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Easton's Bible Dictionary (I)

Ibhar
Chosen, one of David’s sons (1 Chr. 3:6; 2 Sam. 5:15).

Ibleam
People-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from
which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites
(Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70). It was
probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of
Jenin.

Ibzan
Illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:8-10). He ruled
seven years.

Ice
Frequently mentioned (Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps. 147:17, etc.). (See
[290]CRYSTAL.)

Ichabod
When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in
the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried
to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas “was near to be delivered. And
when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and
that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed
herself and travailed” (1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress
she regarded not “the women that stood by her,” but named the
child that was born “Ichabod” i.e., no glory, saying, “The glory
is departed from Isreal;” and with that word on her lips she
expired.

Iconium
The capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul
and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle’s first
missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted
by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to
Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the
church which had been founded there (14:21, 22). It was probably
again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along
with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of
Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.

Idalah
Snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15).
It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of
Kishon.

Iddo
(1.) Timely (1 Chr. 6:21). A Gershonite Levite.

(2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1 Chr. 27:21), the ruler of
Manasseh in David’s time.

(3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon’s
purveyors (1 Kings 4:14).

(4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of
Rehoboam and Abijah (2 Chr. 12:15). He has been identified with
Oded (2 Chr. 15:1).

(5.) Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the
prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, 7). He returned from Babylon (Neh.
12:4).

Idol
(1.) Heb. aven, “nothingness;” “vanity” (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut.
32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).

(2.) Elil, “a thing of naught” (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word of
contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).

(3.) Emah, “terror,” in allusion to the hideous form of idols
(Jer. 50:38).

(4.) Miphletzeth, “a fright;” “horror” (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr.
15:16).

(5.) Bosheth, “shame;” “shameful thing” (Jer. 11:13; Hos. 9:10);
as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.

(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, “dung;” “refuse” (Ezek.
16:36; 20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).

(7.) Shikkuts, “filth;” “impurity” (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).

(8.) Semel, “likeness;” “a carved image” (Deut. 4:16).

(9.) Tselem, “a shadow” (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as distinguished
from the “likeness,” or the exact counterpart.

(10.) Temunah, “similitude” (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses forbids
the several forms of Gentile idolatry.

(11.) Atsab, “a figure;” from the root “to fashion,” “to
labour;” denoting that idols are the result of man’s labour
(Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, “wicked way;” literally, as some
translate, “way of an idol”).

(12.) Tsir, “a form;” “shape” (Isa. 45:16).

(13.) Matztzebah, a “statue” set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial
stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20),
by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name
given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).

(14.) Hammanim, “sun-images.” Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the
sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).

(15.) Maskith, “device” (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1,
the words “image of stone” (A.V.) denote “a stone or cippus with
the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc.” In Ezek. 8:12,
“chambers of imagery” (maskith), are “chambers of which the
walls are painted with the figures of idols;” comp. ver. 10, 11.

(16.) Pesel, “a graven” or “carved image” (Isa. 44:10-20). It
denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa.
40:19; 44:10).

(17.) Massekah, “a molten image” (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).

(18.) Teraphim, pl., “images,” family gods (penates) worshipped
by Abram’s kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in David’s bed
(Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).

“Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this
multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments
and inventions of idolatry.”

Idolatry
Image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul
describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook
God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).

The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of
trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.

(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as
the supposed powers of nature.

(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of
heroes.

In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and as
being imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen
nations. The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of
Rachel stealing her father’s teraphim (Gen. 31:19), which were
the relics of the worship of other gods by Laban’s progenitors
“on the other side of the river in old time” (Josh. 24:2).
During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into
idolatry, and it was long before they were delivered from it
(Josh. 24:14; Ezek. 20:7). Many a token of God’s displeasure
fell upon them because of this sin.

The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from among
the people during the forty years’ wanderings; but when the Jews
entered Palestine, they came into contact with the monuments and
associations of the idolatry of the old Canaanitish races, and
showed a constant tendency to depart from the living God and
follow the idolatrous practices of those heathen nations. It was
their great national sin, which was only effectually rebuked by
the Babylonian exile. That exile finally purified the Jews of
all idolatrous tendencies.

The first and second commandments are directed against idolatry
of every form. Individuals and communities were equally amenable
to the rigorous code. The individual offender was devoted to
destruction (Ex. 22:20). His nearest relatives were not only
bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment (Deut.
13:20-10), but their hands were to strike the first blow when,
on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned (Deut.
17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was a
crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared
the same fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old
Testament than that the extermination of the Canaanites was the
punishment of their idolatry (Ex. 34:15, 16; Deut. 7; 12:29-31;
20:17), and that the calamities of the Israelites were due to
the same cause (Jer. 2:17). “A city guilty of idolatry was
looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered to be in
rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its
inhabitants and all their cattle were put to death.” Jehovah was
the theocratic King of Israel, the civil Head of the
commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite idolatry was a state
offence (1 Sam. 15:23), high treason. On taking possession of
the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every
kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:24, 32;
34:13; Deut. 7:5, 25; 12:1-3).

In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate
covetousness (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5).

Idumaea
The Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in
R.V. “Edom”). (See [291]EDOM).

Igal
Avengers. (1.) Num. 13:7, one of the spies of the tribe of
Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David’s
warriors (2 Sam. 23:36). (3.) 1 Chr. 3:22.

Iim
Ruins. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29).

(2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
(Num. 33:45).

Ije-abarim
Ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in
the wilderness, “in the border of Moab” (Num. 33:44).

Ijon
A ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at
the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards by
Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of
Pekah; now el-Khiam.

Ilai
An Ahohite, one of David’s chief warriors (1 Chr. 11:29); called
also Zalmon (2 Sam. 23:28).

Illyricum
A country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores
of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a
name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2 Tim.
4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey
(Rom. 15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in
preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is
in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch as the apostle’s journey
over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the borders of
Illyricum.

Imagery
Only in the phrase “chambers of his imagery” (Ezek. 8:12). (See
[292]CHAMBER.)

Imla
Replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7, 8).

Immanuel
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14
and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words
as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an
interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew
(1:23).

Immer
Talkative. (1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr.
24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra
2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29).

Immortality
Perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught
in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of
Moses (Gen. 5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp. Heb.
11:13-16; Ex. 3:6, comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and
fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Ps. 17:15; 49:15;
73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.

With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was
“brought to light” (2 Tim. 1:10; 1 Cor. 15; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; 1
Thess. 4:13-18).

Imputation
Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to
a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is
imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs,
and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the
righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him,
or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3)
our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our
“law-place,” undertook to answer the demands of justice for our
sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same
(Rom. 5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).

Incarnation
That act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into
union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and
man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he
of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united
to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb.
2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is
hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed
or confounded, and it is perpetual.

Incense
A fragrant composition prepared by the “art of the apothecary.”
It consisted of four ingredients “beaten small” (Ex. 30:34-36).
That which was not thus prepared was called “strange incense”
(30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and
besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place,
and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest
in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer
(Ps. 141:1, 2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).

India
Occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the
dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so
designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the
country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the
products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have
carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, 24).

Inkhorn
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup
for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the
girdle (Ezek. 9:2, 3, 11). The word “inkhorn” was used by the
translators, because in former times in this country horns were
used for containing ink.

Inn
In the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or
caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not
alluded to in the Old Testament. The “inn” mentioned in Ex. 4:24
was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans
were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7
the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the
beasts of their burdens. It is rendered “guest-chamber” in Mark
14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so rendered is
different. That inn had an “inn-keeper,” who attended to the
wants of travellers.

Inspiration
That extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed
to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings
infallible. “All scripture is given by inspiration of God”
(R.V., “Every scripture inspired of God”), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is
true of all the “sacred writings,” not in the sense of their
being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as
“theopneustic,” i.e., “breathed into by God” in such a sense
that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly
what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind
and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves
abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible
as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary
inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible
as it came from God, none have been proved to exist.
Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All
these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do
not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God.
The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God,
for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the
very manner and words in which it was originally given.

As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This
only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all
equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The
inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their
characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as
thinkers or writers. (See [293]BIBLE; WORD OF [294]GOD.)

Intercession of Christ
Christ’s priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.

When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12, 24).

His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be “touched with the
feeling of our infirmities,” and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have “access” to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). “The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest” (Ps. 110:4;
Rev. 7:17).

Intercession of the Spirit
(Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). “Christ is a royal Priest (Zech.
6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to
all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for
them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They
both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as
his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate
in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting
covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts,
enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires
‘according to the will of God,’ as our advocate within us. The
work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and
together they form a complete whole.”, Hodge’s Outlines of
Theology.

Iphedeiah
Set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr.
8:25).

Ira
Citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David’s thirty warriors
(2 Sam. 23:26).

(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David’s heroes (2 Sam. 23:38).

(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or
confidential adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).

Irad
Runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father
of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain.

Iram
Citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43).

Irha-heres
According to some MSS., meaning “city of destruction.” Other
MSS. read ‘Irhahares; rendered “city of the sun”, Isa. 19:18,
where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to
Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews
would so increase in number there as that the city would fall
under their influence. This might be in the time of the
Ptolemies. (See [295]ON.)

Iron
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22).
The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David
prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr. 22:3:
29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market
of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made
of iron (Deut. 27:5; 19:5; Josh. 17:16, 18; 1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam.
12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr. 22:3; Isa. 10:34).

Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deut. 28:48) denotes hard service;
a rod of iron (Ps. 2:9), a stern government; a pillar of iron
(Jer. 1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deut. 4:20),
severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength; fetters of
iron (Ps. 107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isa.
60:17), prosperity.

Irrigation
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up
in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in
numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the
foot (Deut. 11:10).

For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or
pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the
banks of the Nile to the present day.

Isaac
Laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos
7:9, 16).

(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest lived
of the three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1-3). He was circumcised when
eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years old a
great feast was held in connection with his being weaned.

The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the
command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a sacrifice
on a mountain in the land of Moriah (Gen. 22). (See
[296]ABRAHAM.) When he was forty years of age Rebekah was chosen
for his wife (Gen. 24). After the death and burial of his father
he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11), where his
two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the former of whom
seems to have been his favourite son (27, 28).

In consequence of a famine (Gen. 26:1) Isaac went to Gerar,
where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah,
imitating the conduct of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in
Gerar (20:2). The Philistine king rebuked him for his
prevarication.

After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines,
he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of
covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant
of peace with him.

The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons
(Gen. 27:1). He died at Mamre, “being old and full of days”
(35:27-29), one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in
the cave of Machpelah.

In the New Testament reference is made to his having been
“offered up” by his father (Heb. 11:17; James 2:21), and to his
blessing his sons (Heb. 11:20). As the child of promise, he is
contrasted with Ishmael (Rom. 9:7, 10; Gal. 4:28; Heb. 11:18).

Isaac is “at once a counterpart of his father in simple
devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive
weakness of character, which in part, at least, may have sprung
from his relations to his mother and wife. After the expulsion
of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in
the shade of Sarah’s tent, moulded into feminine softness by
habitual submission to her strong, loving will.” His life was so
quiet and uneventful that it was spent “within the circle of a
few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather
than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother’s death
was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that
peace with his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted
possession as a well of living water dug by his own men; so
grandly obedient that he put his life at his father’s disposal;
so firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through
life was to honour the divine promise given to his race.”,
Geikie’s Hours, etc.

Isaiah
(Heb. Yesh’yahu, i.e., “the salvation of Jehovah”). (1.) The son
of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble
rank. His wife was called “the prophetess” (8:3), either because
she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg.
4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was
the wife of “the prophet” (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore
symbolical names.

He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of
Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah
reigned fifty-two years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have
begun his career a few years before Uzziah’s death, probably
B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in
all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C. 698), and
may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus
Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least
sixty-four years.

His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A
second call came to him “in the year that King Uzziah died”
(Isa. 6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of
uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore
on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps
nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his
spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward “the holy
One of Israel.”

In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of
Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19; and
again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his
office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of
conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to
co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to
the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by
Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr.
28:5, 6). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the
aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence
was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people
carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16:9; 1 Chr. 5:26).
Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the
kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C. 722).
So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by
the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah
(B.C. 726), who “rebelled against the king of Assyria” (2 Kings
18:7), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the
people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isa. 10:24;
37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa.
30:2-4). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of
Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C. 701)
led a powerful army into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to
despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But
after a brief interval war broke out again, and again
Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of
which threatened Jerusalem (Isa. 36:2-22; 37:8). Isaiah on that
occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7),
whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah,
which he “spread before the Lord” (37:14). The judgement of God
now fell on the Assyrian host. “Like Xerxes in Greece,
Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in
Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern
Palestine or Egypt.” The remaining years of Hezekiah’s reign
were peaceful (2 Chr. 32:23, 27-29). Isaiah probably lived to
its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time
and manner of his death are unknown. There is a tradition that
he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of
Manasseh (q.v.).

(2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1
Chr. 25:3, 15, “Jeshaiah”).

(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 26:25). (4.) Ezra 8:7. (5.) Neh. 11:7.

Isaiah, The Book of
Consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah
(1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half
of Hezekiah’s reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of
Hezekiah’s reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year
before Uzziah’s death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah
(B.C. 698), Isaiah’s ministry extended over a period of
sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and
may have perished in the way indicated above.

The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts:
(1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic,
Israel’s enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler
and King. (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to
the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel’s enemy
Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and
lowly.

The genuineness of the section Isa. 40-66 has been keenly
opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the
production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of
the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a
German writer at the close of the last century. There are other
portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain
verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other
prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or
even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this
book. The considerations which have led to such a result are
various: (1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible
that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance
and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the
Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after.
(2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the
Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present;
and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and
language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the
preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and
lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But
even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and
language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to
be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the
peculiarities of the prophet’s position at the time the
prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this.

The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite
conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the
entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of
Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time
of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have
it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the
New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke 3:4-6;
4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and
persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.

Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the
language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical
ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local
colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian
origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book,
much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The
book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we
believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it
bears.

Iscah
Spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen.
11:29, 31).

Iscariot
(See [297]JUDAS.)

Ishbak
Leaving, one of Abraham’s sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).

Ishbi-benob
My seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three
hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam.
21:16, 17).

Ish-bosheth
Man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul’s four sons,
and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was
originally Eshbaal (1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). He was about forty years
of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of
Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul’s cousin, he was
acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over
all Israel, except the tribe of Judah (over whom David was
king), for two years, having Mahanaim, on the east of Jordan, as
his capital (2 Sam. 2:9). After a troubled and uncertain reign
he was murdered by his guard, who stabbed him while he was
asleep on his couch at mid-day (2 Sam. 4:5-7); and having cut
off his head, presented it to David, who sternly rebuked them
for this cold-blooded murder, and ordered them to be immediately
executed (9-12).

Ishi
My husband, a symbolical name used in Hos. 2:16 (See
[298]BAALI.)

Ishmael
God hears. (1.) Abraham’s eldest son, by Hagar the concubine
(Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was
eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in
Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised
(17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and
wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and
wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery
(21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, “Expel
this slave and her son.” Influenced by a divine admonition,
Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of
water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one
of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life
(Gen. 21:14-16). (See [299]HAGAR.)

Ishmael settled in the land of Paran, a region lying between
Canaan and the mountains of Sinai; and “God was with him, and he
became a great archer” (Gen. 21:9-21). He became a great desert
chief, but of his history little is recorded. He was about
ninety years of age when his father Abraham died, in connection
with whose burial he once more for a moment reappears. On this
occasion the two brothers met after being long separated. “Isaac
with his hundreds of household slaves, Ishmael with his troops
of wild retainers and half-savage allies, in all the state of a
Bedouin prince, gathered before the cave of Machpelah, in the
midst of the men of Heth, to pay the last duties to the father
of the faithful,’ would make a notable subject for an artist”
(Gen. 25:9). Of the after events of his life but little is
known. He died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years,
but where and when are unknown (25:17). He had twelve sons, who
became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the
Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern
Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Gen. 37:25, 27, 28;
39:1), “their hand against every man, and every man’s hand
against them.”

(2.) The son of Nethaniah, “of the seed royal” (Jer. 40:8, 15).
He plotted against Gedaliah, and treacherously put him and
others to death. He carried off many captives, “and departed to
go over to the Ammonites.”

Ishmaiah
Heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag,
“a hero among the thirty and over the thirty” (1 Chr. 12:4).

(2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:19).

Ishmeelites
(Gen. 37:28; 39:1, A.V.) should be “Ishmaelites,” as in the
Revised Version.

Ishtob
Man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together
constituted Aram (2 Sam. 10:6, 8).

Island
(Heb. i, “dry land,” as opposed to water) occurs in its usual
signification (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more
frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa.
20:6, R.V.,” coastland;” 23:2, 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, 7).
(See [300]CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called
the “islands of the sea” (Isa. 11:11), or the “isles of the
Gentiles” (Gen. 10:5), and sometimes simply “isles” (Ps. 72:10);
Ezek. 26:15, 18; 27:3, 35; Dan. 11:18).

Israel
The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at
Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because “as a prince he had power with God
and prevailed.” (See [301]JACOB.) This is the common name given
to Jacob’s descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes
are called “Israelites,” the “children of Israel” (Josh. 3:17;
7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the “house of Israel” (Ex.
16:31; 40:38).

This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true
Israel (Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26).

After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves
this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17,
28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were
called “kings of Israel,” while the kings of the two tribes were
called “kings of Judah.”

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the
entire nation.

Israel, Kingdom of
(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah’s
prophecy (1 Kings 11:31-35) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was
rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was
scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between
Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent
for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 3). Rehoboam insolently
refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which
his father had imposed on his subjects (12:4), and the rebellion
became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry,
“Every man to his tents, O Israel” (2 Sam. 20:1). Rehoboam fled
to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was
proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin
remaining faithful to Solomon’s son. War, with varying success,
was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years,
till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of
Ahab.

Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of
Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of
the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. The
kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9,375 square miles. Shechem
was the first capital of this kingdom (1 Kings 12:25),
afterwards Tirza (14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the
capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of
the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5). During the siege of
Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians,
Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus
records the capture of that city: “Samaria I looked at, I
captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away” (2 Kings
17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and
fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end.
They were scattered throughout the East. (See [302]CAPTIVITY.)

“Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and
twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the
dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the
whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped
into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries
naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race.
And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the
exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that
immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine.”

After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was
colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria
sent thither (Ezra 4:2, 10; 2 Kings 17:24-29). (See [303]KINGS.)

In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel. (1.)
“There was no fixed capital and no religious centre. (2.) The
army was often insubordinate. (3.) The succession was constantly
interrupted, so that out of nineteen kings there were no less
than nine dynasties, each ushered in by a revolution. (4.) The
authorized priests left the kingdom in a body, and the
priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no
promise; it was corrupt at its very source.” (Maclean’s O. T.
Hist.)

Issachar
Hired (Gen. 30:18). “God hath given me,” said Leah, “my hire
(Heb. sekhari)…and she called his name Issachar.” He was
Jacob’s ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (comp. 28:2). He
had four sons at the going down into Egypt (46:13; Num. 26:23,
25).

Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness,
along with Judah and Zebulun (Num. 2:5), marched on the east of
the tabernacle. This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when
the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance into the
Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on
Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and cursing (Deut.
27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Josh.
19:17-23. It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which
was and still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deut. 33:18,
19; 1 Chr. 12:40).

The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar
corresponds with that of Moses (Gen. 49:14, 15; comp. Deut.
33:18, 19).

Italian band
The name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts
10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited
in Italy.

Italy
Acts 18:2; 27:1, 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names,
was differently used at different periods of history. As the
power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and
added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the
south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between
Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.

Ithamar
Palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:3). He
was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Ex.
6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar
alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, 12;
Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common
priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the
person of Eli (1 Kings 2:27), the reasons for which are not
recorded. (See [304]ZADOK.)

Ithrite
Two of David’s warriors so designated (2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chr.
11:40).

Ittai
Near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of
David’s thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:29).

(2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the
command of the six hundred heroes who formed David’s band during
his wanderings (2 Sam. 15:19-22; comp. 1 Sam. 23:13; 27:2; 30:9,
10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the
army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12). He
then passes from view.

Ituraea
A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with
the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip
(Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of
Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south
by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the
plain of Damascus.

Ivah
Overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were
brought to Samaria (2 Kings 18:34; 19:13). It lay on the
Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some
to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15).

Ivory
(Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the “tusks of elephants”) was early used
in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was
carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was
used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches
of their galleys, and Hiram’s skilled workmen made Solomon’s
throne of ivory (1 Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans
of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and from the East Indies by the navy of
Tarshish (1 Kings 10:22). Many specimens of ancient Egyptian and
Assyrian ivory-work have been preserved. The word habbim is
derived from the Sanscrit ibhas, meaning “elephant,” preceded by
the Hebrew article (ha); and hence it is argued that Ophir, from
which it and the other articles mentioned in 1 Kings 10:22 were
brought, was in India.

Izhar
Oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi (Ex. 6:18,
21; Num. 16:1).

Izrahite
The designation of one of David’s officers (1 Chr. 27:8).