There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of
          Syria, many of which have been artificially enlarged for various

          The first notice of a cave occurs in the history of Lot (Gen.

          The next we read of is the cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which
          Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth (Gen. 25:9, 10). It was
          the burying-place of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also of
          Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob (Gen. 49:31; 50:13).

          The cave of Makkedah, into which the five Amorite kings retired
          after their defeat by Joshua (10:16, 27).

          The cave of Adullam (q.v.), an immense natural cavern, where
          David hid himself from Saul (1 Sam. 22:1, 2).

          The cave of Engedi (q.v.), now called Ain Jidy, i.e., the
          “Fountain of the Kid”, where David cut off the skirt of Saul’s
          robe (24:4). Here he also found a shelter for himself and his
          followers to the number of 600 (23:29; 24:1). “On all sides the
          country is full of caverns which might serve as lurking-places
          for David and his men, as they do for outlaws at the present

          The cave in which Obadiah hid the prophets (1 Kings 18:4) was
          probably in the north, but it cannot be identified.

          The cave of Elijah (1 Kings 19:9), and the “cleft” of Moses on
          Horeb (Ex. 33:22), cannot be determined.

          In the time of Gideon the Israelites took refuge from the
          Midianites in dens and caves, such as abounded in the mountain
          regions of Manasseh (Judg. 6:2).

          Caves were frequently used as dwelling-places (Num. 24:21; Cant.
          2:14; Jer. 49:16; Obad. 1:3). “The excavations at Deir Dubban,
          on the south side of the wady leading to Santa Hanneh, are
          probably the dwellings of the Horites,” the ancient inhabitants
          of Idumea Proper. The pits or cavities in rocks were also
          sometimes used as prisons (Isa. 24:22; 51:14; Zech. 9:11). Those
          which had niches in their sides were occupied as burying-places
          (Ezek. 32:23; John 11:38).

          (Heb. e’rez, Gr. kedros, Lat. cedrus), a tree very frequently
          mentioned in Scripture. It was stately (Ezek. 31:3-5),
          long-branched (Ps. 80:10; 92:12; Ezek. 31:6-9), odoriferous
          (Cant. 4:11; Hos. 14:6), durable, and therefore much used for
          boards, pillars, and ceilings (1 Kings 6:9, 10; 7:2; Jer.
          22:14), for masts (Ezek. 27:5), and for carved images (Isa.

          It grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on
          Lebanon, of which it was “the glory” (Isa. 35:2; 60:13). Hiram
          supplied Solomon with cedar trees from Lebanon for various
          purposes connected with the construction of the temple and the
          king’s palace (2 Sam. 5:11; 7:2, 7; 1 Kings 5:6, 8, 10; 6:9, 10,
          15, 16, 18, 20; 7:2, 3, 7, 11, 12; 9:11, etc.). Cedars were used
          also in the building of the second temple under Zerubbabel (Ezra

          Of the ancient cedars of Lebanon there remain now only some
          seven or eight. They are not standing together. But beside them
          there are found between three hundred and four hundred of
          younger growth. They stand in an amphitheatre fronting the west,
          about 6,400 feet above the level of the sea.

          The cedar is often figuratively alluded to in the sacred
          Scriptures. “The mighty conquerors of olden days, the despots of
          Assyria and the Pharaohs of Egypt, the proud and idolatrous
          monarchs of Judah, the Hebrew commonwealth itself, the war-like
          Ammonites of patriarchal times, and the moral majesty of the
          Messianic age, are all compared to the towering cedar, in its
          royal loftiness and supremacy (Isa. 2:13; Ezek. 17:3, 22, 23,
          31:3-9; Amos 2:9; Zech. 11:1, 2; Job 40:17; Ps. 29:5; 80:10;
          92:12, etc).”, Groser’s Scrip. Nat. Hist. (See [105]BOX-TREE.)

          The black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below
          the eastern wall of Jerusalem (John 18:1). (See [106]KIDRON.)

          The covering (1 Kings 7:3, 7) of the inside roof and walls of a
          house with planks of wood (2 Chr. 3:5; Jer. 22:14). Ceilings
          were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold,
          silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of
          Solomon’s palace are described 1 Kings 6:9, 15; 7:3; 2 Chr. 3:5,

          A subterranean vault (1 Chr. 27:28), a storehouse. The word is
          also used to denote the treasury of the temple (1 Kings 7:51)
          and of the king (14:26). The Hebrew word is rendered “garner” in
          Joel 1:17, and “armoury” in Jer. 50:25.

          Millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was
          distant about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with
          the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from
          his second missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port
          (Acts 18:18). In Rom. 16:1 he speaks as if there were at the
          time of his writing that epistle an organized church there. The
          western harbour of Corinth was Lechaeum, about a mile and a half
          from the city. It was the channel of its trade with Italy and
          the west.

          The vessel in which incense was presented on “the golden altar”
          before the Lord in the temple (Ex. 30:1-9). The priest filled
          the censer with live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of
          burnt-offering, and having carried it into the sanctuary, there
          threw upon the burning coals the sweet incense (Lev. 16:12, 13),
          which sent up a cloud of smoke, filling the apartment with
          fragrance. The censers in daily use were of brass (Num. 16:39),
          and were designated by a different Hebrew name, miktereth (2
          Chr. 26:19; Ezek. 8:11): while those used on the day of
          Atonement were of gold, and were denoted by a word (mahtah)
          meaning “something to take fire with;” LXX. pureion = a
          fire-pan. Solomon prepared for the temple censers of pure gold
          (1 Kings 7:50; 2 Chr. 4:22). The angel in the Apocalypse is
          represented with a golden censer (Rev. 8:3, 5). Paul speaks of
          the golden censer as belonging to the tabernacle (Heb. 9:4). The
          Greek word thumiaterion, here rendered “censer,” may more
          appropriately denote, as in the margin of Revised Version, “the
          altar of incense.” Paul does not here say that the thumiaterion
          was in the holiest, for it was in the holy place, but that the
          holiest had it, i.e., that it belonged to the holiest (1 Kings
          6:22). It was intimately connected with the high priest’s
          service in the holiest.

          The manner in which the censer is to be used is described in
          Num. 4:14; Lev. 16:12.

          There are five instances of a census of the Jewish people having
          been taken. (1.) In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the
          people were encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty
          years old and upward was then 603,550 (Ex. 38:26). (2.) Another
          census was made just before the entrance into Canaan, when the
          number was found to be 601,730, showing thus a small decrease
          (Num. 26:51). (3.) The next census was in the time of David,
          when the number, exclusive of the tribes of Levi and Benjamin,
          was found to be 1,300,000 (2 Sam. 24:9; 1 Chr. 21:5). (4.)
          Solomon made a census of the foreigners in the land, and found
          153,600 able-bodied workmen (2 Chr. 2:17, 18). (5.) After the
          return from Exile the whole congregation of Israel was numbered,
          and found to amount to 42,360 (Ezra 2:64). A census was made by
          the Roman government in the time of our Lord (Luke 2:1). (See

          A Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mark 15:39, 44,
          45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts
          10:1, 22). Other centurions are mentioned in Matt. 8:5, 8, 13;
          Luke 7:2, 6; Acts 21:32; 22:25, 26; 23:17, 23; 24:23; 27:1, 6,
          11, 31, 43; 28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our
          Lord (Matt. 27:54; Luke 23:47), and when he saw the wonders
          attending it, exclaimed, “Truly this man was the Son of God.”
          “The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly
          spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the
          Acts. It is interesting to compare this with the statement of
          Polybius (vi. 24), that the centurions were chosen by merit, and
          so were men remarkable not so much for their daring courage as
          for their deliberation, constancy, and strength of mind.”, Dr.
          Maclear’s N. T. Hist.

          A Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (John 1:42), meaning
          “rock.” The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by

          See [108]CAESAREA.

          The refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Ex. 15:7;
          Isa. 5:24; Matt. 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means
          dried grass or hay (Isa. 5:24; 33:11). Chaff is used as a figure
          of abortive wickedness (Ps. 1:4; Matt. 3:12). False doctrines
          are also called chaff (Jer. 23:28), or more correctly rendered
          “chopped straw.” The destruction of the wicked, and their
          powerlessness, are likened to the carrying away of chaff by the
          wind (Isa. 17:13; Hos. 13:3; Zeph. 2:2).

          (1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was
          placed about Joseph’s neck (Gen. 41:42); and one was promised to
          Daniel (5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Ezek.
          16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the
          ephod by golden chains (Ex. 39:17, 21).

          (2.) It was used as an ornament (Prov. 1:9; Cant. 1:10). The
          Midianites adorned the necks of their camels with chains (Judg.
          8:21, 26).

          (3.) Chains were also used as fetters wherewith prisoners were
          bound (Judg. 16:21; 2 Sam. 3:34; 2 Kings 25:7; Jer. 39:7). Paul
          was in this manner bound to a Roman soldier (Acts 28:20; Eph.
          6:20; 2 Tim. 1:16). Sometimes, for the sake of greater security,
          the prisoner was attached by two chains to two soldiers, as in
          the case of Peter (Acts 12:6).

          Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, as one of the precious stones in
          the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is
          derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first
          discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an
          agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian
          ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew
          nophekh, translated “emerald” (Ex. 28:18; 39:11; Ezek. 27:16;
          28:13). It is rendered “anthrax” in the LXX., and “carbunculus”
          in the Vulgate. (See [109]CARBUNCLE.)

          The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying
          chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of
          the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. The Hebrew name is Kasdim,
          which is usually rendered “Chaldeans” (Jer. 50:10; 51:24, 35).

          The country so named is a vast plain formed by the deposits of
          the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending to about 400 miles along
          the course of these rivers, and about 100 miles in average
          breadth. “In former days the vast plains of Babylon were
          nourished by a complicated system of canals and water-courses,
          which spread over the surface of the country like a network. The
          wants of a teeming population were supplied by a rich soil, not
          less bountiful than that on the banks of the Egyptian Nile. Like
          islands rising from a golden sea of waving corn stood frequent
          groves of palm-trees and pleasant gardens, affording to the
          idler or traveller their grateful and highly-valued shade.
          Crowds of passengers hurried along the dusty roads to and from
          the busy city. The land was rich in corn and wine.”

          Recent discoveries, more especially in Babylonia, have thrown
          much light on the history of the Hebrew patriarchs, and have
          illustrated or confirmed the Biblical narrative in many points.
          The ancestor of the Hebrew people, Abram, was, we are told, born
          at “Ur of the Chaldees.” “Chaldees” is a mistranslation of the
          Hebrew Kasdim, Kasdim being the Old Testament name of the
          Babylonians, while the Chaldees were a tribe who lived on the
          shores of the Persian Gulf, and did not become a part of the
          Babylonian population till the time of Hezekiah. Ur was one of
          the oldest and most famous of the Babylonian cities. Its site is
          now called Mugheir, or Mugayyar, on the western bank of the
          Euphrates, in Southern Babylonia. About a century before the
          birth of Abram it was ruled by a powerful dynasty of kings.
          Their conquests extended to Elam on the one side, and to the
          Lebanon on the other. They were followed by a dynasty of princes
          whose capital was Babylon, and who seem to have been of South
          Arabian origin. The founder of the dynasty was Sumu-abi (“Shem
          is my father”). But soon afterwards Babylonia fell under Elamite
          dominion. The kings of Babylon were compelled to acknowledge the
          supremacy of Elam, and a rival kingdom to that of Babylon, and
          governed by Elamites, sprang up at Larsa, not far from Ur, but
          on the opposite bank of the river. In the time of Abram the king
          of Larsa was Eri-Aku, the son of an Elamite prince, and Eri-Aku,
          as has long been recognized, is the Biblical “Arioch king of
          Ellasar” (Gen. 14:1). The contemporaneous king of Babylon in the
          north, in the country termed Shinar in Scripture, was
          Khammu-rabi. (See [110]BABYLON; [111]ABRAHAM; [112]AMRAPHEL.)

   Chaldee language
          Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old
          Testament, viz., Dan. 2:4-7, 28; Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; Gen.
          31:46; Jer. 10:11. It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes
          called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the
          language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia,
          and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of
          Palestine. It is called “Syrian” in 2 Kings 18:26. Some isolated
          words in this language are preserved in the New Testament (Matt.
          5:22; 6:24; 16:17; 27:46; Mark 3:17; 5:41; 7:34; 14:36; Acts
          1:19; 1 Cor. 16:22). These are specimens of the vernacular
          language of Palestine at that period. The term “Hebrew” was also
          sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the
          language of the Hebrews (John 5:2; 19:20).

          Or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon
          was the capital. They were so called till the time of the
          Captivity (2 Kings 25; Isa. 13:19; 23:13), when, particularly in
          the Book of Daniel (5:30; 9:1), the name began to be used with
          special reference to a class of learned men ranked with the
          magicians and astronomers. These men cultivated the ancient
          Cushite language of the original inhabitants of the land, for
          they had a “learning” and a “tongue” (1:4) of their own. The
          common language of the country at that time had become
          assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially through the
          influence of the Assyrians, and was the language that was used
          for all civil purposes. The Chaldeans were the learned class,
          interesting themselves in science and religion, which consisted,
          like that of the ancient Arabians and Syrians, in the worship of
          the heavenly bodies. There are representations of this priestly
          class, of magi and diviners, on the walls of the Assyrian

          “on the wall,” which the Shunammite prepared for the prophet
          Elisha (2 Kings 4:10), was an upper chamber over the porch
          through the hall toward the street. This was the “guest chamber”
          where entertainments were prepared (Mark 14:14). There were also
          “chambers within chambers” (1 Kings 22:25; 2 Kings 9:2). To
          enter into a chamber is used metaphorically of prayer and
          communion with God (Isa. 26:20). The “chambers of the south”
          (Job 9:9) are probably the constelations of the southern
          hemisphere. The “chambers of imagery”, i.e., chambers painted
          with images, as used by Ezekiel (8:12), is an expression
          denoting the vision the prophet had of the abominations
          practised by the Jews in Jerusalem.

          (Rom. 13:13), wantonness, impurity.

          A confidential servant of the king (Gen. 37:36; 39:1). In Rom.
          16:23 mention is made of “Erastus the chamberlain.” Here the
          word denotes the treasurer of the city, or the quaestor, as the
          Romans styled him. He is almost the only convert from the higher
          ranks of whom mention is made (comp. Acts 17:34). Blastus,
          Herod’s “chamberlain” (Acts 12:20), was his personal attendant
          or valet-de-chambre. The Hebrew word saris, thus translated in
          Esther 1:10, 15; 2:3, 14, 21, etc., properly means an eunuch (as
          in the marg.), as it is rendered in Isa. 39:7; 56:3.

          A species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour
          of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev.
          11:30, where the Hebrew word so translated is coah (R.V., “land
          crocodile”). In the same verse the Hebrew tanshemeth, rendered
          in Authorized Version “mole,” is in Revised Version “chameleon,”
          which is the correct rendering. This animal is very common in
          Egypt and in the Holy Land, especially in the Jordan valley.

          Only in Deut. 14:5 (Heb. zemer), an animal of the deer or
          gazelle species. It bears this Hebrew name from its leaping or
          springing. The animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis
          tragelephus), which is still found in Sinai and in the broken
          ridges of Stony Arabia. The LXX. and Vulgate render the word by
          camelopardus, i.e., the giraffe; but this is an animal of
          Central Africa, and is not at all known in Syria.

          (1 Sam. 17:4, 23), properly “the man between the two,” denoting
          the position of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of
          this kind at the head of armies were common in ancient times. In
          ver. 51 this word is the rendering of a different Hebrew word,
          and properly denotes “a mighty man.”

          (Luke 10:31). “It was not by chance that the priest came down by
          that road at that time, but by a specific arrangement and in
          exact fulfilment of a plan; not the plan of the priest, nor the
          plan of the wounded traveller, but the plan of God. By
          coincidence (Gr. sungkuria) the priest came down, that is, by
          the conjunction of two things, in fact, which were previously
          constituted a pair in the providence of God. In the result they
          fell together according to the omniscient Designer’s plan. This
          is the true theory of the divine government.” Compare the
          meeting of Philip with the Ethiopian (Acts 8:26, 27). There is
          no “chance” in God’s empire. “Chance” is only another word for
          our want of knowledge as to the way in which one event falls in
          with another (1 Sam. 6:9; Eccl. 9:11).

          One who has judicial authority, literally, a “lord of
          judgement;” a title given to the Persian governor of Samaria
          (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17).

   Changes of raiment
          Were reckoned among the treasures of rich men (Gen. 45:22; Judg.
          14:12, 13; 2 Kings 5:22, 23).

          (1.) The bed of the sea or of a river (Ps. 18:15; Isa. 8:7).

          (2.) The “chanelbone” (Job 31:22 marg.), properly “tube” or
          “shaft,” an old term for the collar-bone.

          A holy place or sanctuary, occurs only in Amos 7:13, where one
          of the idol priests calls Bethel “the king’s chapel.”

          The ornamental head or capital of a pillar. Three Hebrew words
          are so rendered. (1.) Cothereth (1 Kings 7:16; 2 Kings 25:17; 2
          Chr. 4:12), meaning a “diadem” or “crown.” (2.) Tzepheth (2 Chr.
          3:15). (3.) Rosh (Ex. 36:38; 38:17, 19, 28), properly a “head”
          or “top.”

          The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an
          early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by
          the ancient Hebrews into 54 parshioth or sections, one of which
          was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts. 13:15). These
          sections were afterwards divided into 669 sidrim or orders of
          unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat the same
          manner into haphtaroth or passages.

          In the early Latin and Greek versions of the Bible, similar
          divisions of the several books were made. The New Testament
          books were also divided into portions of various lengths under
          different names, such as titles and heads or chapters.

          In modern times this ancient example was imitated, and many
          attempts of the kind were made before the existing division into
          chapters was fixed. The Latin Bible published by Cardinal Hugo
          of St. Cher in A.D. 1240 is generally regarded as the first
          Bible that was divided into our present chapters, although it
          appears that some of the chapters were fixed as early as A.D.
          1059. This division into chapters came gradually to be adopted
          in the published editions of the Hebrew, with some few
          variations, and of the Greek Scriptures, and hence of other

          Craftsmen, a valley named in 1 Chr. 4:14. In Neh. 11:35 the
          Hebrew word is rendered “valley of craftsmen” (R.V. marg.,
          Geha-rashim). Nothing is known of it.

          A bowl or deep dish. The silver vessels given by the heads of
          the tribes for the services of the tabernacle are so named (Num.
          7:13, etc.). The “charger” in which the Baptist’s head was
          presented was a platter or flat wooden trencher (Matt. 14:8, 11;
          Mark 6:25, 28). The chargers of gold and silver of Ezra 1:9 were
          probably basins for receiving the blood of sacrifices.

          A vehicle generally used for warlike purposes. Sometimes, though
          but rarely, it is spoken of as used for peaceful purposes.

          The first mention of the chariot is when Joseph, as a mark of
          distinction, was placed in Pharaoh’s second state chariot (Gen.
          41:43); and the next, when he went out in his own chariot to
          meet his father Jacob (46:29). Chariots formed part of the
          funeral procession of Jacob (50:9). When Pharaoh pursued the
          Israelites he took 600 war-chariots with him (Ex. 14:7). The
          Canaanites in the valleys of Palestine had chariots of iron
          (Josh. 17:18; Judg. 1:19). Jabin, the king of Canaan, had 900
          chariots (Judg. 4:3); and in Saul’s time the Philistines had
          30,000. In his wars with the king of Zobah and with the Syrians,
          David took many chariots among the spoils (2 Sam. 8:4; 10:18).
          Solomon maintained as part of his army 1,400 chariots (1 Kings
          10:26), which were chiefly imported from Egypt (29). From this
          time forward they formed part of the armies of Israel (1 Kings
          22:34; 2 Kings 9:16, 21; 13:7, 14; 18:24; 23:30).

          In the New Testament we have only one historical reference to
          the use of chariots, in the case of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts.
          8:28, 29, 38).

          This word is sometimes used figuratively for hosts (Ps. 68:17; 2
          Kings 6:17). Elijah, by his prayers and his counsel, was “the
          chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof.” The rapid agency
          of God in the phenomena of nature is also spoken of under the
          similitude of a chariot (Ps. 104:3; Isa. 66:15; Hab. 3:8).

          Chariot of the cherubim (1 Chr. 28:18), the chariot formed by
          the two cherubs on the mercy-seat on which the Lord rides.

          Chariot cities were set apart for storing the war-chariots in
          time of peace (2 Chr. 1:14).

          Chariot horses were such as were peculiarly fitted for service
          in chariots (2 Kings 7:14).

          Chariots of war are described in Ex. 14:7; 1 Sam. 13:5; 2 Sam.
          8:4; 1 Chr. 18:4; Josh. 11:4; Judg. 4:3, 13. They were not used
          by the Israelites till the time of David. Elijah was translated
          in a “chariot of fire” (2 Kings 2:11). Comp. 2 Kings 6:17. This
          vision would be to Elisha a source of strength and
          encouragement, for now he could say, “They that be with us are
          more than they that be with them.”

          (1 Cor. 13), the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word
          which properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered
          (always so in the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the
          greatest of the three Christian graces (1 Cor. 12:31-13:13).

          One who practises serpent-charming (Ps. 58:5; Jer. 8:17; Eccl.
          10:11). It was an early and universal opinion that the most
          venomous reptiles could be made harmless by certain charms or by
          sweet sounds. It is well known that there are jugglers in India
          and in other Eastern lands who practise this art at the present

          In Isa. 19:3 the word “charmers” is the rendering of the Hebrew
          ‘ittim, meaning, properly, necromancers (R.V. marg.,
          “whisperers”). In Deut. 18:11 the word “charmer” means a dealer
          in spells, especially one who, by binding certain knots, was
          supposed thereby to bind a curse or a blessing on its object. In
          Isa. 3:3 the words “eloquent orator” should be, as in the
          Revised Version, “skilful enchanter.”

          Another form (Acts 7:2, 4) of Haran (q.v.).

          Length, a river in the “land of the Chaldeans” (Ezek. 1:3), on
          the banks of which were located some of the Jews of the
          Captivity (Ezek. 1:1; 3:15, 23; 10:15, 20, 22). It has been
          supposed to be identical with the river Habor, the Chaboras, or
          modern Khabour, which falls into the Euphrates at Circesium. To
          the banks of this river some of the Israelites were removed by
          the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:6). An opinion that has much to
          support it is that the “Chebar” was the royal canal of
          Nebuchadnezzar, the Nahr Malcha, the greatest in Mesopotamia,
          which connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, in the excavation
          of which the Jewish captives were probably employed.

          (= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many
          centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the
          Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and
          in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty
          which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Palestine. The kings
          of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once
          South Arabic and Hebrew. The most famous king of the dynasty was
          Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia under one rule, and made
          Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne, the country
          was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into
          two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of
          Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku
          (“the servant of the moon-god”), the son of an Elamite prince,
          Kudur-Mabug, who is entitled “the father of the land of the
          Amorites.” A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the
          enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar (“the servant of the
          goddess Lagamar”) or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and
          Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read
          Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in
          overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia.
          Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian conquerors, mentions in
          two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635 years after
          Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It was in
          the year B.C. 660 that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.

          Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult
          (Job 16:10; Lam. 3:30; Micah 5:1). The admonition (Luke 6:29),
          “Unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the
          other,” means simply, “Resist not evil” (Matt. 5:39; 1 Pet.
          2:19-23). Ps. 3:7 = that God had deprived his enemies of the
          power of doing him injury.

          (A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized
          Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.)
          1 Sam. 17:18, “ten cheeses;” i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2
          Sam. 17:29, “cheese of kine” = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The
          Vulgate version reads “fat calves.” (3.) Job 10:10, curdled milk
          is meant by the word.

          Black, (Zeph. 1:4; rendered “idolatrous priests” in 2 Kings
          23:5, and “priests” in Hos. 10:5). Some derive this word from
          the Assyrian Kamaru, meaning “to throw down,” and interpret it
          as describing the idolatrous priests who prostrate themselves
          before the idols. Others regard it as meaning “those who go
          about in black,” or “ascetics.”

          The destroyer, subduer, or fish-god, the god of the Moabites
          (Num. 21:29; Jer. 48:7, 13, 46). The worship of this god, “the
          abomination of Moab,” was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1
          Kings 11:7), but was abolished by Josiah (2 Kings 23:13). On the
          “Moabite Stone” (q.v.), Mesha (2 Kings 3:5) ascribes his
          victories over the king of Israel to this god, “And Chemosh
          drove him before my sight.”

          Merchant. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 7:10). (2.) The father of
          Zedekiah (1 Kings 22:11, 24).

          Whom Jehovah hath made. “Chief of the Levites,” probably a
          Kohathite (1 Chr. 15:22), and therefore not the same as
          mentioned in 26:29.

          Village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with
          whom Joshua made a league (9:17). It belonged to Benjamin. It
          has been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west
          confines of Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from

          (Ezek. 25:16), more frequently Cherethites, the inhabitants of
          Southern Philistia, the Philistines (Zeph. 2:5). The Cherethites
          and the Pelethites were David’s life-guards (1 Sam. 30:14; 2
          Sam. 8:18; 20:7, 23; 23:23). This name is by some interpreted as
          meaning “Cretans,” and by others “executioners,” who were ready
          to execute the king’s sentence of death (Gen. 37:36, marg.; 1
          Kings 2:25).

          A cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream,
          a “brook,” in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during
          the early part of the three years’ drought (1 Kings 17:3, 5). It
          has by some been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho,
          which is formed by the junction of many streams flowing from the
          mountains west of Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have
          described it as one of the wildest ravines of this wild region,
          and peculiarly fitted to afford a secure asylum to the
          persecuted. But if the prophet’s interview with Ahab was in
          Samaria, and he thence journeyed toward the east, it is probable
          that he crossed Jordan and found refuge in some of the ravines
          of Gilead. The “brook” is said to have been “before Jordan,”
          which probably means that it opened toward that river, into
          which it flowed. This description would apply to the east as
          well as to the west of Jordan. Thus Elijah’s hiding-place may
          have been the Jermuk, in the territory of the half-tribe of

          Plural cherubim, the name of certain symbolical figures
          frequently mentioned in Scripture. They are first mentioned in
          connection with the expulsion of our first parents from Eden
          (Gen. 3:24). There is no intimation given of their shape or
          form. They are next mentioned when Moses was commanded to
          provide furniture for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:17-20; 26:1, 31).
          God promised to commune with Moses “from between the cherubim”
          (25:22). This expression was afterwards used to denote the
          Divine abode and presence (Num. 7:89; 1 Sam. 4:4; Isa. 37:16;
          Ps. 80:1; 99:1). In Ezekiel’s vision (10:1-20) they appear as
          living creatures supporting the throne of God. From Ezekiel’s
          description of them (1;10; 41:18, 19), they appear to have been
          compound figures, unlike any real object in nature; artificial
          images possessing the features and properties of several
          animals. Two cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark;
          two of colossal size overshadowed it in Solomon’s temple.
          Ezekiel (1:4-14) speaks of four; and this number of “living
          creatures” is mentioned in Rev. 4:6. Those on the ark are called
          the “cherubim of glory” (Heb. 9:5), i.e., of the Shechinah, or
          cloud of glory, for on them the visible glory of God rested.
          They were placed one at each end of the mercy-seat, with wings
          stretched upward, and their faces “toward each other and toward
          the mercy-seat.” They were anointed with holy oil, like the ark
          itself and the other sacred furniture.

          The cherubim were symbolical. They were intended to represent
          spiritual existences in immediate contact with Jehovah. Some
          have regarded them as symbolical of the chief ruling power by
          which God carries on his operations in providence (Ps. 18:10).
          Others interpret them as having reference to the redemption of
          men, and as symbolizing the great rulers or ministers of the
          church. Many other opinions have been held regarding them which
          need not be referred to here. On the whole, it seems to be most
          satisfactory to regard the interpretation of the symbol to be
          variable, as is the symbol itself.

          Their office was, (1) on the expulsion of our first parents from
          Eden, to prevent all access to the tree of life; and (2) to form
          the throne and chariot of Jehovah in his manifestation of
          himself on earth. He dwelleth between and sitteth on the
          cherubim (1 Sam. 4:4; Ps. 80:1; Ezek. 1:26, 28).

          Strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the
          side of Mount Jearim (Josh. 15:10); probably identified with the
          modern village of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah.

          Gain, the son of Nahor (Gen. 22:22).

          Ungodly, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:30); probably
          the same as Bethul (19:4) and Bethuel (1 Chr. 4:30); now

          (Heb. ‘aron, generally rendered “ark”), the coffer into which
          the contributions for the repair of the temple were put (2 Kings
          12:9, 10; 2 Chr. 24:8, 10, 11). In Gen. 50:26 it is rendered
          “coffin.” In Ezek. 27:24 a different Hebrew word, genazim
          (plur.), is used. It there means “treasure-chests.”

   Chestnut tree
          (Heb. ‘armon; i.e., “naked”), mentioned in connection with
          Jacob’s artifice regarding the cattle (Gen. 30:37). It is one of
          the trees of which, because of its strength and beauty, the
          Assyrian empire is likened (Ezek. 31:8; R.V., “plane trees”). It
          is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that
          is intended. It is a characteristic of this tree that it
          annually sheds its outer bark, becomes “naked.” The chestnut
          tree proper is not a native of Palestine.

          Fertile places; the loins, a town of Issachar, on the slopes of
          some mountain between Jezreel and Shunem (Josh. 19:18). It has
          been identified with Chisloth-tabor, 2 1/2 miles to the west of
          Mount Tabor, and north of Jezreel; now Iksal.

          Deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born (Gen.
          38:5). Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.).

          Dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of
          Uzzah took place (1 Chr. 13:9). In the parallel passage in
          Samuel (2 Sam. 6:6) it is called “Nachon’s threshing-floor.” It
          was a place not far north-west from Jerusalem.

   Chief of the three
          A title given to Adino the Eznite, one of David’s greatest
          heroes (2 Sam. 23:8); also called Jashobeam (1 Chr. 11:11).

   Chief priest
          See [113]PRIEST.

   Chiefs of Asia
          “Asiarchs,” the title given to certain wealthy persons annually
          appointed to preside over the religious festivals and games in
          the various cities of proconsular Asia (Acts 19:31). Some of
          these officials appear to have been Paul’s friends.

          This word has considerable latitude of meaning in Scripture.
          Thus Joseph is called a child at the time when he was probably
          about sixteen years of age (Gen. 37:3); and Benjamin is so
          called when he was above thirty years (44:20). Solomon called
          himself a little child when he came to the kingdom (1 Kings

          The descendants of a man, however remote, are called his
          children; as, “the children of Edom,” “the children of Moab,”
          “the children of Israel.”

          In the earliest times mothers did not wean their children till
          they were from thirty months to three years old; and the day on
          which they were weaned was kept as a festival day (Gen. 21:8;
          Ex. 2:7, 9; 1 Sam. 1:22-24; Matt. 21:16). At the age of five,
          children began to learn the arts and duties of life under the
          care of their fathers (Deut. 6:20-25; 11:19).

          To have a numerous family was regarded as a mark of divine
          favour (Gen. 11:30; 30:1; 1 Sam. 2:5; 2 Sam. 6:23; Ps. 127:3;

          Figuratively the name is used for those who are ignorant or
          narrow-minded (Matt. 11:16; Luke 7:32; 1 Cor. 13:11). “When I
          was a child, I spake as a child.” “Brethren, be not children in
          understanding” (1 Cor. 14:20). “That we henceforth be no more
          children, tossed to and fro” (Eph. 4:14).

          Children are also spoken of as representing simplicity and
          humility (Matt. 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15-17).
          Believers are “children of light” (Luke 16:8; 1 Thess. 5:5) and
          “children of obedience” (1 Pet. 1:14).

          Protected by the father, David’s second son by Abigail (2 Sam.
          3:3); called also Daniel (1 Chr. 3:1). He seems to have died
          when young.

          The pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and
          husband of Orpah, Ruth’s sister (Ruth 1:2; 4:9).

          A place or country unknown which, along with Sheba and Asshur,
          traded with Tyre (Ezek. 27:23).

          Pining, probably the youngest son of Barzillai the Gileadite (2
          Sam. 19:37-40). The “habitation of Chimham” (Jer. 41:17) was
          probably an inn or khan, which is the proper meaning of the
          Hebrew geruth, rendered “habitation”, established in later times
          in his possession at Bethlehem, which David gave to him as a
          reward for his loyalty in accompanying him to Jerusalem after
          the defeat of Absalom (1 Kings 2:7). It has been supposed that,
          considering the stationary character of Eastern institutions, it
          was in the stable of this inn or caravanserai that our Saviour
          was born (Luke 2:7).

          Lyre, the singular form of the word (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 19:35),
          which is also used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a
          fenced city which stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a
          little to the south of Tiberias. The town seems to have given
          its name to a district, as appears from 1 Kings 15:20, where the
          plural form of the word is used.

          The Sea of Chinnereth (Num. 34:11; Josh. 13:27), or of
          Chinneroth (Josh. 12: 3), was the “lake of Gennesaret” or “sea
          of Tiberias” (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 11:2). Chinnereth was probably
          an ancient Canaanitish name adopted by the Israelites into their

          Mentioned in Acts 20:15, an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5
          miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the
          shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night
          when on his third missionary return journey. It is now called

          The name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the
          Captivity for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month
          (Neh. 1:1; Zech. 7:1). It corresponds nearly with the moon in

          Or Kittim, a plural form (Gen. 10:4), the name of a branch of
          the descendants of Javan, the “son” of Japheth. Balaam foretold
          (Num. 24:24) “that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim,
          and afflict Eber.” Daniel prophesied (11:30) that the ships of
          Chittim would come against the king of the north. It probably
          denotes Cyprus, whose ancient capital was called Kition by the

          The references elsewhere made to Chittim (Isa. 23:1, 12; Jer.
          2:10; Ezek. 27:6) are to be explained on the ground that while
          the name originally designated the Phoenicians only, it came
          latterly to be used of all the islands and various settlements
          on the sea-coasts which they had occupied, and then of the
          people who succeeded them when the Phoenician power decayed.
          Hence it designates generally the islands and coasts of the
          Mediterranean and the races that inhabit them.

          Occurs only in Amos 5:26 (R.V. marg., “shrine”). The LXX.
          translated the word by Rhephan, which became corrupted into
          Remphan, as used by Stephen (Acts 7:43; but R.V., “Rephan”).
          Probably the planet Saturn is intended by the name. Astrologers
          represented this planet as baleful in its influences, and hence
          the Phoenicians offered to it human sacrifices, especially

          Verdure, a female Christian (1 Cor. 1:11), some of whose
          household had informed Paul of the divided state of the
          Corinthian church. Nothing is known of her.

          Smoking furnace, one of the places where “David himself and his
          men were wont to haunt” (1 Sam. 30:30, 31). It is probably
          identical with Ashan (Josh. 15:42; 19:7), a Simeonite city in
          the Negeb, i.e., the south, belonging to Judah. The word ought,
          according to another reading, to be “Bor-ashan.”

          Named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in
          which our Lord’s “mighty works” were done, and which was doomed
          to woe because of signal privileges neglected (Matt. 11:21; Luke
          10:13). It has been identified by general consent with the
          modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2 miles up the Wady Kerazeh from
          Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum.

          Spoken of warriors (Ex. 15:4; Judg. 20:16), of the Hebrew nation
          (Ps. 105:43; Deut. 7:7), of Jerusalem as the seat of the temple
          (1 Kings 11:13). Christ is the “chosen” of God (Isa. 42:1); and
          the apostles are “chosen” for their work (Acts 10:41). It is
          said with regard to those who do not profit by their
          opportunities that “many are called, but few are chosen” (Matt.
          20:16). (See [114]ELECTION.)

          (1 Chr. 4:22), the same as Chezib and Achzib, a place in the
          lowlands of Judah (Gen. 38:5; Josh. 15:44).

          Anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word rendered
          “Messiah” (q.v.), the official title of our Lord, occurring five
          hundred and fourteen times in the New Testament. It denotes that
          he was anointed or consecrated to his great redemptive work as
          Prophet, Priest, and King of his people. He is Jesus the Christ
          (Acts 17:3; 18:5; Matt. 22:42), the Anointed One. He is thus
          spoken of by Isaiah (61:1), and by Daniel (9:24-26), who styles
          him “Messiah the Prince.”

          The Messiah is the same person as “the seed of the woman” (Gen.
          3:15), “the seed of Abraham” (Gen. 22:18), the “Prophet like
          unto Moses” (Deut. 18:15), “the priest after the order of
          Melchizedek” (Ps. 110:4), “the rod out of the stem of Jesse”
          (Isa. 11:1, 10), the “Immanuel,” the virgin’s son (Isa. 7:14),
          “the branch of Jehovah” (Isa. 4:2), and “the messenger of the
          covenant” (Mal. 3:1). This is he “of whom Moses in the law and
          the prophets did write.” The Old Testament Scripture is full of
          prophetic declarations regarding the Great Deliverer and the
          work he was to accomplish. Jesus the Christ is Jesus the Great
          Deliverer, the Anointed One, the Saviour of men. This name
          denotes that Jesus was divinely appointed, commissioned, and
          accredited as the Saviour of men (Heb. 5:4; Isa. 11:2-4; 49:6;
          John 5:37; Acts 2:22).

          To believe that “Jesus is the Christ” is to believe that he is
          the Anointed, the Messiah of the prophets, the Saviour sent of
          God, that he was, in a word, what he claimed to be. This is to
          believe the gospel, by the faith of which alone men can be
          brought unto God. That Jesus is the Christ is the testimony of
          God, and the faith of this constitutes a Christian (1 Cor. 12:3;
          1 John 5:1).

          The name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to
          the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names
          by which the disciples were known among themselves were
          “brethren,” “the faithful,” “elect,” “saints,” “believers.” But
          as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name
          “Christian” came into use, and was universally accepted. This
          name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26;
          26:28; 1 Pet. 4:16).

   Christs, False
          Our Lord warned his disciples that they would arise (Matt.
          24:24). It is said that no fewer than twenty-four persons have
          at different times appeared (the last in 1682) pretending to be
          the Messiah of the prophets.

          The words of the days, (1 Kings 14:19; 1 Chr. 27:24), the daily
          or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events
          recorded in the order of time.

   Chronicles, Books of
          The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the
          Massoretic Hebrew Dibre hayyamim, i.e., “Acts of the Days.” This
          title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version “Chronicon,”
          and hence “Chronicles.” In the Septuagint version the book is
          divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e.,
          “things omitted,” or “supplements”, because containing many
          things omitted in the Books of Kings.

          The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads.
          (1.) The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than
          a list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of
          David. (2.) The remainder of the first book contains a history
          of the reign of David. (3.) The first nine chapters of Book II.
          contain the history of the reign of Solomon. (4.) The remaining
          chapters of the second book contain the history of the separate
          kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from Babylonian

          The time of the composition of the Chronicles was, there is
          every ground to conclude, subsequent to the Babylonian Exile,
          probably between 450 and 435 B.C. The contents of this twofold
          book, both as to matter and form, correspond closely with this
          idea. The close of the book records the proclamation of Cyrus
          permitting the Jews to return to their own land, and this forms
          the opening passage of the Book of Ezra, which must be viewed as
          a continuation of the Chronicles. The peculiar form of the
          language, being Aramaean in its general character, harmonizes
          also with that of the books which were written after the Exile.
          The author was certainly contemporary with Zerubbabel, details
          of whose family history are given (1 Chr. 3:19).

          The time of the composition being determined, the question of
          the authorship may be more easily decided. According to Jewish
          tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of
          the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the
          Chronicles. There are many points of resemblance and of contact
          between the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra which seem to
          confirm this opinion. The conclusion of the one and the
          beginning of the other are almost identical in expression. In
          their spirit and characteristics they are the same, showing thus
          also an identity of authorship.

          In their general scope and design these books are not so much
          historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears
          to be to present moral and religious truth. He does not give
          prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and
          Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions. “The genealogies, so
          uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important
          part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the
          basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but
          the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted,
          the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known, being
          entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose.” The
          “Chronicles” are an epitome of the sacred history from the days
          of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period of
          about 3,500 years. The writer gathers up “the threads of the old
          national life broken by the Captivity.”

          The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public
          records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the
          Jews. These are referred to in the course of the book (1 Chr.
          27:24; 29:29; 2 Chr. 9:29; 12:15; 13:22; 20:34; 24:27; 26:22;
          32:32; 33:18, 19; 27:7; 35:25). There are in Chronicles, and the
          books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal,
          proving that the writer both knew and used these records (1 Chr.
          17:18; comp. 2 Sam. 7:18-20; 1 Chr. 19; comp. 2 Sam. 10, etc.).

          As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits
          many particulars there recorded (2 Sam. 6:20-23; 9; 11; 14-19,
          etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12;
          22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.). Twenty whole chapters, and
          twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not
          found elsewhere. It also records many things in fuller detail,
          as (e.g.) the list of David’s heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the
          removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (1 Chr. 13;
          15:2-24; 16:4-43; comp. 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah’s leprosy and its
          cause (2 Chr. 26:16-21; comp. 2 Kings 15:5), etc.

          It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book
          is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for
          those that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen
          particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such
          as were in use in the writer’s day, for the old names; thus
          Gezer (1 Chr. 20:4) is used instead of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18), etc.

          The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or
          hagiographa. They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in
          the New Testament (Heb. 5:4; Matt. 12:42; 23:35; Luke 1:5;
          11:31, 51).

   Chronicles of king David
          (1 Chr. 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public
          sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles
          derived information on various public matters.

          Is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The
          writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era
          according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are
          reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:1; 33:38; 1
          Kings 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (1 Kings
          15:1, 9, 25, 33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from
          Exile (Ezra 3:8).

          Hence in constructing a system of Biblecal chronology, the plan
          has been adopted of reckoning the years from the ages of the
          patriarchs before the birth of their first-born sons for the
          period from the Creation to Abraham. After this period other
          data are to be taken into account in determining the relative
          sequence of events.

          As to the patriarchal period, there are three principal systems
          of chronology: (1) that of the Hebrew text, (2) that of the
          Septuagint version, and (3) that of the Samaritan Pentateuch, as
          seen in the scheme on the opposite page.

          The Samaritan and the Septuagint have considerably modified the
          Hebrew chronology. This modification some regard as having been
          wilfully made, and to be rejected. The same system of variations
          is observed in the chronology of the period between the Flood
          and Abraham. Thus:

          | Hebrew Septuigant Samaritan | From the birth of | Arphaxad, 2
          years | after the Flood, to | the birth of Terah. 220 1000 870 |
          From the birth of | Terah to the birth | of Abraham. 130 70 72

          The Septuagint fixes on seventy years as the age of Terah at the
          birth of Abraham, from Gen. 11:26; but a comparison of Gen.
          11:32 and Acts 7:4 with Gen. 12:4 shows that when Terah died, at
          the age of two hundred and five years, Abraham was seventy-five
          years, and hence Terah must have been one hundred and thirty
          years when Abraham was born. Thus, including the two years from
          the Flood to the birth of Arphaxad, the period from the Flood to
          the birth of Abraham was three hundred and fifty-two years.

          The next period is from the birth of Abraham to the Exodus.
          This, according to the Hebrew, extends to five hundred and five
          years. The difficulty here is as to the four hundred and thirty
          years mentioned Ex. 12:40, 41; Gal. 3:17. These years are
          regarded by some as dating from the covenant with Abraham (Gen.
          15), which was entered into soon after his sojourn in Egypt;
          others, with more probability, reckon these years from Jacob’s
          going down into Egypt. (See [115]EXODUS.)

          In modern times the systems of Biblical chronology that have
          been adopted are chiefly those of Ussher and Hales. The former
          follows the Hebrew, and the latter the Septuagint mainly.
          Archbishop Ussher’s (died 1656) system is called the short
          chronology. It is that given on the margin of the Authorized
          Version, but is really of no authority, and is quite uncertain.

          | Ussher Hales | B.C. B.C. | Creation 4004 5411 | Flood 2348
          3155 | Abram leaves Haran 1921 2078 | Exodus 1491 1648 |
          Destruction of the | Temple 588 586

          To show at a glance the different ideas of the date of the
          creation, it may be interesting to note the following: From
          Creation to 1894.

          According to Ussher, 5,898; Hales, 7,305; Zunz (Hebrew
          reckoning), 5,882; Septuagint (Perowne), 7,305; Rabbinical,
          5,654; Panodorus, 7,387; Anianus, 7,395; Constantinopolitan,
          7,403; Eusebius, 7,093; Scaliger, 5,844; Dionysius (from whom we
          take our Christian era), 7,388; Maximus, 7,395; Syncellus and
          Theophanes, 7,395; Julius Africanus, 7,395; Jackson, 7,320.

          Golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek’s juice, a
          greenish-golden colour (Rev. 21:20).

          The name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of
          Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Ezek. 30:5. They were
          probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt
          in the south.

          One of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured
          brass (i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple (1 Chr.
          18:8). It is called Berothai in 2 Sam. 8:8; probably the same as
          Berothah in Ezek. 47:16.

          Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., “the Lord’s
          house”), which was used by ancient authors for the place of

          In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word
          ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew kahal of the Old
          Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character
          of which can only be known from the connection in which the word
          is found. There is no clear instance of its being used for a
          place of meeting or of worship, although in post-apostolic times
          it early received this meaning. Nor is this word ever used to
          denote the inhabitants of a country united in the same
          profession, as when we say the “Church of England,” the “Church
          of Scotland,” etc.

          We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the
          New Testament: (1.) It is translated “assembly” in the ordinary
          classical sense (Acts 19:32, 39, 41).

          (2.) It denotes the whole body of the redeemed, all those whom
          the Father has given to Christ, the invisible catholic church
          (Eph. 5:23, 25, 27, 29; Heb. 12:23).

          (3.) A few Christians associated together in observing the
          ordinances of the gospel are an ecclesia (Rom. 16:5; Col. 4:15).

          (4.) All the Christians in a particular city, whether they
          assembled together in one place or in several places for
          religious worship, were an ecclesia. Thus all the disciples in
          Antioch, forming several congregations, were one church (Acts
          13:1); so also we read of the “church of God at Corinth” (1 Cor.
          1:2), “the church at Jerusalem” (Acts 8:1), “the church of
          Ephesus” (Rev. 2:1), etc.

          (5.) The whole body of professing Christians throughout the
          world (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal. 1:13; Matt. 16:18) are the church of

          The church visible “consists of all those throughout the world
          that profess the true religion, together with their children.”
          It is called “visible” because its members are known and its
          assemblies are public. Here there is a mixture of “wheat and
          chaff,” of saints and sinners. “God has commanded his people to
          organize themselves into distinct visible ecclesiastical
          communities, with constitutions, laws, and officers, badges,
          ordinances, and discipline, for the great purpose of giving
          visibility to his kingdom, of making known the gospel of that
          kingdom, and of gathering in all its elect subjects. Each one of
          these distinct organized communities which is faithful to the
          great King is an integral part of the visible church, and all
          together constitute the catholic or universal visible church.” A
          credible profession of the true religion constitutes a person a
          member of this church. This is “the kingdom of heaven,” whose
          character and progress are set forth in the parables recorded in
          Matt. 13.

          The children of all who thus profess the true religion are
          members of the visible church along with their parents. Children
          are included in every covenant God ever made with man. They go
          along with their parents (Gen. 9:9-17; 12:1-3; 17:7; Ex. 20:5;
          Deut. 29:10-13). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the
          beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same
          great principle. “The promise [just as to Abraham and his seed
          the promises were made] is unto you, and to your children” (Acts
          2:38, 39). The children of believing parents are “holy”, i.e.,
          are “saints”, a title which designates the members of the
          Christian church (1 Cor. 7:14). (See [116]BAPTISM.)

          The church invisible “consists of the whole number of the elect
          that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ,
          the head thereof.” This is a pure society, the church in which
          Christ dwells. It is the body of Christ. it is called
          “invisible” because the greater part of those who constitute it
          are already in heaven or are yet unborn, and also because its
          members still on earth cannot certainly be distinguished. The
          qualifications of membership in it are internal and are hidden.
          It is unseen except by Him who “searches the heart.” “The Lord
          knoweth them that are his” (2 Tim. 2:19).

          The church to which the attributes, prerogatives, and promises
          appertaining to Christ’s kingdom belong, is a spiritual body
          consisting of all true believers, i.e., the church invisible.

          (1.) Its unity. God has ever had only one church on earth. We
          sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New
          Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old
          Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isa.
          49:13-23; 60:1-14). When the Jews are at length restored, they
          will not enter a new church, but will be grafted again into
          “their own olive tree” (Rom. 11:18-24; comp. Eph. 2:11-22). The
          apostles did not set up a new organization. Under their ministry
          disciples were “added” to the “church” already existing (Acts

          (2.) Its universality. It is the “catholic” church; not confined
          to any particular country or outward organization, but
          comprehending all believers throughout the whole world.

          (3.) Its perpetuity. It will continue through all ages to the
          end of the world. It can never be destroyed. It is an
          “everlasting kindgdom.”

          In Isa. 32:5 (R.V. marg., “crafty”), means a deceiver. In 1 Sam.
          25:3, the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and
          ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, “hard.” The same
          Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Matt. 25:24, and
          there is rendered “hard.”

          Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the
          king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation
          immediately following Joshua (Judg. 3:8). We learn from the
          Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the
          forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., “Mesopotamia”) more than once,
          long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written
          the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan. It is
          mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon
          Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty),
          but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been
          conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually
          enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with the
          Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the
          Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by
          Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of
          Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have
          been considered to be attacking Egypt.

          A maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the
          birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of
          a celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate
          attracted to it many Greek residents after its incorporation
          with the Macedonian empire. It was formed into a Roman province,
          B.C. 67. The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts
          6:9). Paul visited it soon after his conversion (Gal. 1:21; Acts
          9:30), and again, on his second missionary journey (15:41), “he
          went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches.” It was
          famous for its goat’s-hair cloth, called cilicium. Paul learned
          in his youth the trade of making tents of this cloth.

          Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of
          the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar
          coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt,
          and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and
          rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit
          and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It
          was one of the principal ingredients in the holy anointing oil
          (Ex. 30:23). It is mentioned elsewhere only in Prov. 7:17; Cant.
          4:14; Rev. 18:13. The mention of it indicates a very early and
          extensive commerce carried on between Palestine and the East.

          A harp, one of the “fenced cities” of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35;
          comp. Deut. 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which
          may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of
          Gennesaret, anciently called “the sea of Chinnereth” (q.v.), and
          was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards
          called “the plain of Gennesaret.” Called Chinneroth (R.V.,
          Chinnereth) Josh. 11:2. The phrase “all Cinneroth, with all the
          land of Naphtali” in 1 Kings 15:20 is parallel to “the
          store-houses of the cities of Naphtali” (R.V. marg.) in 2 Chr.

          The apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Ps.
          19:6), and the changes of the wind (Eccl. 1:6). In Job 22:14,
          “in the circuit of heaven” (R.V. marg., “on the vault of
          heaven”) means the “arch of heaven,” which seems to be bent over
          our heads.

          Cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by
          divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of
          his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him.
          It was established as a national ordinance (Gen. 17:10, 11). In
          compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine
          years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who
          was thirteen years old (17:24-27). Slaves, whether home-born or
          purchased, were circumcised (17:12, 13); and all foreigners must
          have their males circumcised before they could enjoy the
          privileges of Jewish citizenship (Ex. 12:48). During the journey
          through the wilderness, the practice of circumcision fell into
          disuse, but was resumed by the command of Joshua before they
          entered the Promised Land (Josh. 5:2-9). It was observed always
          afterwards among the tribes of israel, although it is not
          expressly mentioned from the time of the settlement in Canaan
          till the time of Christ, about 1,450 years. The Jews prided
          themselves in the possession of this covenant distinction (Judg.
          14:3; 15:18; 1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26; 2 Sam. 1:20; Ezek. 31:18).

          As a rite of the church it ceased when the New Testament times
          began (Gal. 6:15; Col. 3:11). Some Jewish Christians sought to
          impose it, however, on the Gentile converts; but this the
          apostles resolutely resisted (Acts 15:1; Gal. 6:12). Our Lord
          was circumcised, for it “became him to fulfil all
          righteousness,” as of the seed of Abraham, according to the
          flesh; and Paul “took and circumcised” Timothy (Acts 16:3), to
          avoid giving offence to the Jews. It would render Timothy’s
          labours more acceptable to the Jews. But Paul would by no means
          consent to the demand that Titus should be circumcised (Gal.
          2:3-5). The great point for which he contended was the free
          admission of uncircumcised Gentiles into the church. He
          contended successfully in behalf of Titus, even in Jerusalem.

          In the Old Testament a spiritual idea is attached to
          circumcision. It was the symbol of purity (Isa. 52:1). We read
          of uncircumcised lips (Ex. 6:12, 30), ears (Jer. 6:10), hearts
          (Lev. 26:41). The fruit of a tree that is unclean is spoken of
          as uncircumcised (Lev. 19:23).

          It was a sign and seal of the covenant of grace as well as of
          the national covenant between God and the Hebrews. (1.) It
          sealed the promises made to Abraham, which related to the
          commonwealth of Israel, national promises. (2.) But the promises
          made to Abraham included the promise of redemption (Gal. 3:14),
          a promise which has come upon us. The covenant with Abraham was
          a dispensation or a specific form of the covenant of grace, and
          circumcision was a sign and seal of that covenant. It had a
          spiritual meaning. It signified purification of the heart,
          inward circumcision effected by the Spirit (Deut. 10:16; 30:6;
          Ezek. 44:7; Acts 7:51; Rom. 2:28; Col. 2:11). Circumcision as a
          symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now
          given way to the symbol of baptism (q.v.). But the truth
          embodied in both ordinances is ever the same, the removal of
          sin, the sanctifying effects of grace in the heart.

          Under the Jewish dispensation, church and state were identical.
          No one could be a member of the one without also being a member
          of the other. Circumcision was a sign and seal of membership in
          both. Every circumcised person bore thereby evidence that he was
          one of the chosen people, a member of the church of God as it
          then existed, and consequently also a member of the Jewish

          The rendering of a Hebrew word bor, which means a receptacle for
          water conveyed to it; distinguished from beer, which denotes a
          place where water rises on the spot (Jer. 2:13; Prov. 5:15; Isa.
          36:16), a fountain. Cisterns are frequently mentioned in
          Scripture. The scarcity of springs in Palestine made it
          necessary to collect rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns (Num.
          21:22). (See [117]WELL.)

          Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons (Jer. 38:6; Lam.
          3:53; Ps. 40:2; 69:15). The “pit” into which Joseph was cast
          (Gen. 37:24) was a beer or dry well. There are numerous remains
          of ancient cisterns in all parts of Palestine.

          The rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a
          foreigner (Luke 15:15; 19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law
          non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the
          Ammonites and others mentioned in Deut. 23:1-3, were admitted to
          the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Ex. 12:19;
          Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15; 35:15; Deut. 10:18; 14:29; 16:10, 14).

          The right of citizenship under the Roman government was granted
          by the emperor to individuals, and sometimes to provinces, as a
          favour or as a recompense for services rendered to the state, or
          for a sum of money (Acts 22:28). This “freedom” secured
          privileges equal to those enjoyed by natives of Rome. Among the
          most notable of these was the provision that a man could not be
          bound or imprisoned without a formal trial (Acts 22:25, 26), or
          scourged (16:37). All Roman citizens had the right of appeal to
          Caesar (25:11).

          The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which
          was built by Cain (Gen. 4:17). After the confusion of tongues,
          the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (10:10-12).
          Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon,
          Gaza, Sodom, etc. (10:12, 19; 11:3, 9; 36:31-39). The earliest
          description of a city is that of Sodom (19:1-22). Damascus is
          said to be the oldest existing city in the world. Before the
          time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt (Num. 13:22). The
          Israelites in Egypt were employed in building the “treasure
          cities” of Pithom and Raamses (Ex. 1:11); but it does not seem
          that they had any cities of their own in Goshen (Gen. 46:34;
          47:1-11). In the kingdom of Og in Bashan there were sixty “great
          cities with walls,” and twenty-three cities in Gilead partly
          rebuilt by the tribes on the east of Jordan (Num. 21:21, 32, 33,
          35; 32:1-3, 34-42; Deut. 3:4, 5, 14; 1 Kings 4:13). On the west
          of Jordan were thirty-one “royal cities” (Josh. 12), besides
          many others spoken of in the history of Israel.

          A fenced city was a city surrounded by fortifications and high
          walls, with watch-towers upon them (2 Chr. 11:11; Deut. 3:5).
          There was also within the city generally a tower to which the
          citizens might flee when danger threatened them (Judg. 9:46-52).

          A city with suburbs was a city surrounded with open
          pasture-grounds, such as the forty-eight cities which were given
          to the Levites (Num. 35:2-7). There were six cities of refuge,
          three on each side of Jordan, namely, Kadesh, Shechem, Hebron,
          on the west of Jordan; and on the east, Bezer, Ramoth-gilead,
          and Golan. The cities on each side of the river were nearly
          opposite each other. The regulations concerning these cities are
          given in Num. 35:9-34; Deut. 19:1-13; Ex. 21:12-14.

          When David reduced the fortress of the Jebusites which stood on
          Mount Zion, he built on the site of it a palace and a city,
          which he called by his own name (1 Chr. 11:5), the city of
          David. Bethlehem is also so called as being David’s native town
          (Luke 2:4).

          Jerusalem is called the Holy City, the holiness of the temple
          being regarded as extending in some measure over the whole city
          (Neh. 11:1).

          Pithom and Raamses, built by the Israelites as “treasure
          cities,” were not places where royal treasures were kept, but
          were fortified towns where merchants might store their goods and
          transact their business in safety, or cities in which munitions
          of war were stored. (See [118]PITHOM.)

          A small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul
          on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and
          3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., “Cauda”).

          A female Christian mentioned in 2 Tim. 4:21. It is a conjecture
          having some probability that she was a British maiden, the
          daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed
          the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that
          she was the wife of Pudens.

          Lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D.
          41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in
          Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of
          his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2).
          In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was
          supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned
          to Rome.

          During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the
          Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod
          Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was “killed” (12:2).
          He died A.D. 54.

          (2.) Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase
          the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius
          (Acts 21:31-40; 22:28; 23:26).

          This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets (Isa.
          57:20; Jer. 38:60), of dust mixed with spittle (John 9:6), and
          of potter’s clay (Isa. 41:25; Nah. 3:14; Jer. 18:1-6; Rom.
          9:21). Clay was used for sealing (Job 38:14; Jer. 32:14). Our
          Lord’s tomb may have been thus sealed (Matt. 27:66). The
          practice of sealing doors with clay is still common in the East.
          Clay was also in primitive times used for mortar (Gen. 11:3).
          The “clay ground” in which the large vessels of the temple were
          cast (1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chr. 4:17) was a compact loam fitted for
          the purpose. The expression literally rendered is, “in the
          thickness of the ground,”, meaning, “in stiff ground” or in

          The various forms of uncleanness according to the Mosaic law are
          enumerated in Lev. 11-15; Num. 19. The division of animals into
          clean and unclean was probably founded on the practice of
          sacrifice. It existed before the Flood (Gen. 7:2). The
          regulations regarding such animals are recorded in Lev. 11 and
          Deut. 14:1-21.

          The Hebrews were prohibited from using as food certain animal
          substances, such as (1) blood; (2) the fat covering the
          intestines, termed the caul; (3) the fat on the intestines,
          called the mesentery; (4) the fat of the kidneys; and (5) the
          fat tail of certain sheep (Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4-9; 9:19;
          17:10; 19:26).

          The chief design of these regulations seems to have been to
          establish a system of regimen which would distinguish the Jews
          from all other nations. Regarding the design and the abolition
          of these regulations the reader will find all the details in
          Lev. 20:24-26; Acts 10:9-16; 11:1-10; Heb. 9:9-14.

          Mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul’s “fellow-labourer,” whose
          name he mentions as “in the book of life” (Phil. 4:3). It was an
          opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose
          name is well known in church history, and that he was the author
          of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of
          which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British
          Museum. It is of some historical interest, and has given rise to
          much discussion among critics. It makes distinct reference to
          Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians.

          (abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom
          Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the
          resurrection (Luke 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding
          him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of John 19:25, or
          the Alphaeus of Matt. 10:3, although he may have been so.

          (in the spelling of this word h is inserted by mistake from
          Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the
          word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In John 19:25 the
          Authorized Version reads, “Mary, the wife of Clopas.” The word
          “wife” is conjecturally inserted here. If “wife” is rightly
          inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas
          is the same as Alphaeus (Matt. 10:3; 27:56).

          An upper garment, “an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to
          the ankles, but without sleeves” (Isa. 59:17). The word so
          rendered is elsewhere rendered “robe” or “mantle.” It was worn
          by the high priest under the ephod (Ex. 28:31), by kings and
          others of rank (1 Sam. 15:27; Job 1:20; 2:12), and by women (2
          Sam. 13:18).

          The word translated “cloke”, i.e., outer garment, in Matt. 5:40
          is in its plural form used of garments in general (Matt. 17:2;
          26:65). The cloak mentioned here and in Luke 6:29 was the Greek
          himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square piece
          of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of
          the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (Ex. 22:26, 27),
          but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton) mentioned in Matt. 5:40 could

          The cloak which Paul “left at Troas” (2 Tim. 4:13) was the Roman
          paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a
          protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that
          what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the
          word used means a bookcase. (See [119]Dress.)

          As used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse
          (Luke 12: 24), and hence a place of privacy and retirement
          (Matt. 6:6; Luke 12:3).

          The Hebrew so rendered means “a covering,” because clouds cover
          the sky. The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as
          indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals (Ex.
          16:10; 33:9; Num. 11:25; 12:5; Job 22:14; Ps. 18:11). A “cloud
          without rain” is a proverbial saying, denoting a man who does
          not keep his promise (Prov. 16:15; Isa. 18:4; 25:5; Jude 1:12).
          A cloud is the figure of that which is transitory (Job 30:15;
          Hos. 6:4). A bright cloud is the symbolical seat of the Divine
          presence (Ex. 29:42, 43; 1 Kings 8:10; 2 Chr. 5:14; Ezek. 43:4),
          and was called the Shechinah (q.v.). Jehovah came down upon
          Sinai in a cloud (Ex. 19:9); and the cloud filled the court
          around the tabernacle in the wilderness so that Moses could not
          enter it (Ex. 40:34, 35). At the dedication of the temple also
          the cloud “filled the house of the Lord” (1 Kings 8:10). Thus in
          like manner when Christ comes the second time he is described as
          coming “in the clouds” (Matt. 17:5; 24:30; Acts 1:9, 11). False
          teachers are likened unto clouds carried about with a tempest (2
          Pet. 2:17). The infirmities of old age, which come one after
          another, are compared by Solomon to “clouds returning after the
          rain” (Eccl. 12:2). The blotting out of sins is like the sudden
          disappearance of threatening clouds from the sky (Isa. 44:22).

          Cloud, the pillar of, was the glory-cloud which indicated God’s
          presence leading the ransomed people through the wilderness (Ex.
          13:22; 33:9, 10). This pillar preceded the people as they
          marched, resting on the ark (Ex. 13:21; 40:36). By night it
          became a pillar of fire (Num. 9:17-23).

          A town and harbour on the extreme south-west of the peninsula of
          Doris in Asia Minor. Paul sailed past it on his voyage to Rome
          after leaving Myra (Acts 27:7).

          It is by no means certain that the Hebrews were acquainted with
          mineral coal, although it is found in Syria. Their common fuel
          was dried dung of animals and wood charcoal. Two different words
          are found in Hebrew to denote coal, both occurring in Prov.
          26:21, “As coal [Heb. peham; i.e., “black coal”] is to burning
          coal [Heb. gehalim].” The latter of these words is used in Job
          41:21; Prov. 6:28; Isa. 44:19. The words “live coal” in Isa. 6:6
          are more correctly “glowing stone.” In Lam. 4:8 the expression
          “blacker than a coal” is literally rendered in the margin of the
          Revised Version “darker than blackness.” “Coals of fire” (2 Sam.
          22:9, 13; Ps. 18:8, 12, 13, etc.) is an expression used
          metaphorically for lightnings proceeding from God. A false
          tongue is compared to “coals of juniper” (Ps. 120:4; James 3:6).
          “Heaping coals of fire on the head” symbolizes overcoming evil
          with good. The words of Paul (Rom. 12:20) are equivalent to
          saying, “By charity and kindness thou shalt soften down his
          enmity as surely as heaping coals on the fire fuses the metal in
          the crucible.”

          The tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Lev. 16:4; Cant.
          5:3; 2 Sam. 15:32; Ex. 28:4; 29:5). The “coats of skins”
          prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than
          aprons (Gen. 3:21). This tunic was sometimes woven entire
          without a seam (John 19:23); it was also sometimes of “many
          colours” (Gen. 37:3; R.V. marg., “a long garment with sleeves”).
          The “fisher’s coat” of John 21:7 was obviously an outer garment
          or cloak, as was also the “coat” made by Hannah for Samuel (1
          Sam. 2:19). (See [120]DRESS.)

   Coat of mail
          The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning “glittering” (1 Sam.
          17:5, 38). The same word in the plural form is translated
          “habergeons” in 2 Chr. 26:14 and Neh. 4:16. The “harness” (1
          Kings 22:34), “breastplate” (Isa. 59:17), and “brigandine” (Jer.
          46:4), were probably also corselets or coats of mail. (See

          The mediaeval name (a corruption of “crocodile”) of a fabulous
          serpent supposed to be produced from a cock’s egg. It is
          generally supposed to denote the cerastes, or “horned viper,” a
          very poisonous serpent about a foot long. Others think it to be
          the yellow viper (Daboia xanthina), one of the most dangerous
          vipers, from its size and its nocturnal habits (Isa. 11:8;
          14:29; 59:5; Jer. 8:17; in all which the Revised Version renders
          the Hebrew tziph’oni by “basilisk”). In Prov. 23:32 the Hebrew
          tzeph’a is rendered both in the Authorized Version and the
          Revised Version by “adder;” margin of Revised Version
          “basilisk,” and of Authorized Version “cockatrice.”

          In our Lord’s time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman
          division of the night into four watches, each consisting of
          three hours, the first beginning at six o’clock in the evening
          (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division,
          known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained.
          The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this
          is the first crowing), and again at the dawn of day (and this is
          the second crowing). Mark mentions (14:30) the two
          cock-crowings. Matthew (26:34) alludes to that only which was
          emphatically the cock-crowing, viz, the second.

          Occurs only in Job 31:40 (marg., “noisome weeds”), where it is
          the rendering of a Hebrew word (b’oshah) which means
          “offensive,” “having a bad smell,” referring to some weed
          perhaps which has an unpleasant odour. Or it may be regarded as
          simply any noisome weed, such as the “tares” or darnel of Matt.
          13:30. In Isa. 5:2, 4 the plural form is rendered “wild grapes.”

          Hollow Syria, the name (not found in Scripture) given by the
          Greeks to the extensive valley, about 100 miles long, between
          the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon range of mountains.

          The receptacle or small box placed beside the ark by the
          Philistines, in which they deposited the golden mice and the
          emerods as their trespass-offering (1 Sam. 6:8, 11, 15).

          Used in Gen. 50:26 with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here,
          it means a mummy-chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered “chest”
          in 2 Kings 12:9, 10.

          (or “thoughts,” as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally
          means), earnest meditation.

          Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They
          made use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they
          weighed out (Gen. 23:16; Ex. 38:24; 2 Sam. 18:12). Probably the
          silver ingots used in the time of Abraham may have been of a
          fixed weight, which was in some way indicated on them. The
          “pieces of silver” paid by Abimelech to Abraham (Gen. 20:16),
          and those also for which Joseph was sold (37:28), were proably
          in the form of rings. The shekel was the common standard of
          weight and value among the Hebrews down to the time of the
          Captivity. Only once is a shekel of gold mentioned (1 Chr.
          21:25). The “six thousand of gold” mentioned in the transaction
          between Naaman and Gehazi (2 Kings 5:5) were probably so many
          shekels of gold. The “piece of money” mentioned in Job 42:11;
          Gen. 33:19 (marg., “lambs”) was the Hebrew kesitah, probably an
          uncoined piece of silver of a certain weight in the form of a
          sheep or lamb, or perhaps having on it such an impression. The
          same Hebrew word is used in Josh. 24:32, which is rendered by
          Wickliffe “an hundred yonge scheep.”

          (Heb. peh), means in Job 30:18 the mouth or opening of the
          garment that closes round the neck in the same way as a tunic
          (Ex. 39:23). The “collars” (Heb. netiphoth) among the spoils of
          the Midianites (Judg. 8:26; R.V., “pendants”) were ear-drops.
          The same Hebrew word is rendered “chains” in Isa. 3:19.

          The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from
          poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile
          churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts
          24:17; Rom. 15:25, 26; 1 Cor. 16:1-3; 2 Cor. 8:9; Gal. 2:10).

          Heb. mishneh (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22), rendered in Revised
          Version “second quarter”, the residence of the prophetess
          Huldah. The Authorized Version followed the Jewish commentators,
          who, following the Targum, gave the Hebrew word its
          post-Biblical sense, as if it meant a place of instruction. It
          properly means the “second,” and may therefore denote the lower
          city (Acra), which was built after the portion of the city on
          Mount Zion, and was enclosed by a second wall.

          The city of Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), i.e., a
          military settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted
          there to keep in subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony
          was Rome in miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed
          by military officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls.
          It had an independent internal government, the jus Italicum;
          i.e., the privileges of Italian citizens.

          Or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a
          tributary of the Maeander. It was about 12 miles above Laodicea,
          and near the great road from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was
          consequently of some mercantile importance. It does not appear
          that Paul had visited this city when he wrote his letter to the
          church there (Col. 1:2). He expresses in his letter to Philemon
          (ver. 1:22) his hope to visit it on being delivered from his
          imprisonment. From Col. 1:7; 4:12 it has been concluded that
          Epaphras was the founder of the Colossian church. This town
          afterwards fell into decay, and the modern town of Chonas or
          Chonum occupies a site near its ruins.

   Colossians, Epistle to the
          Was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there
          (Acts 28:16, 30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some
          think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the
          Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to
          Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of
          information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the
          internal state of the church there (Col. 1:4-8). Its object was
          to counteract false teaching. A large part of it is directed
          against certain speculatists who attempted to combine the
          doctrines of Oriental mysticism and asceticism with
          Christianity, thereby promising the disciples the enjoyment of a
          higher spiritual life and a deeper insight into the world of
          spirits. Paul argues against such teaching, showing that in
          Christ Jesus they had all things. He sets forth the majesty of
          his redemption. The mention of the “new moon” and “sabbath days”
          (2:16) shows also that there were here Judaizing teachers who
          sought to draw away the disciples from the simplicity of the

          Like most of Paul’s epistles, this consists of two parts, a
          doctrinal and a practical.

          (1.) The doctrinal part comprises the first two chapters. His
          main theme is developed in chapter 2. He warns them against
          being drawn away from Him in whom dwelt all the fulness of the
          Godhead, and who was the head of all spiritual powers. Christ
          was the head of the body of which they were members; and if they
          were truly united to him, what needed they more?

          (2.) The practical part of the epistle (3-4) enforces various
          duties naturally flowing from the doctrines expounded. They are
          exhorted to mind things that are above (3:1-4), to mortify every
          evil principle of their nature, and to put on the new man
          (3:5-14). Many special duties of the Christian life are also
          insisted upon as the fitting evidence of the Christian
          character. Tychicus was the bearer of the letter, as he was also
          of that to the Ephesians and to Philemon, and he would tell them
          of the state of the apostle (4:7-9). After friendly greetings
          (10-14), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had
          sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea. He then closes this
          brief but striking epistle with his usual autograph salutation.
          There is a remarkable resemblance between this epistle and that
          to the Ephesians (q.v.). The genuineness of this epistle has not
          been called in question.

          The subject of colours holds an important place in the

          White occurs as the translation of various Hebrew words. It is
          applied to milk (Gen. 49:12), manna (Ex. 16:31), snow (Isa.
          1:18), horses (Zech. 1:8), raiment (Eccl. 9:8). Another Hebrew
          word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6), and a
          cognate word to the lily (Cant. 2:16). A different term, meaning
          “dazzling,” is applied to the countenance (Cant. 5:10).

          This colour was an emblem of purity and innocence (Mark 16:5;
          John 20:12; Rev. 19:8, 14), of joy (Eccl. 9:8), and also of
          victory (Zech. 6:3; Rev. 6:2). The hangings of the tabernacle
          court (Ex. 27:9; 38:9), the coats, mitres, bonnets, and breeches
          of the priests (Ex. 39:27, 28), and the dress of the high priest
          on the day of Atonement (Lev. 16:4, 32), were white.

          Black, applied to the hair (Lev. 13:31; Cant. 5:11), the
          complexion (Cant. 1:5), and to horses (Zech. 6:2, 6). The word
          rendered “brown” in Gen. 30:32 (R.V., “black”) means properly
          “scorched”, i.e., the colour produced by the influence of the
          sun’s rays. “Black” in Job 30:30 means dirty, blackened by
          sorrow and disease. The word is applied to a mourner’s robes
          (Jer. 8:21; 14:2), to a clouded sky (1 Kings 18:45), to night
          (Micah 3:6; Jer. 4:28), and to a brook rendered turbid by melted
          snow (Job 6:16). It is used as symbolical of evil in Zech. 6:2,
          6 and Rev. 6:5. It was the emblem of mourning, affliction,
          calamity (Jer. 14:2; Lam. 4:8; 5:10).

          Red, applied to blood (2 Kings 3;22), a heifer (Num. 19:2),
          pottage of lentils (Gen. 25:30), a horse (Zech. 1:8), wine
          (Prov. 23:31), the complexion (Gen. 25:25; Cant. 5:10). This
          colour is symbolical of bloodshed (Zech. 6:2; Rev. 6:4; 12:3).

          Purple, a colour obtained from the secretion of a species of
          shell-fish (the Murex trunculus) which was found in the
          Mediterranean, and particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and
          Asia Minor. The colouring matter in each separate shell-fish
          amounted to only a single drop, and hence the great value of
          this dye. Robes of this colour were worn by kings (Judg. 8:26)
          and high officers (Esther 8:15). They were also worn by the
          wealthy and luxurious (Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:7; Luke 16:19; Rev.
          17:4). With this colour was associated the idea of royalty and
          majesty (Judg. 8:26; Cant. 3:10; 7:5; Dan. 5:7, 16, 29).

          Blue. This colour was also procured from a species of
          shell-fish, the chelzon of the Hebrews, and the Helix ianthina
          of modern naturalists. The tint was emblematic of the sky, the
          deep dark hue of the Eastern sky. This colour was used in the
          same way as purple. The ribbon and fringe of the Hebrew dress
          were of this colour (Num. 15:38). The loops of the curtains (Ex.
          26:4), the lace of the high priest’s breastplate, the robe of
          the ephod, and the lace on his mitre, were blue (Ex. 28:28, 31,

          Scarlet, or Crimson. In Isa. 1:18 a Hebrew word is used which
          denotes the worm or grub whence this dye was procured. In Gen.
          38:28, 30, the word so rendered means “to shine,” and expresses
          the brilliancy of the colour. The small parasitic insects from
          which this dye was obtained somewhat resembled the cochineal
          which is found in Eastern countries. It is called by naturalists
          Coccus ilics. The dye was procured from the female grub alone.
          The only natural object to which this colour is applied in
          Scripture is the lips, which are likened to a scarlet thread
          (Cant. 4:3). Scarlet robes were worn by the rich and luxurious
          (2 Sam. 1:24; Prov. 31:21; Jer. 4:30. Rev. 17:4). It was also
          the hue of the warrior’s dress (Nah. 2:3; Isa. 9:5). The
          Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour (2 Chr.

          These four colours–white, purple, blue, and scarlet–were used
          in the textures of the tabernacle curtains (Ex. 26:1, 31, 36),
          and also in the high priest’s ephod, girdle, and breastplate
          (Ex. 28:5, 6, 8, 15). Scarlet thread is mentioned in connection
          with the rites of cleansing the leper (Lev. 14:4, 6, 51) and of
          burning the red heifer (Num. 19:6). It was a crimson thread that
          Rahab was to bind on her window as a sign that she was to be
          saved alive (Josh. 2:18; 6:25) when the city of Jericho was

          Vermilion, the red sulphuret of mercury, or cinnabar; a colour
          used for drawing the figures of idols on the walls of temples
          (Ezek. 23:14), or for decorating the walls and beams of houses
          (Jer. 22:14).

          The designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7;
          R.V. marg., “or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos”). The same
          Greek word thus rendered is translated “Advocate” in 1 John 2:1
          as applicable to Christ. It means properly “one who is summoned
          to the side of another” to help him in a court of justice by
          defending him, “one who is summoned to plead a cause.”
          “Advocate” is the proper rendering of the word in every case
          where it occurs.

          It is worthy of notice that although Paul nowhere uses the word
          paracletos, he yet presents the idea it embodies when he speaks
          of the “intercession” both of Christ and the Spirit (Rom. 8:27,

   Coming of Christ
          (1) with reference to his first advent “in the fulness of the
          time” (1 John 5:20; 2 John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his
          coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11; 3:20,
          21; 1 Thess. 4:15; 2 Tim. 4:1; Heb. 9:28).

          The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of the
          gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible
          establishment of his kingdom in the world (Matt. 16:28), the
          conferring on his people of the peculiar tokens of his love
          (John 14:18, 23, 28), and his executing judgment on the wicked
          (2 Thess. 2:8).

   Commandments, the Ten
          (Ex. 34:28; Deut. 10:4, marg. “ten words”) i.e., the Decalogue
          (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These
          commandments were first given in their written form to the
          people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty
          days after they came out of Egypt (Ex. 19:10-25). They were
          written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first
          tables were broken by Moses when he brought them down from the
          mount (32:19), being thrown by him on the ground. At the command
          of God he took up into the mount two other tables, and God wrote
          on them “the words that were on the first tables” (34:1). These
          tables were afterwards placed in the ark of the covenant (Deut.
          10:5; 1 Kings 8:9). Their subsequent history is unknown. They
          are as a whole called “the covenant” (Deut. 4:13), and “the
          tables of the covenant” (9:9, 11; Heb. 9:4), and “the

          They are obviously “ten” in number, but their division is not
          fixed, hence different methods of numbering them have been
          adopted. The Jews make the “Preface” one of the commandments,
          and then combine the first and second. The Roman Catholics and
          Lutherans combine the first and second and divide the tenth into
          two. The Jews and Josephus divide them equally. The Lutherans
          and Roman Catholics refer three commandments to the first table
          and seven to the second. The Greek and Reformed Churches refer
          four to the first and six to the second table. The Samaritans
          add to the second that Gerizim is the mount of worship. (See

          Fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17-33; Ex. 33:9-11; Num. 12:7, 8),
          between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2
          Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph.
          4:1-6). The Lord’s Supper is so called (1 Cor. 10:16, 17),
          because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his
          disciples, and of the disciples with one another.

          Whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought
          into the temple (2 Chr. 35:9).

          (Gr. katatome; i.e., “mutilation”), a term used by Paul
          contemptuously of those who were zealots for circumcision (Phil.
          3:2). Instead of the warning, “Beware of the circumcision”
          (peritome) i.e., of the party who pressed on Gentile converts
          the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says,
          “Beware of the concision;” as much as to say, “This circumcision
          which they vaunt of is in Christ only as the gashings and
          mutilations of idolatrous heathen.”

          In the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in
          a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews,
          from various causes, the difference between a wife and a
          concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The
          concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws
          recorded providing for their protection (Ex. 21:7; Deut.
          21:10-14), and setting limits to the relation they sustained to
          the household to which they belonged (Gen. 21:14; 25:6). They
          had no authority in the family, nor could they share in the
          household government.

          The immediate cause of concubinage might be gathered from the
          conjugal histories of Abraham and Jacob (Gen. 16;30). But in
          process of time the custom of concubinage degenerated, and laws
          were made to restrain and regulate it (Ex. 21:7-9).

          Christianity has restored the sacred institution of marriage to
          its original character, and concubinage is ranked with the sins
          of fornication and adultery (Matt. 19:5-9; 1 Cor. 7:2).

          Desire, Rom. 7:8 (R.V., “coveting”); Col. 3:5 (R.V., “desire”).
          The “lust of concupiscence” (1 Thess. 4:5; R.V., “passion of
          lust”) denotes evil desire, indwelling sin.

          A water-course or channel (Job 38:25). The “conduit of the upper
          pool” (Isa. 7:3) was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of
          conveying the waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon
          to the west side of the city of David (2 Kings 18:17; 20:20; 2
          Chr. 32:30). In carrying out this work he stopped “the waters of
          the fountains which were without the city” i.e., “the upper
          water-course of Gihon”, and conveyed it down from the west
          through a canal into the city, so that in case of a siege the
          inhabitants of the city might have a supply of water, which
          would thus be withdrawn from the enemy. (See [123]SILOAM.)

          There are also the remains of a conduit which conducted water
          from the so-called “Pools of Solomon,” beyond Bethlehem, into
          the city. Water is still conveyed into the city from the
          fountains which supplied these pools by a channel which crosses
          the valley of Hinnom.

          (Heb. shaphan; i.e., “the hider”), an animal which inhabits the
          mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and
          the Holy Land. “The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they
          their houses in the rocks” (Prov. 30:26; Ps. 104:18). They are
          gregarious, and “exceeding wise” (Prov. 30:24), and are
          described as chewing the cud (Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7).

          The animal intended by this name is known among naturalists as
          the Hyrax Syriacus. It is neither a ruminant nor a rodent, but
          is regarded as akin to the rhinoceros. When it is said to “chew
          the cud,” the Hebrew word so used does not necessarily imply the
          possession of a ruminant stomach. “The lawgiver speaks according
          to appearances; and no one can watch the constant motion of the
          little creature’s jaws, as it sits continually working its
          teeth, without recognizing the naturalness of the expression”
          (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible). It is about the size
          and color of a rabbit, though clumsier in structure, and without
          a tail. Its feet are not formed for digging, and therefore it
          has its home not in burrows but in the clefts of the rocks.
          “Coney” is an obsolete English word for “rabbit.”

          (Ex. 30:35, “ointment” in ver. 25; R.V., “perfume”). The Hebrew
          word so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil
          and perfume.

          Only in 1 Sam. 8:13, those who make confections, i.e.,
          perfumers, who compound species and perfumes.

          (1) An open profession of faith (Luke 12:8). (2.) An
          acknowledment of sins to God (Lev. 16:21; Ezra 9:5-15; Dan.
          9:3-12), and to a neighbour whom we have wronged (James 5:16;
          Matt. 18:15).

          (Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community
          (Num. 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and
          upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in
          the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Ex.
          12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1-3), admitted to the privileges of
          citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Ex.
          12:19; Num. 9:14; 15:15). The congregation were summonded
          together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at
          the door of the tabernacle (Num. 10:3). These assemblies were
          convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious
          services (Ex. 12:27; Num. 25:6; Joel 2:15), or of receiving new
          commandments (Ex. 19:7, 8). The elders, who were summonded by
          the sound of one trumpet (Num. 10:4), represented on various
          occasions the whole congregation (Ex. 3:16; 12:21; 17:5; 24:1).

          After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only on
          occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2 Chr.
          30:5; 34:29; 1 Sam. 10:17; 2 Sam. 5:1-5; 1 Kings 12:20; 2 Kings
          11:19; 21:24; 23:30). In subsequent times the congregation was
          represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in
          the Septuagint version exclusively to the congregation, came to
          be used to denote the places of worship established by the Jews.
          (See [124]CHURCH.)

          In Acts 13:43, where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is
          the same word as that rendered “synagogue” (q.v.) in ver. 42,
          and is so rendered in ver. 43 in R.V.

   Congregation, mount of the
          (Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God
          promised to meet with his people (Ex. 25:22; 29:42, 43) i.e.,
          the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king
          of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his
          own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The
          “mount of the congregation” will therefore in this case mean the
          northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the
          meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian inscriptions
          mention is made of a mountain which is described as “the mighty
          mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the
          holy deep.” This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the
          place where the gods had their seat.

          That faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by
          which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is
          common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been
          perverted by the Fall (John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Rom. 2:15). It is
          spoken of as “defiled” (Titus 1:15), and “seared” (1 Tim. 4:2).
          A “conscience void of offence” is to be sought and cultivated
          (Acts 24:16; Rom. 9:1; 2 Cor. 1:12; 1 Tim. 1:5, 19; 1 Pet.

          The devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or
          service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were
          thus consecrated (Ex. 13:2, 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews
          devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of
          war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, 29). According to the Mosaic law
          the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.

          In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated to
          the Lord (1 Pet. 2:9).

   Consolation of Israel
          A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably
          suggested by Isa. 12:1; 49:13. The Greek word thus rendered
          (Luke 2:25, paraklesis) is kindred to that translated
          “Comforter” in John 14:16, etc., parakletos.

          A cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other
          in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain
          figures (as the “Great Bear,” the “Bull,” etc.) for the sake of
          classification and of memory. In Isa. 13:10, where this word
          only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew kesil, i.e.,
          “fool.” This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job
          9:9; 38:31), a constellation which represented Nimrod, the
          symbol of folly and impiety. The word some interpret by “the
          giant” in this place, “some heaven-daring rebel who was chained
          to the sky for his impiety.”

          A state of mind in which one’s desires are confined to his lot
          whatever it may be (1 Tim. 6:6; 2 Cor. 9:8). It is opposed to
          envy (James 3:16), avarice (Heb. 13:5), ambition (Prov. 13:10),
          anxiety (Matt. 6:25, 34), and repining (1 Cor. 10:10). It arises
          from the inward disposition, and is the offspring of humility,
          and of an intelligent consideration of the rectitude and
          benignity of divine providence (Ps. 96:1, 2; 145), the greatness
          of the divine promises (2 Pet. 1:4), and our own unworthiness
          (Gen. 32:10); as well as from the view the gospel opens up to us
          of rest and peace hereafter (Rom. 5:2).

          Generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Eph. 2:3;
          4:22; R.V., “manner of life”); one’s deportment or course of
          life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of
          verbal communication from one to another (Ps. 50:23; Heb. 13:5).
          In Phil. 1:27 and 3:20, a different Greek word is used. It there
          means one’s relations to a community as a citizen, i.e.,

          The turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense
          the heathen are said to be “converted” when they abandon
          heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more
          special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine
          grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things
          pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak
          of the conversion of the Philippian jailer (16:19-34), of Paul
          (9:1-22), of the Ethiopian treasurer (8:26-40), of Cornelius
          (10), of Lydia (16:13-15), and others. (See [125]REGENERATION.)

          A meeting of a religious character as distinguished from
          congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and
          legal matters. Hence it is called an “holy convocation.” Such
          convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, 3), the Passover (Ex.
          12:16; Lev. 23:7, 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the
          feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks
          (Num. 28:26), and the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:35, 36). The
          great fast, the annual day of atonement, was “the holy
          convocation” (Lev. 23:27; Num. 29:7).

          A person employed to perform culinary service. In early times
          among the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the
          household (Gen. 18:2-6; Judg. 6:19), and the process was very
          expeditiously performed (Gen. 27:3, 4, 9, 10). Professional
          cooks were afterwards employed (1 Sam. 8:13; 9:23). Few animals,
          as a rule, were slaughtered (other than sacrifices), except for
          purposes of hospitality (Gen. 18:7; Luke 15:23). The paschal
          lamb was roasted over a fire (Ex. 12:8, 9; 2Chr. 35:13). Cooking
          by boiling was the usual method adopted (Lev. 8:31; Ex. 16:23).
          No cooking took place on the Sabbath day (Ex. 35:3).

          (written Cos in the R.V.), a small island, one of the Sporades
          in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of
          Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey,
          passed the night here after sailing from Miletus (Acts 21:1). It
          is now called Stanchio.

          Derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called
          “Cyprian brass,” occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra
          8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly
          rendered “brass,” and sometimes “steel” (2 Sam. 22:35; Jer.
          15:12). The “bow of steel” (Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34) should have
          been “bow of copper” (or “brass,” as in the R.V.). The vessels
          of “fine copper” of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of
          “bright brass” mentioned in 1 Kings 7:45; Dan. 10:6.

          Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron (Gen.
          4:22). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass (1 Kings 7:14).
          Copper abounded in Palestine (Deut. 8:9; Isa. 60:17; 1 Chr.
          22:3, 14). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple
          were made of it (Lev. 6:28; Num. 16:39; 2 Chr. 4:16; Ezra 8:27);
          also weapons of war (1 Sam. 17:5, 6, 38; 2 Sam. 21:16). Iron is
          mentioned only four times (Gen. 4:22; Lev. 26:19; Num. 31:22;
          35:16) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered
          “brass”) is mentioned forty times. (See [126]BRASS.)

          We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a “coppersmith” of Ephesus
          (2 Tim. 4:14).

          This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a
          measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer,
          and contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure
          (Ezek. 45:14). The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five
          gallons, while Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1
          Kings 4:22; 5:11; 2 Chr. 2:10; 27:5, the original word is
          rendered “measure.”

          Heb. ramoth, meaning “heights;” i.e., “high-priced” or valuable
          things, or, as some suppose, “that which grows high,” like a
          tree (Job 28:18; Ezek. 27:16), according to the Rabbins, red
          coral, which was in use for ornaments.

          The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by minute
          polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which the
          animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but
          usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs and coral
          islands abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews
          derived their knowledge of it. It is found of different colours,
          white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed the most
          precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes.

          A Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and
          left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a
          gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this
          word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the
          temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the
          year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees
          for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they
          had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour
          their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from
          helping their parents by the device of pronouncing “Corban” over
          their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.

          Frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Ex.
          35:18; 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa. 5:18), binding
          prisoners (Judg. 15:13; Ps. 2:3; 129:4), and measuring ground (2
          Sam. 8;2; Ps. 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the
          giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. “Is not their tent-cord
          plucked up?” R.V.). To gird one’s self with a cord was a token
          of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant
          to level it with the ground (Lam. 2:8). The “cords of sin” are
          the consequences or fruits of sin (Prov. 5:22). A “threefold
          cord” is a symbol of union (Eccl. 4:12). The “cords of a man”
          (Hos. 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other,
          methods such as are suitable to men, and not “cords” such as
          oxen are led by. Isaiah (5:18) says, “Woe unto them that draw
          iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart
          rope.” This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: “Woe
          to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by
          cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are
          strong and are like a cart rope.” This may be the true meaning.
          The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by
          their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart
          rope. Henderson in his commentary says: “The meaning is that the
          persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of
          provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his
          vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of
          iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon
          themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which
          their sins deserved.”

          Heb. gad, (Ex. 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is
          likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of
          botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk,
          about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern
          countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds,
          which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a
          peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek
          name of this plant is korion or koriannon, whence the name

          A Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to
          the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The
          ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that
          mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been
          rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of
          freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of
          government for Southern Greece or Achaia (Acts 18:12-16). It was
          noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and
          vicious habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of
          Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D.
          51 or 52), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here
          Paul resided for eighteen months (18:1-18). Here he first became
          aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after his
          departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he
          visited it a second time, and remained for three months (20:3).
          During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written
          (probably A.D. 55). Although there were many Jewish converts at
          Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there.

          Some have argued from 2 Cor. 12:14; 13:1, that Paul visited
          Corinth a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he
          visited the city between what are usually called the first and
          second visits). But the passages referred to only indicate
          Paul’s intention to visit Corinth (comp. 1 Cor. 16:5, where the
          Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention which
          was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a
          visit could have been made by the apostle without more distinct
          reference to it.

   Corinthians, First Epistle to the
          Was written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the
          Passover in the third year of the apostle’s sojourn there (Acts
          19:10; 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit
          Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57).

          The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated
          his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had
          arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from
          a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some
          of the “household of Chloe,” and from Stephanas and his two
          friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11; 16:17). Paul thereupon
          wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious
          spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had sprung up
          among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly
          practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not
          given were probably the bearers of the letter (2 Cor. 2:13; 8:6,

          The epistle may be divided into four parts:

          (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable
          divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor.

          (2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had
          become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought
          the very first principles of morality (5; 6).

          (3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of
          doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain
          communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies
          certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord’s
          supper (7-14).

          (4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense
          of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been
          called in question by some among them, followed by some general
          instructions, intimations, and greetings.

          This epistle “shows the powerful self-control of the apostle in
          spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances,
          his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was
          written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, out of much affliction
          and pressure of heart…and with streaming eyes’ (2 Cor. 2:4);
          yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with
          a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win
          back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early
          church…It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic
          church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or
          purity of doctrine.” The apostle in this epistle unfolds and
          applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages
          in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they
          may appear.

          This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never
          been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so
          conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin.

          The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the
          Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error
          arose from a mistranslation of 1 Cor. 16:5, “For I do pass
          through Macedonia,” which was interpreted as meaning, “I am
          passing through Macedonia.” In 16:8 he declares his intention of
          remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose
          is to “pass through Macedonia.”

   Corinthians, Second Epistle to the
          Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul
          left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against
          him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to
          Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port
          of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus,
          whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the
          effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but
          was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13). He then
          left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he
          tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6, 7), who
          brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under
          the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the
          favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this
          second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi,
          or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and
          was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only
          to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia,
          i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.

          The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:

          (1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life,
          and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor.

          (2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that
          was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9).

          (3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies
          himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher
          and his adherents.

          This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of
          the apostle more than any other. “Human weakness, spiritual
          strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling,
          sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication,
          humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak
          and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of
          Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all
          displayed in turn in the course of his appeal.”–Lias, Second

          Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle
          we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited
          Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20:2, 3), and that on that
          occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to
          Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the
          principal members of the church to the Romans.

          (Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb. shalak, “plunging,” or “darting
          down,” (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the “unclean”
          birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a
          “plunging” bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas
          of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered
          “gannet” (Sula bassana, “the solan goose”); others that it is
          the “tern” or “sea swallow,” which also frequents the coasts of
          Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley
          during several months of the year. But there is no reason to
          depart from the ordinary rendering.

          In Isa. 34:11, Zeph. 2:14 (but in R.V., “pelican”) the Hebrew
          word rendered by this name is ka’ath. It is translated “pelican”
          (q.v.) in Ps. 102:6. The word literally means the “vomiter,” and
          the pelican is so called from its vomiting the shells and other
          things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See [127]PELICAN.)

          The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen. 27:28, 37, Num. 18:27,
          Deut. 28:51, Lam. 2:12, is a general term representing all the
          commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds,
          peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in John

          In Gen. 41:35, 49, Prov. 11:26, Joel 2:24 (“wheat”), the word
          thus translated (bar; i.e., “winnowed”) means corn purified from
          chaff. With this corresponds the use of the word in the New
          Testament (Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17; Acts 7:12). In Ps. 65:13 it
          means “growing corn.”

          In Gen. 42:1, 2, 19, Josh. 9:14, Neh. 10:31 (“victuals”), the
          word (sheber; i.e., “broken,” i.e., grist) denotes generally
          victuals, provisions, and corn as a principal article of food.

          From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from
          Palestine (Ezek. 27:17; Amos 8:5). “Plenty of corn” was a part
          of Issac’s blessing conferred upon Jacob (Gen. 27:28; comp. Ps.

          A centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a
          “devout man,” and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in
          the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him
          into contact with Jews who communicated to him their
          expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to
          welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit
          of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized
          and admitted into the Christian church (Acts 10:1, 44-48). (See

          The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Prov. 7:8).
          “Corners” in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts of the
          promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, the
          “corners of Moab” denotes the whole land of Moab. The “corner of
          a field” (Lev. 19:9; 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not
          to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the
          “corners,” i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers
          running round the ears (Lev. 19:27; 21:5). The “four corners of
          the earth” in Isa. 11:12 and Ezek. 7:2 denotes the whole land.
          The “corners of the streets” mentioned in Matt. 6:5 means the
          angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of
          public resort.

          The corner gate of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 26:9) was on
          the north-west side of the city.

          Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa. 28:16), a block of great importance
          in binding together the sides of a building. The “head of the
          corner” (Ps. 118:22, 23) denotes the coping, the “coign of
          vantage”, i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word “corner
          stone” is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and
          importance (Isa. 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who was set
          in highest honour (Matt. 21:42). He is also styled “the chief
          corner stone” (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-8). When Zechariah (10:4),
          speaking of Judah, says, “Out of him came forth the corner,” he
          is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the
          Messiah as the “corner stone.” (See [129]TEMPLE, SOLOMON’S.)

          Heb. shophar, “brightness,” with reference to the clearness of
          its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It
          is usually rendered in the Authorized Version “trumpet.” It
          denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long.
          The words of Joel, “Blow the trumpet,” literally, “Sound the
          cornet,” refer to the festival which was the preparation for the
          day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so
          rendered is a curved horn. The word “cornet” in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb.
          mena’an’im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument
          played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of
          rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.

          Pens or enclosures for flocks (2 Chr. 32:28, “cotes for flocks;”
          R.V., “flocks in folds”).

          (1.) A booth in a vineyard (Isa. 1:8); a temporary shed covered
          with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the
          garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no
          longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job

          (2.) A lodging-place (rendered “lodge” in Isa. 1:8); a slighter
          structure than the “booth,” as the cucumber patch is more
          temporary than a vineyard (Isa. 24:20). It denotes a frail
          structure of boughs supported on a few poles, which is still in
          use in the East, or a hammock suspended between trees, in which
          the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer.

          (3.) In Zeph. 2:6 it is the rendering of the Hebrew keroth,
          which some suppose to denote rather “pits” (R.V. marg., “caves”)
          or “wells of water,” such as shepherds would sink.

          (Gen. 49:4; 1 Chr. 5:1; Job 7:13; Ps. 6:6, etc.), a seat for
          repose or rest. (See [130]BED.)

          (1 Sam. 13:20, 21), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called
          “ploughshare” (Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10). It was the
          facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.

          Spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor
          of a province (Acts 25:12).

          The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of
          the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the
          “judgment,” perhaps, in Matt. 5:21, 22) in the cities of
          Palestine (Matt. 10:17; Mark 13:9). In the time of Christ the
          functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (John 16:2; 2 Cor.
          11:24). In Ps. 68:27 the word “council” means simply a company
          of persons. (R.V. marg., “company.”)

          In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly
          of pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of
          church affairs. The first of these councils was that of the
          apostles and elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed
          account in Acts 15.

          An adviser (Prov. 11:14; 15:22), a king’s state counsellor (2
          Sam. 15:12). Used once of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6). In Mark 15:43,
          Luke 23:50, the word probably means a member of the Jewish

          When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded,
          among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok
          and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to
          be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests
          into twenty-four courses (1 Chr. 24:1-19), sixteen being of the
          house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was
          under a head or chief, and ministered for a week, the order
          being determined by lot. (2.) The rest of the 38,000 Levites
          (23:4) were divided also into twenty-four courses, each to
          render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in
          twenty-four courses were set apart as singers and musicians
          under separate leaders (25); 4,000 as porters or keepers of the
          doors and gates of the sanctuary (26:1-19); and 6,000 as
          officers and judges to see to the administration of the law in
          all civil and ecclesiastical matters (20-32).

          This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:2);
          and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses which are said to
          have returned from the Captivity were re-divided into the
          original number of twenty-four by Ezra (6:18).

          The enclosure of the tabernacle (Ex. 27:9-19; 40:8), of the
          temple (1 Kings 6:36), of a prison (Neh. 3:25), of a private
          house (2 Sam. 17:18), and of a king’s palace (2 Kings 20:4).

          A contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old
          Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated.
          Berith is derived from a root which means “to cut,” and hence a
          covenant is a “cutting,” with reference to the cutting or
          dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties
          passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18,

          The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke,
          which is, however, rendered “testament” generally in the
          Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the word
          berith of the Old Testament, “covenant.”

          This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and
          man (Gen. 21:32), or between tribes or nations (1 Sam. 11:1;
          Josh. 9:6, 15). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was
          solemnly called on to witness the transaction (Gen. 31:50), and
          hence it was called a “covenant of the Lord” (1 Sam. 20:8). The
          marriage compact is called “the covenant of God” (Prov. 2:17),
          because the marriage was made in God’s name. Wicked men are
          spoken of as acting as if they had made a “covenant with death”
          not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them (Isa.
          28:15, 18).

          (2.) The word is used with reference to God’s revelation of
          himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God’s
          promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant (Gen. 9;
          Jer. 33:20, “my covenant”). We have an account of God’s
          covernant with Abraham (Gen. 17, comp. Lev. 26:42), of the
          covenant of the priesthood (Num. 25:12, 13; Deut. 33:9; Neh.
          13:29), and of the covenant of Sinai (Ex. 34:27, 28; Lev.
          26:15), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the
          history of Israel (Deut. 29; Josh. 1:24; 2 Chr. 15; 23; 29; 34;
          Ezra 10; Neh. 9). In conformity with human custom, God’s
          covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath (Deut. 4:31; Ps.
          89:3), and to be accompanied by a sign (Gen. 9; 17). Hence the
          covenant is called God’s “counsel,” “oath,” “promise” (Ps. 89:3,
          4; 105:8-11; Heb. 6:13-20; Luke 1:68-75). God’s covenant
          consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing (Isa. 59:21; Jer.
          31:33, 34).

          The term covenant is also used to designate the regular
          succession of day and night (Jer. 33:20), the Sabbath (Ex.
          31:16), circumcision (Gen. 17:9, 10), and in general any
          ordinance of God (Jer. 34:13, 14).

          A “covenant of salt” signifies an everlasting covenant, in the
          sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity,
          is used (Num. 18:19; Lev. 2:13; 2 Chr. 13:5).

          COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed
          at his creation. In this covenant, (1.) The contracting parties
          were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral
          agent, and representative of all his natural posterity (Rom.
          5:12-19). (2.) The promise was “life” (Matt. 19:16, 17; Gal.
          3:12). (3.) The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the
          test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the
          “tree of knowledge,” etc. (4.) The penalty was death (Gen. 2:16,

          This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with
          man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life,
          because “life” was the promise attached to obedience; and a
          legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the

          The “tree of life” was the outward sign and seal of that life
          which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually
          called the seal of that covenant.

          This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ
          has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and
          now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in
          force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and
          is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his

          CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into
          by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in
          its several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in
          its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their
          surety (John 17:4, 6, 9; Isa. 42:6; Ps. 89:3).

          The conditions of this covenant were, (1.) On the part of the
          Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the
          accomplishment of his work (Heb. 10:5; Isa. 42:1-7); (b) support
          in the work (Luke 22:43); and (c) a glorious reward in the
          exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phil. 2:6-11), his
          investiture with universal dominion (John 5:22; Ps. 110:1), his
          having the administration of the covenant committed into his
          hands (Matt. 28:18; John 1:12; 17:2; Acts 2:33), and in the
          final salvation of all his people (Isa. 35:10; 53:10, 11; Jer.
          31:33; Titus 1:2). (2.) On the part of the Son the conditions
          were (a) his becoming incarnate (Gal. 4:4, 5); and (b) as the
          second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their
          place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated
          covenant of works; (c) obeying the law (Ps. 40:8; Isa. 42:21;
          John 9:4, 5), and (d) suffering its penalty (Isa. 53; 2 Cor.
          5:21; Gal. 3:13), in their stead.

          Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of
          his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Heb.
          8:6; 9:15; 12:24, this title is given to Christ. (See

   Covering of the eyes
          Occurs only in Gen. 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering
          is “it (i.e., Abimelech’s present of 1,000 pieces of silver to
          Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes.” This has been
          regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom
          of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as
          well as the rest of the face.

          A strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Col.
          3:5; Eph. 5:5; Heb. 13:5; 1 Tim. 6:9, 10; Matt. 6:20). It
          assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is
          the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.

          A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev.
          22:28; Ex. 23:19; Deut. 22:6, 7). The reason for this enactment
          is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words
          of Isa. 7:21-25, where, instead of possessing great resources, a
          man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family
          on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.

          (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7). In both of these passages the Authorized
          Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. “Crane or
          swallow” should be “swallow or crane,” as in the Revised
          Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is
          ‘agur, the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is
          migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being
          hoarse and melancholy.

          “In the beginning” God created, i.e., called into being, all
          things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was
          absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of
          all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation
          is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, 26); (2) to the
          Father (1 Cor. 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, 17);
          (4) to the Holy Spirit (Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30). The
          fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true
          God (Isa. 37:16; 40:12, 13; 54:5; Ps. 96:5; Jer. 10:11, 12). The
          one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of
          the glory of the Creator (Col. 1:16; Rev. 4:11; Rom. 11:36).
          God’s works, equally with God’s word, are a revelation from him;
          and between the teachings of the one and those of the other,
          when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.

          Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found
          among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See [132]ACCAD.)
          A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians,
          the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia.
          These within the last few years have been brought to light in
          the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the
          long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a
          remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.

          Denotes the whole creation in Rom. 8:39; Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13;
          the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Rom. 8:19-22.

          The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, 17, are imaginary beings,
          symbols of the Divine attributes and operations.

          Increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He
          was one of Paul’s assistants (2 Tim. 4:10), probably a Christian
          of Rome.

          Now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the
          Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one
          time a very prosperous and populous island, having a “hundred
          cities.” The character of the people is described in Paul’s
          quotation from “one of their own poets” (Epimenides) in his
          epistle to Titus: “The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts,
          slow bellies” (Titus 1:12). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on
          the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:11). The island was visited by Paul
          on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27). Here Paul subsequently left
          Titus (1:5) “to ordain elders.” Some have supposed that it was
          the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.

          See [133]COLOUR.

          (Isa. 3:22; R.V., “satchel”), some kind of female ornament,
          probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word harit
          properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered
          “bag” in 2 Kings 5:23.

          Curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He
          was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1 Cor.

          In the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence
          used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2;
          1 Cor. 1:17, 18; Gal. 5:11; 6:12, 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is
          also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;
          16:24; Mark 8:34; 10:21).

          The forms in which the cross is represented are these:

          1. The crux simplex (I), a “single piece without transom.”

          2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew’s cross.

          3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony’s cross.

          4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of
          cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord’s head, on the
          projecting beam, was placed the “title.” (See [134]CRUCIFIXION.)

          After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C.
          313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of
          Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a
          flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, “In hoc
          signo vinces”, i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that
          on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him
          to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a
          new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and
          borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman
          army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the
          embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek
          letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and
          Omega. (See [135]A.)

          (1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest’s
          mitre (Ex. 29:6; 39:30). The same Hebrew word so rendered
          (ne’zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2 Sam.
          1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash
          (2 Kings 11:12).

          (2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is ‘atarah,
          meaning a “circlet.” This is used of crowns and head ornaments
          of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown
          taken from the king of Ammon by David (2 Sam. 12:30). The crown
          worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned
          with flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns
          worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem
          surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This
          probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or
          three countries. In Rev. 12:3; 13:1, we read of “many crowns,” a
          token of extended dominion.

          (3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11; 2:17; 6:8) was
          called kether; i.e., “a chaplet,” a high cap or tiara. Crowns
          were worn sometimes to represent honour and power (Ezek. 23:42).
          They were worn at marriages (Cant. 3:11; Isa. 61:10,
          “ornaments;” R.V., “a garland”), and at feasts and public

          The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory
          and reward. The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the
          Olympic games was made of leaves of the wild olive; in the
          Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and
          in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the
          “civic crown” on him who saved the life of a citizen. It was
          made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading
          crowns the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown
          of life (James 1:12; Rev. 2:10) “that fadeth not away” (1 Pet.
          5:4, Gr. amarantinos; comp. 1:4). Probably the word “amaranth”
          was applied to flowers we call “everlasting,” the “immortal

   Crown of thorns
          Our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans (Matt.
          27:29). The object of Pilate’s guard in doing this was probably
          to insult, and not specially to inflict pain. There is nothing
          to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been supposed, the
          spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a wreath.
          It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round
          about Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and round branches
          could easily be platted into the form of a crown. (See
          [136]THORN, 3.)

          A common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early
          times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient
          Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment
          according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Ex. 21),
          strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21).

          This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a
          Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deut.

          This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging.
          In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather
          before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by
          Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring
          his escape from further punishment (Luke 23:22; John 19:1).

          The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of
          execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place
          set apart for the purpose. Before the nailing to the cross took
          place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the
          sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the
          sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be
          clear (Matt. 27:34). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca,
          the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a
          hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity (Matt.
          27:48; Luke 23:36), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst
          (John 19:29). The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord
          are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the
          Roman in such cases. He was crucified between two “malefactors”
          (Isa. 53:12; Luke 23:32), and was watched by a party of four
          soldiers (John 19:23; Matt. 27:36, 54), with their centurion.
          The “breaking of the legs” of the malefactors was intended to
          hasten death, and put them out of misery (John 19:31); but the
          unusual rapidity of our Lord’s death (19:33) was due to his
          previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The omission
          of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type (Ex.
          12:46). He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart,
          and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by
          the soldier’s spear (John 19:34). Our Lord uttered seven
          memorable words from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34; (2)
          23:43; (3) John 19:26; (4) Matt. 27:46, Mark 15:34; (5) John
          19:28; (6) 19:30; (7) Luke 23:46.

          A utensil; a flask or cup for holding water (1 Sam. 26:11, 12,
          16; 1 Kings 19:6) or oil (1 Kings 17:12, 14, 16). In 1 Kings
          14:3 the word there so rendered means properly a bottle, as in
          Jer. 19:1, 10, or pitcher. In 2 Kings 2:20, a platter or flat
          metal saucer is intended. The Hebrew word here used is
          translated “dish” in 21:13; “pans,” in 2 Chr. 35:13; and
          “bosom,” in Prov. 19:24; 26:15 (R.V., “dish”).

          (Ezek. 1:22, with the epithet “terrible,” as dazzling the
          spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Rev. 4:6;
          21:11; 22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined
          kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally
          “ice.” The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water
          congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.

          Heb. ammah; i.e., “mother of the arm,” the fore-arm, is a word
          derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult
          to determine the exact length of this measure, from the
          uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow
          to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the
          root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the
          longer was the original cubit. The common computation as to the
          length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches for the ordinary
          cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the same as
          the Egyptian measurements.

          A rod or staff the measure of a cubit is called in Judg. 3:16
          gomed, which literally means a “cut,” something “cut off.” The
          LXX. and Vulgate render it “span.”

          (Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning “to be lean; slender.” This
          bird is mentioned only in Lev. 11:16 and Deut. 14:15 (R.V.,
          “seamew”). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by “petrel” or
          “shearwater” (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of
          Syria; others think it denotes the “sea-gull” or “seamew.” The
          common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large
          insects. It is found in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. It
          only passes the winter in Palestine. The Arabs suppose it to
          utter the cry Yakub_, and hence they call it _tir el-Yakub;
          i.e., “Jacob’s bird.”

          (Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., “hard,” “difficult” of digestion,
          only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in
          the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in
          earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family
          of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most
          refreshing. “We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites,
          wearily marching through the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic
          peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers and watermelons of
          which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the cruel
          bondage which was the price of these luxuries.” Groser’s
          Scripture Natural History.

          Isaiah speaks of a “lodge” (1:8; Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or
          edifice more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout
          the season from spring to autumn of the watchers in a “garden of

          (Heb. kammon; i.e., a “condiment”), the fruit or seed of an
          umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively
          cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25,
          27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, where
          our Lord pronounces a “woe” on the scribes and Pharisees, who
          were zealous in paying tithes of “mint and anise and cummin,”
          while they omitted the weightier matters of the law.” “It is
          used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread, and also
          boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an
          Oriental banquet.” Tristram, Natural History.

          A wine-cup (Gen. 40:11, 21), various forms of which are found on
          Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon’s drinking vessels
          were of gold (1 Kings 10: 21). The cups mentioned in the New
          Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were
          sometimes of gold (Rev. 17:4).

          The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt
          (Gen. 44:2-17), and in the East generally.

          The “cup of salvation” (Ps. 116:13) is the cup of thanksgiving
          for the great salvation. The “cup of consolation” (Jer. 16:7)
          refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to
          console relatives in mourning (Prov. 31:6). In 1 Cor. 10:16, the
          “cup of blessing” is contrasted with the “cup of devils” (1 Cor.
          10:21). The sacramental cup is the “cup of blessing,” because of
          blessing pronounced over it (Matt. 26:27; Luke 22:17). The
          “portion of the cup” (Ps. 11:6; 16:5) denotes one’s condition of
          life, prosperous or adverse. A “cup” is also a type of sensual
          allurement (Jer. 51:7; Prov. 23:31; Rev. 17:4). We read also of
          the “cup of astonishment,” the “cup of trembling,” and the “cup
          of God’s wrath” (Ps. 75:8; Isa. 51:17; Jer. 25:15; Lam. 4:21;
          Ezek. 23:32; Rev. 16:19; comp. Matt. 26:39, 42; John 18:11). The
          cup is also the symbol of death (Matt. 16:28; Mark 9:1; Heb.

          An officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and
          Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is
          mentioned in connection with Joseph’s history (Gen. 40:1-21;
          41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2
          Kings 18:17). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia
          (Neh. 1:11). We read also of Solomon’s cup-bearers (1 Kings
          10:5; 2 Chr. 9:4).

   Curious arts
          (Acts 19:19), magical arts; jugglery practised by the Ephesian
          conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the “Ephesian
          spells;” i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with
          certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all
          manner of evils. The more important and powerful of these charms
          were written out in books which circulated among the exorcists,
          and were sold at a great price.

          Denounced by God against the serpent (Gen. 3:14), and against
          Cain (4:11). These divine maledictions carried their effect with
          them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men
          (Gen. 9:25; 49:7; Deut. 27:15; Josh. 6:26). Such curses are not
          the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.

          No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Ex.
          21:17), nor the prince of his people (22:28), nor the deaf (Lev.
          19:14). Cursing God or blaspheming was punishable by death (Lev.
          24:10-16). The words “curse God and die” (R.V., “renounce God
          and die”), used by Job’s wife (Job 2:9), have been variously
          interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death
          was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and
          destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.

          (1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide,
          made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat’s hair, covered the
          tabernacle (Ex. 26:1-13; 36:8-17).

          (2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the
          sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh).
          It is described as a “veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and
          fine twined linen of cunning work” (Ex. 26:31; Lev. 16:2; Num.

          (3.) “Stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain” (Isa. 40:22), is
          an expression used with reference to the veil or awning which
          Orientals spread for a screen over their courts in summer.
          According to the prophet, the heavens are spread over our heads
          as such an awning. Similar expressions are found in Ps. 104:2l;
          comp. Isa. 44:24; Job 9:8.

          Black. (1.) A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father
          of Nimrod (Gen. 10:8; 1 Chr. 1:10). From him the land of Cush
          seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise
          locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little
          controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole
          land of Cush (Gen. 2:13, R.V.). The term Cush is in the Old
          Testament generally applied to the countries south of the
          Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezek. 29:10,
          A.V. “Ethiopia,” Heb. Cush), with which it is generally
          associated (Ps. 68:31; Isa. 18:1; Jer. 46:9, etc.). It stands
          also associated with Elam (Isa. 11:11), with Persia (Ezek.
          38:5), and with the Sabeans (Isa. 45:14). From these facts it
          has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on
          the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the
          country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower
          Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion
          that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by
          the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks (29:10; comp. 30:4-6) of
          it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us
          as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isa. 18:1; Zeph. 3:10, Heb. Cush). In
          ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh. The
          Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts,
          stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At
          an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites
          “from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia,
          and Persia, to Western India.” The Hamite races, soon after
          their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west.
          Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from
          Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian
          Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the
          mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards
          as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates
          and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and
          islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the
          Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the
          Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the
          Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and
          founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and
          so forming the Chaldean nation.

          (2.) A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Ps.
          7. “Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe,
          and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of
          ‘rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'”

          Probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush, the
          Arabian Cush (Hab. 3:7). Some have, however, supposed this to be
          the same as Chushan-rishathaim (Judg. 3:8, 10), i.e., taking the
          latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan
          “of the two iniquities” (= oppressing Israel, and provoking them
          to idolatry), a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with
          Asshur-ris-ilim (the father of Tiglathpileser I.); but
          incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not yet founded. He
          held Israel in bondage for eight years.

          (1.) The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory
          over Absalom (2 Sam. 18:32).

          (2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:14).

          (3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1).

          (4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this
          circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and
          hence that Midian was Cush.

          A tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed
          publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities,
          and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that
          purpose, called the “receipt of custom” (Matt. 9: 9; Mark 2:14),
          where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain
          goods (Matt. 17:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more
          from the people than was lawful, and were, in consequence of
          their extortions, objects of great hatred. The Pharisees would
          have no intercourse with them (Matt. 5:46, 47; 9:10, 11).

          A tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by
          every adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin
          (Matt. 22:17-19; Mark 12:14, 15). Money-changers (q.v.) were
          necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the
          feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as
          it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for
          emolument (Deut. 23:19, 20), our Lord drove them from the temple
          (Matt. 21:12: Mark 11:15).

          One of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser
          transplanted certain colonists to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24). Some
          have conjectured that the “Cutheans” were identical with the
          “Cossaeans” who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the
          river Choaspes. Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15
          miles north-east of Babylon.

          The flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of
          idol-worship (Deut. 14:1; 1 Kings 18:28). The Israelites were
          commanded not to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28; 21:5; Deut.
          14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit
          in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection
          (Jer. 16:6; 41:5; 48:37).

          Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16; 17:5; 19:20) to the
          practice of printing marks on the body, to indicate allegiance
          to a deity. We find also references to it, through in a
          different direction, by Paul (Gal. 6; 7) and by Ezekiel (9:4).
          (See [137]HAIR.)

          (Heb. tzeltzelim, from a root meaning to “tinkle”), musical
          instruments, consisting of two convex pieces of brass one held
          in each hand, which were clashed together to produce a loud
          clanging sound; castanets; “loud cymbals.” “Highsounding
          cymbals” consisted of two larger plates, one held also in each
          hand (2 Sam. 6:5; Ps. 150:5; 1 Chr. 13:8; 15:16, 19, 28; 1 Cor.

          (Heb. tirzah, “hardness”), mentioned only in Isa. 44:14 (R.V.,
          “holm tree”). The oldest Latin version translates this word by
          ilex, i.e., the evergreen oak, which may possibly have been the
          tree intended; but there is great probability that our
          Authorized Version is correct in rendering it “cypress.” This
          tree grows abundantly on the mountains of Hermon. Its wood is
          hard and fragrant, and very durable. Its foliage is dark and
          gloomy. It is an evergreen (Cupressus sempervirens). “Throughout
          the East it is used as a funereal tree; and its dark, tall,
          waving plumes render it peculiarly appropriate among the tombs.”

          One of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles
          long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian
          coast. It was the “Chittim” of the Old Testament (Num. 24:24).
          The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus,
          i.e., the henna (see [138]CAMPHIRE), which grew on this island.
          It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477 it fell
          under the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman province
          B.C. 58. In ancient times it was a centre of great commercial
          activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced here in the
          greatest perfection. It was rich also in timber and in mineral

          It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36) as the
          native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul’s first
          missionary labours (13:4-13), when he and Barnabas and John Mark
          were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards
          visited by Barnabas and Mark alone (15:39). Mnason, an “old
          disciple,” probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost
          belonging to this island, is mentioned (21:16). It is also
          mentioned in connection with the voyages of Paul (Acts 21:3;
          27:4). After being under the Turks for three hundred years, it
          was given up to the British Government in 1878.

          A city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya, North Africa, founded by a
          colony of Greeks (B.C. 630). It contained latterly a large
          number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy,
          the son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to
          the security of the place. They increased in number and
          influence; and we are thus prepared for the frequent references
          to them in connection with the early history of Christianity.
          Simon, who bore our Lord’s cross, was a native of this place
          (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21). Jews from Cyrene were in Jerusalem at
          Pentecost (Acts 2:10); and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at
          Jerusalem (6:9). Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the
          formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch (11:20). Among
          “the prophets and teachers” who “ministered to the Lord at
          Antioch” was Lucius of Cyrene (13:1).

          The Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius
          Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved
          that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to
          Syria at the time of our Lord’s birth. Cilicia, which he ruled,
          being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he
          was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was
          appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his
          tenure of office, at the time of our Lord’s birth (Luke 2:2), a
          “taxing” (R.V., “enrolment;” i.e., a registration) of the people
          was “first made;” i.e., was made for the first time under his
          government. (See [139]TAXING.)

          (Heb. Ko’resh), the celebrated “King of Persia” (Elam) who was
          conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the
          Jews (Ezra 1:1, 2). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of
          Persia, and was born about B.C. 599. In the year B.C. 559 he
          became king of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it
          partly by conquest. Cyrus was a great military leader, bent on
          universal conquest. Babylon fell before his army (B.C. 538) on
          the night of Belshazzar’s feast (Dan. 5:30), and then the
          ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire (cf.,
          “Go up, O Elam”, Isa. 21:2).

          Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the
          Jews. Cyrus was to them as a “shepherd” (Isa. 44:28; 45:1). God
          employed him in doing service to his ancient people. He may
          posibly have gained, through contact with the Jews, some
          knowledge of their religion.

          The “first year of Cyrus” (Ezra 1:1) is not the year of his
          elevation to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor
          the year of the fall of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two
          years during which “Darius the Mede” was viceroy in Babylon
          after its fall. At this time only (B.C. 536) Cyrus became actual
          king over Palestine, which became a part of his Babylonian
          empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem
          marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people (2 Chr.
          36:22, 23; Ezra 1:1-4; 4:3; 5:13-17; 6:3-5).

          This decree was discovered “at Achmetha [R.V. marg.,
          “Ecbatana”], in the palace that is in the province of the Medes”
          (Ezra 6:2). A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of
          Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of Nabonidus
          (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of the
          Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern
          Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the
          north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at
          Opis, and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the
          conqueror. Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then
          sent to Babylon, which surrendered “without fighting,” and the
          daily services in the temples continued without a break. In
          October, Cyrus himself arrived, and proclaimed a general
          amnesty, which was communicated by Gobryas to “all the province
          of Babylon,” of which he had been made governor. Meanwhile,
          Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was captured, but treated
          honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses, the son of Cyrus,
          conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title of “king of
          Babylon,” claimed to be the descendant of the ancient kings, and
          made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed
          the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to
          return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of
          their gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they
          had no images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.