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Easton's Bible Dictionary (J)

          He twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite
          (1 Chr. 1:42).

          Heel-catcher, a form of the name Jacob, one of the descendants
          of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36).

          A wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned
          from the Captivity (Neh. 7:58).

          Concealer, the second of Esau’s three sons by Aholibamah (Gen.
          36:5, 14).

          Mourner, one of the chief Gadites (1 Chr. 5:12).

          Forests of the weavers, a Bethlehemite (2 Sam. 21:19), and the
          father of Elhanan, who slew Goliath. In 1 Chr. 20:5 called JAIR.

          Fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after
          the Return (Ezra 10:37).

          Made by God, one of David’s body-guard, the son of Abner (1 Chr.
          27:21), called Jasiel in 1 Chr. 11:47.

          Heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief
          Rechabites (Jer. 35:3).

          (2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11).

          (3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by Ezekiel
          (11:1) at the east gate of the temple.

          (4.) A Maachathite (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8; 42:1). He is also
          called Azariah (Jer. 43:2).

          He (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan,
          and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad (Num.
          32:1, 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites
          (21:39). In David’s time it was occupied by the Hebronites,
          i.e., the descendants of Kohath (1 Chr. 26:31). It is mentioned
          in the “burdens” proclaimed over Moab (Isa. 16:8, 9; Jer.
          48:32). Its site is marked by the modern ruin called Sar or
          Seir, about 10 miles west of Amman, and 12 from Heshbon. “The
          vineyards that once covered the hill-sides are gone; and the
          wild Bedawin from the eastern desert make cultivation of any
          kind impossible.”

          Comforted by Jehovah, a descendant of Merari the Levite (1 Chr.
          24:26, 27).

          Comforted by God, a Levitical musician (1 Chr. 15:18).

          A stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; “the
          father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle” (Gen. 4:20).
          This description indicates that he led a wandering life.

          A pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of
          Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of
          Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of
          Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of
          Gilead, and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep
          ravine. It was the boundary between the territory of the
          Ammonites and that of Og, king of Bashan (Josh. 12:1-5; Num.
          21:24); also between the tribe of Reuben and the half tribe of
          Manasseh (21:24; Deut. 3:16). In its course westward across the
          plains it passes more than once underground. “The scenery along
          its banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the
          ruins of town and village and fortress which stud the
          surrounding mountain-side render the country as interesting as
          it is beautiful.” This river is now called the Zerka, or blue

          Dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1 Sam. 11:3, 9, 10).

          (2.) The father of Shallum (2 Kings 15:10, 13, 14), who usurped
          the throne of Israel on the death of Zachariah.

          A town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green
          hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of
          Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned
          in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants
          because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with
          Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8-14). After the
          battles at Gibeah, that tribe was almost extinguished, only six
          hundred men remaining. An expedition went against Jabesh-Gilead,
          the whole of whose inhabitants were put to the sword, except
          four hundred maidens, whom they brought as prisoners and sent to
          “proclaim peace” to the Benjamites who had fled to the crag
          Rimmon. These captives were given to them as wives, that the
          tribe might be saved from extinction (Judg. 21).

          This city was afterwards taken by Nahash, king of the Ammonites,
          but was delivered by Saul, the newly-elected king of Israel. In
          gratitude for this deliverance, forty years after this, the men
          of Jabesh-Gilead took down the bodies of Saul and of his three
          sons from the walls of Beth-shan, and after burning them, buried
          the bones under a tree near the city (1 Sam. 31:11-13). David
          thanked them for this act of piety (2 Sam. 2:4-6), and
          afterwards transferred the remains to the royal sepulchre
          (21:14). It is identified with the ruins of ed-Deir, about 6
          miles south of Pella, on the north of the Wady Yabis.

          Affiction. (1.) A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded
          that “God granted him that which he requested” (1 Chr. 4:9, 10).

          (2.) A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1
          Chr. 2:55).

          Discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the
          entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1-14), whose overthrow
          and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a
          confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest
          of the land (11:21-23; comp. 14:6-15). This great battle, fought
          at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua’s battles of which we have
          any record. Here for the first time the Israelites encountered
          the iron chariots and horses of the Canaanites.

          (2.) Another king of Hazor, called “the king of Canaan,” who
          overpowered the Israelites of the north one hundred and sixty
          years after Joshua’s death, and for twenty years held them in
          painful subjection. The whole population were paralyzed with
          fear, and gave way to hopeless despondency (Judg. 5:6-11), till
          Deborah and Barak aroused the national spirit, and gathering
          together ten thousand men, gained a great and decisive victory
          over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon (Judg. 4:10-16; comp. Ps.
          83:9). This was the first great victory Israel had gained since
          the days of Joshua. They never needed to fight another battle
          with the Canaanites (Judg. 5:31).

          Built by God. (1.) A town in the north boundary of Judah (Josh.
          15:11), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern
          Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem
          (A.D. 70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea,
          and the seat of a celebrated school.

          (2.) A town on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). Its later
          name was Kefr Yemmah, “the village by the sea,” on the south
          shore of Lake Merom.

          Building, (2 Chr. 26:6), identical with Jabneel (Josh. 15:11).

          Mourner, one of the chief Gadite “brothers” in Bashan (1 Chr.

          Firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10), called also
          Jarib (1 Chr. 4:24).

          (2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of
          priests (1 Chr. 24:17).

          (3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1 Chr.

   Jachin and Boaz
          The names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon’s temple (1
          Kings 7:15-22). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in
          circumference (Jer. 52:21, 23; 1 Kings 7:17-21). They had
          doubtless a symbolical import.

          Properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth),
          and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has
          been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb.
          leshem) mentioned in Ex. 28:19 as the first stone of the third
          row in the high priest’s breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is
          simply descriptive of colour.

          One who follows on another’s heels; supplanter, (Gen. 25:26;
          27:36; Hos. 12:2-4), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac
          by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father
          was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old.
          Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and
          when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his
          brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with
          Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen.

          When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother
          conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Gen. 27), with the view
          of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The
          birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in
          his family (Gen. 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal
          inheritance (Deut. 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family
          (Num. 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all
          nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gen. 22:18).

          Soon after his acquisition of his father’s blessing (Gen. 27),
          Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of
          Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran,
          400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family
          of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban
          would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he
          had served seven years; but to Jacob these years “seemed but a
          few days, for the love he had to her.” But when the seven years
          were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his
          daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed
          probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But “life-long
          sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of
          God, followed as a consequence of this double union.”

          At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to
          return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried
          yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set
          out with his family and property “to go to Isaac his father in
          the land of Canaan” (Gen. 31). Laban was angry when he heard
          that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him,
          overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind.
          After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob,
          Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell
          of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all
          connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end.

          Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels,
          as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the
          Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place
          Mahanaim, i.e., “the double camp,” probably his own camp and
          that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of
          that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before,
          the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the
          angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top
          reached to heaven (28:12).

          He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau
          with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he
          prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on
          God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends
          on before him a munificent present to Esau, “a present to my
          lord Esau from thy servant Jacob.” Jacob’s family were then
          transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind,
          spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged,
          there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him.
          In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of
          it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the
          place where this occured he called Peniel, “for”, said he, “I
          have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved”

          After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting,
          mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the
          assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but
          his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as
          friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained
          friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob
          moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18;
          but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel,
          where he made an altar unto God (35:6, 7), and where God
          appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While
          journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of
          Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son
          Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of
          Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to
          wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete
          reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting
          in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29).

          Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his
          beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33).
          Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings
          down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of
          the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch’s going down with all
          his household, numbering about seventy souls (Ex. 1:5; Deut.
          10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob,
          “after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found
          at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his
          nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded” (Gen. 48). At
          length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he
          summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among
          his last words he repeats the story of Rachel’s death, although
          forty years had passed away since that event took place, as
          tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when “he had
          made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into
          the bed, and yielded up the ghost” (49:33). His body was
          embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan,
          and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah,
          according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed
          body remains to this day (50:1-13). (See [305]HEBRON.)

          The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3,
          4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic
          synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are,
          besides the mention of his name along with those of the other
          patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul’s
          epistles (Rom. 9:11-13; Heb. 12:16; 11:21). See references to
          his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in
          John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of
          his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (See [306]LUZ;

   Jacob’s Well
          (John 4:5, 6). This is one of the few sites in Palestine about
          which there is no dispute. It was dug by Jacob, and hence its
          name, in the “parcel of ground” which he purchased from the sons
          of Hamor (Gen. 33:19). It still exists, but although after
          copious rains it contains a little water, it is now usually
          quite dry. It is at the entrance to the valley between Ebal and
          Gerizim, about 2 miles south-east of Shechem. It is about 9 feet
          in diameter and about 75 feet in depth, though in ancient times
          it was no doubt much deeper, probably twice as deep. The digging
          of such a well must have been a very laborious and costly

          “Unfortunately, the well of Jacob has not escaped that misplaced
          religious veneration which cannot be satisfied with leaving the
          object of it as it is, but must build over it a shrine to
          protect and make it sacred. A series of buildings of various
          styles, and of different ages, have cumbered the ground, choked
          up the well, and disfigured the natural beauty and simplicity of
          the spot. At present the rubbish in the well has been cleared
          out; but there is still a domed structure over it, and you gaze
          down the shaft cut in the living rock and see at a depth of 70
          feet the surface of the water glimmering with a pale blue light
          in the darkness, while you notice how the limestone blocks that
          form its curb have been worn smooth, or else furrowed by the
          ropes of centuries” (Hugh Macmillan).

          At the entrance of the enclosure round the well is planted in
          the ground one of the wooden poles that hold the telegraph wires
          between Jerusalem and Haifa.

          Known. (1.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh.

          (2.) The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Neh.
          12:11, 22), sons of Jonathan.

          Judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of
          Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7).

          Mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite (Judg. 4:17-22).
          When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain
          of Jabin’s army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe
          of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael
          invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied
          on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her
          left hand one of the great wooden pins (“nail”) which fastened
          down the cords of the tent, and in her right hand the mallet, or
          “hammer,” used for driving it into the ground, and stealthily
          approaching her sleeping guest, with one well-directed blow
          drove the nail through his temples into the earth (Judg. 5:27).
          She then led Barak, who was in pursuit, into her tent, and
          boastfully showed him what she had done. (See [308]SISERA;

          Place of sojourn, a city on the southern border of Judah (Josh.

          A contraction for Jehovah (Ps. 68:4).

          Union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1 Chr.

          (2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1
          Chr. 24:22).

          (3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of
          the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2 Chr. 34:12).

          Trodden down (called also Jahaza, Josh. 13:18; Jahazah, 21:36;
          Jahzah, 1 Chr. 6:78), a town where Sihon was defeated, in the
          borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan,
          and north of the river Arnon (Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32). It was
          situated in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the
          Merarite Levites (Josh. 13:18; 21:36). Here was fought the
          decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.) was completely routed, and
          his territory (the modern Belka) came into the possession of
          Israel. This town is mentioned in the denunciations of the
          prophets against Moab (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:34).

          Beheld by God. (1.) The third son of Hebron (1 Chr. 23:19).

          (2.) A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).

          (3.) A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to
          Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:6).

          (4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2
          Chr. 20:14-17). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites
          and Ammonites.

          Grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron (1 Chr.

          Allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali (Gen. 46:24).

          Returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1 Chr.

          (of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The conversion of the Roman jailer, a
          man belonging to a class “insensible as a rule and hardened by
          habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the
          bearers of the message of the gospel,” is one of those cases
          which illustrate its universality and power.

          Enlightener. (1.) The son of Segub. He was brought up with his
          mother in Gilead, where he had possessions (1 Chr. 2:22). He
          distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and
          settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small
          towns taken by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., “Jair’s
          villages” (Num. 32:41; Deut. 3:14; Josh. 13:30).

          (2.) The eighth judge of Israel, which he ruled for twenty-two
          years. His opulence is described in Judg. 10:3-5. He had thirty
          sons, each riding on “ass colts.” They had possession of thirty
          of the sixty cities (1 Kings 4:13; 1 Chr. 2:23) which formed the
          ancient Havoth-jair.

          (3.) A Benjamite, the father of Mordecai, Esther’s uncle (Esther

          (4.) The father of Elhanan, who slew Lahmi, the brother of
          Goliath (1 Chr. 20:5).

          A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus
          restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the
          chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and
          the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed
          whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., “Maid,
          arise,” and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her
          again, and she arose straightway; and “at once to strengthen
          that life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was
          indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal
          existence, he commanded to give her something to eat” (Mark

          Pious, the father of Agur (Prov. 30:1). Nothing is known of him.

          Establisher. (1.) Chief of the twelfth priestly order (1 Chr.

          (2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19).

          (3.) Margin in Matt. 1:11 means Jehoiakim.

          Lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah
          (1 Chr. 4:17).

          One of those who opposed Moses in Egypt (2 Tim. 3:8). (See

          (1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the
          apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman,
          in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20; 27:56). With John and
          Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark
          9:2), at the raising of Jairus’s daughter (Mark 5:37-43), and in
          the garden with our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their
          boldness and energy, he and John were called Boanerges, i.e.,
          “sons of thunder.” He was the first martyr among the apostles,
          having been beheaded by King Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:1, 2), A.D.
          44. (Comp. Matt. 4:21; 20:20-23).

          (2.) The son of Alphaeus, or Cleopas, “the brother” or near
          kinsman or cousin of our Lord (Gal. 1:18, 19), called James “the
          Less,” or “the Little,” probably because he was of low stature.
          He is mentioned along with the other apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark
          3:18; Luke 6:15). He had a separate interview with our Lord
          after his resurrection (1 Cor. 15:7), and is mentioned as one of
          the apostles of the circumcision (Acts 1:13). He appears to have
          occupied the position of head of the Church at Jerusalem, where
          he presided at the council held to consider the case of the
          Gentiles (Acts 12:17; 15:13-29: 21:18-24). This James was the
          author of the epistle which bears his name.

   James, Epistle of
          (1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord’s brother, one of
          the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the
          Church (Gal. 2:9).

          (2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, “the twelve
          tribes scattered abroad.”

          (3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were
          Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal
          evidence, the period between Paul’s two imprisonments at Rome,
          probably about A.D. 62.

          (4.) The object of the writer was to enforce the practical
          duties of the Christian life. “The Jewish vices against which he
          warns them are, formalism, which made the service of God consist
          in washings and outward ceremonies, whereas he reminds them
          (1:27) that it consists rather in active love and purity;
          fanaticism, which, under the cloak of religious zeal, was
          tearing Jerusalem in pieces (1:20); fatalism, which threw its
          sins on God (1:13); meanness, which crouched before the rich
          (2:2); falsehood, which had made words and oaths play-things
          (3:2-12); partisanship (3:14); evil speaking (4:11); boasting
          (4:16); oppression (5:4). The great lesson which he teaches them
          as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2), patience in
          good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17),
          patience under oppression (5:7), patience under persecution
          (5:10); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of
          the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong (5:8).”

          “Justification by works,” which James contends for, is
          justification before man, the justification of our profession of
          faith by a consistent life. Paul contends for the doctrine of
          “justification by faith;” but that is justification before God,
          a being regarded and accepted as just by virtue of the
          righteousness of Christ, which is received by faith.

          One of the Egyptians who “withstood Moses” (2 Tim. 3:8).

          Or Jano’hah, rest. (1.) A town on the north-eastern border of
          Ephraim, in the Jordan valley (Josh. 16:6, 7). Identified with
          the modern Yanun, 8 miles south-east of Nablus.

          (2.) A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of
          Naphtali. It was taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29).

          Slumber, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:53).

          Wide spreading: “God shall enlarge Japheth” (Heb. Yaphat Elohim
          le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive the name from
          yaphah, “to be beautiful;” hence white), one of the sons of
          Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32; 6:10; 7:13), perhaps
          first by birth (10:21; comp. 9:24). He and his wife were two of
          the eight saved in the ark (1 Pet. 3:20). He was the progenitor
          of many tribes inhabiting the east of Europe and the north of
          Asia (Gen. 10:2-5). An act of filial piety (9:20-27) was the
          occasion of Noah’s prophecy of the extension of his posterity.

          After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of
          Noah, “the sons of Japheth” (Gen. 10:2), “the sons of Ham” (6),
          and “the sons of Shem” (22). It is important to notice that
          modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful analysis
          of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a
          three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a
          remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book
          of Genesis (10). The three great races thus distinguished are
          called the Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). “Setting
          aside the cases where the ethnic names employed are of doubtful
          application, it cannot reasonably be questioned that the author
          [of Gen. 10] has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed
          together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the
          Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become
          known in modern times as the Indo-European Theory,’ or the
          essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal
          races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can
          it be doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of
          ‘children of Shem’ the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram),
          the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of
          the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes under the
          heading of Semitic.’ Again, under the heading of sons of Ham,’
          the author has arranged Cush’, i.e., the Ethiopians; Mizraim,’
          the people of Egypt; Sheba and Dedan,’ or certain of the
          Southern Arabs; and Nimrod,’ or the ancient people of Babylon,
          four races between which the latest linguistic researches have
          established a close affinity” (Rawlinson’s Hist. Illustrations).

          Splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish, who joined in the
          confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated and
          slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king
          of Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33).

          (2.) One of the sons of David (2 Sam. 5:15), born in Jerusalem.

          (3.) A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum (Josh. 19:12);
          now Yafa, 2 miles south-west of Nazareth.

          Beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in
          2 Chr. 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament.

          Descent. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch in descent from
          Seth (Gen. 5:15-20; Luke 3:37), the father of Enoch; called
          Jered in 1 Chr. 1:2.

          (2.) A son of Ezra probably (1 Chr. 4:18).

          An adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:24).

          (2.) One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to
          Jerusalem (Ezra 8:16).

          (3.) Ezra 10:18.

          Height. (1.) A town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35),
          originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish kings (10:3,
          5, 23). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village
          about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.

          (2.) A Levitical city of the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 21:29),
          supposed by some to be the Ramah of Samuel (1 Sam. 19:22).

          Sleeping, called also Hashem (1 Chr. 11:34); a person, several
          of whose sons were in David’s body-guard (2 Sam. 23:32).

          Upright. “The Book of Jasher,” rendered in the LXX. “the Book of
          the Upright One,” by the Vulgate “the Book of Just Ones,” was
          probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of
          songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a “book of golden
          deeds,” a national anthology. We have only two specimens from
          the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at
          the crisis of the battle of Beth-horon (Josh. 10:12, 13); and
          (2) “the Song of the Bow,” that beautiful and touching mournful
          elegy which David composed on the occasion of the death of Saul
          and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:18-27).

          Dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the
          Hachmonite (1 Chr. 11:11), one of David’s chief heroes who
          joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who
          broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to
          David from the well of Bethlehem (2 Sam. 23:13-17). He is also
          called Adino the Eznite (8).

          Returner. (1.) The third of Issachar’s four sons (1 Chr. 7:1);
          called also Job (Gen. 46:13).

          (2.) Ezra 10:29.

          He that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica.
          The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing
          to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city
          (Acts 17:5-9). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul
          (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth.

          (Heb. yashpheh, “glittering”), a gem of various colours, one of
          the twelve inserted in the high priest’s breast-plate (Ex.
          28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev.
          21:18, 19). It was “most precious,” “clear as crystal” (21:11).
          It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).

Pre-eminent, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48;

(1.) The fourth “son” of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants
settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in
Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the “king of Javan”
(rendered “Grecia,” Dan. 8:21; 10:20; comp. 11:2; Zech. 9:13).
This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the
generic name of the Greek race.

(2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians
obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezek. 27:19).

(1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1 Sam. 18:10,
11; 19:9, 10; 20:33).

(2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from
its piercing (Num. 25:7). (See [311]ARMS.)

Of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of
the Philistines (Judg. 15:15), in which he slew a thousand men.
In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, “God clave a hollow
place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout.” This
is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in
the Revised Version, “God clave the hollow place that is in
Lehi,” etc., Lehi (q.v.) being the name of the hill where this
conflict was waged, possibly so called because it was in shape
like a jaw-bone.

Suspicion of a wife’s purity, one of the strongest passions
(Num. 5:14; Prov. 6:34; Cant. 8:6); also an intense interest for
another’s honour or prosperity (Ps. 79:5; 1 Cor. 10:22; Zech.

Jealousy, Image of
An idolatrous object, seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezek. 8:3, 5),
which stood in the priests’ or inner court of the temple.
Probably identical with the statue of Astarte (2 Kings 21:7).

Jealousy offering
The name of the offering the husband was to bring when he
charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11-15).

Jealousy, Waters of
Water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that
the result might prove her guilt or innocence (Num. 5:12-17,
27). We have no record of this form of trial having been
actually resorted to.

Forests, a mountain on the border of Judah (Josh. 15:10).

Trodden hard, or fastness, or “the waterless hill”, the name of
the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion (Josh. 15:8;
18:16, 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg.
19:10, and with the castle or city of David (1 Chr. 11:4, 5). It
was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one
of David’s most brilliant achievements (2 Sam. 5:8).

The name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned
frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen.
10:16; 15:21; Ex. 3:8, 17; 13:5, etc.). At the time of the
arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by
Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and
their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of
Jebus till the time of David, who made it the capital of his
kingdom instead of Hebron. The site on which the temple was
afterwards built belonged to Araunah, a Jebusite, from whom it
was purchased by David, who refused to accept it as a free gift
(2 Sam. 24:16-25; 1 Chr. 21:24, 25).

Able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of
King Uzziah (2 Chr. 26:3).

(1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1
Chr. 4:37).

(2.) One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the
return from Babylon (Neh. 3:10).

(3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the
priests (1 Chr. 24:7).

(4.) A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile (1 Chr. 9:10).

Known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose
descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11).

(2.) A Shimrite, one of David’s bodyguard (1 Chr. 11:45).
Probably same as in 12:20.

(3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the
gate-keepers to the temple (1 Chr. 26:2).

Beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the
Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine
favour (2 Sam. 12:25).

Lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of
the three masters of music appointed by David (1 Chr. 16:41, 42;
25:1-6). He is called in 2 Chr. 35:15 “the king’s seer.” His
descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments
(Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1 Chr. 15:17,
19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words
“upon Jeduthun” probably denote a musical instrument; or they
may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun,
or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir.

Pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave
to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant
between him and Jacob (Gen. 31:47), who, however, called it in
Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.).

Praiser of God. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 4:16).

(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2 Chr. 29:12).

Rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants at the
temple, a descendant of Shubael (1 Chr. 24:20).

(2.) A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and
Solomon (1 Chr. 27:30).

God’s living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1 Chr. 9:35).

(2.) One of David’s guard (1 Chr. 11:44).

(3.) One of the Levites “of the second degree,” appointed to
conduct the music on the occasion of the ark’s being removed to
Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).

(4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the
close of his reign (1 Chr. 27:32).

(5.) The second of Jehoshaphat’s six sons (2 Chr. 21:2).

(6.) One of the Levites of the family of Heman who assisted
Hezekiah in his work of reformation (2 Chr. 29:14).

(7.) A “prince” and “ruler of the house of God” who contributed
liberally to the renewal of the temple sacrifices under Josiah
(2 Chr. 35:8).

(8.) The father of Obadiah (Ezra 8:9).

(9.) One of the “sons” of Elam (Ezra 10:26).

(10.) Ezra 10:21.

Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim (2 Chr.

Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of
King Amaziah (2 Kings 14:2).

Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth. (1.) The
youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Chr. 21:17; 22:1, 6,
8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.).

(2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings
10:35). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways
of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and
Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of
the land by his son Jehoash (13:1-9, 25).

(3.) Josiah’s third son, usually called Shallum (1 Chr. 3:15).
He succeeded his father on the throne, and reigned over Judah
for three months (2 Kings 23:31, 34). He fell into the
idolatrous ways of his predecessors (23:32), was deposed by
Pharaoh-Necho from the throne, and carried away prisoner into
Egypt, where he died in captivity (23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12; 2
Chr. 36:1-4).

Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an
infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by
his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving
descendant of Solomon (2 Chr. 21:4, 17). His uncle, the high
priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was
eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah
with the usual ceremonies. Athaliah was taken by surprise when
she heard the shout of the people, “Long live the king;” and
when she appeared in the temple, Jehoiada commanded her to be
led forth to death (2 Kings 11:13-20). While the high priest
lived, Jehoash favoured the worship of God and observed the law;
but on his death he fell away into evil courses, and the land
was defiled with idolatry. Zechariah, the son and successor of
the high priest, was put to death. These evil deeds brought down
on the land the judgement of God, and it was oppressed by the
Syrian invaders. He is one of the three kings omitted by Matthew
(1:8) in the genealogy of Christ, the other two being Ahaziah
and Amaziah. He was buried in the city of David (2 Kings 12:21).
(See [312]JOASH [4].)

(2.) The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel (2 Kings
14:1; comp. 12:1; 13:10). When he ascended the throne the
kingdom was suffering from the invasion of the Syrians. Hazael
“was cutting Israel short.” He tolerated the worship of the
golden calves, yet seems to have manifested a character of
sincere devotion to the God of his fathers. He held the prophet
Elisha in honour, and wept by his bedside when he was dying,
addressing him in the words Elisha himself had used when Elijah
was carried up into heaven: “O my father, my father, the chariot
of Israel and the horsemen thereof.” He was afterwards involved
in war with Amaziah, the king of Judah (2 Chr. 25:23-24), whom
he utterly defeated at Beth-shemesh, on the borders of Dan and
Philistia, and advancing on Jerusalem, broke down a portion of
the wall, and carried away the treasures of the temple and the
palace. He soon after died (B.C. 825), and was buried in Samaria
(2 Kings 14:1-17, 19, 20). He was succeeded by his son. (See
[313]JOASH [5.].)

Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II. (1.) A Korhite, the head of one of
the divisions of the temple porters (1 Chr. 26:3).

(2.) One of Jehoshaphat’s “captains” (2 Chr. 17:15).

(3.) The father of Azariah (2 Chr. 28:12).

(4.) The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Neh. 6:18).

(5.) Neh. 12:42.

(6.) Neh. 12:13.

Succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years
of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2 Chr. 36:9). He is
also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1; 27:20, etc.), and Coniah
(22:24; 37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah =
Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish
crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar,
along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in
Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some
thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16; Jer. 52:28). After
an imprisonment of thirty-seven years (Jer. 52:31, 33), he was
liberated by Evil-merodach, and permitted to occupy a place in
the king’s household and sit at his table, receiving “every day
a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life”

Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of
David’s chief warriors (2 Sam. 8:18; 20:23).

(2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah’s usurpation of the
throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the
daughter of king Jehoram (2 Chr. 22:11), and took an active part
along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash
when Athaliah slew all the royal family of Judah.

The plans he adopted in replacing Jehoash on the throne of his
ancestors are described in 2 Kings 11:2; 12:2; 2 Chr. 22:11;
23:24. He was among the foremost of the benefactors of the
kingdom, and at his death was buried in the city of David among
the kings of Judah (2 Chr. 24:15, 16). He is said to have been
one hundred and thirty years old.

He whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and
eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years
(B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.).

On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz
(=Shallum, Jer. 22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the
Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt,
Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and deposed Jehoahaz (2 Kings
23:33, 34; Jer. 22:10-12), setting Eliakim on the throne in his
stead, and changing his name to Jehoiakim.

After this the king of Egypt took no part in Jewish politics,
having been defeated by the Chaldeans at Carchemish (2 Kings
24:7; Jer. 46:2). Palestine was now invaded and conquered by
Nebuchadnezzar. Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and carried captive
to Babylon (2 Chr. 36:6, 7). It was at this time that Daniel
also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon
(Dan. 1:1, 2).

Nebuchadnezzar reinstated Jehoiakim on his throne, but treated
him as a vassal king. In the year after this, Jeremiah caused
his prophecies to be read by Baruch in the court of the temple.
Jehoiakim, hearing of this, had them also read in the royal
palace before himself. The words displeased him, and taking the
roll from the hands of Baruch he cut it in pieces and threw it
into the fire (Jer. 36:23). During his disastrous reign there
was a return to the old idolatry and corruption of the days of

After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld
his tribute and threw off the yoke (2 Kings 24:1), hoping to
make himself independent. Nebuchadnezzar sent bands of
Chaldeans, Syrians, and Ammonites (2 Kings 24:2) to chastise his
rebellious vassal. They cruelly harassed the whole country
(comp. Jer. 49:1-6). The king came to a violent death, and his
body having been thrown over the wall of Jerusalem, to convince
the beseieging army that he was dead, after having been dragged
away, was buried beyond the gates of Jerusalem “with the burial
of an ass,” B.C. 599 (Jer. 22:18, 19; 36:30). Nebuchadnezzar
placed his son Jehoiachin on the throne, wishing still to retain
the kingdom of Judah as tributary to him.

Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the
sacerdotal courses (1 Chr. 9:10; 24:7). His “course” went up
from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).

Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of
Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal
wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2 Sam. 13:3-6).
He was very “subtil,” but unprincipled.

(2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound
themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6-19). There
were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16; 4:11; 1
Chr. 2:55). (See [314]RECHABITE.) His interview and alliance
with Jehu are mentioned in 2 Kings 10:15-23. He went with Jehu
in his chariot to Samaria.

Whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David’s
store-houses (1 Chr. 27:25).

(2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2 Chr.

(3.) Neh. 12:18.

Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his
father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over
Hadadezer (2 Sam. 8:10).

(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 26:25).

(3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in
Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).

(4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother
Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigned twelve years, B.C.
896-884 (2 Kings 1:17; 3:1). His first work was to reduce to
subjection the Moabites, who had asserted their independence in
the reign of his brother. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, assisted
Jehoram in this effort. He was further helped by his ally the
king of Edom. Elisha went forth with the confederated army (2
Kings 3:1-19), and at the solicitation of Jehoshaphat encouraged
the army with the assurance from the Lord of a speedy victory.
The Moabites under Mesha their king were utterly routed and
their cities destroyed. At Kir-haraseth Mesha made a final
stand. The Israelites refrained from pressing their victory
further, and returned to their own land.

Elisha afterwards again befriended Jehoram when a war broke out
between the Syrians and Israel, and in a remarkable way brought
that war to a bloodless close (2 Kings 6:23). But Jehoram,
becoming confident in his own power, sank into idolatry, and
brought upon himself and his land another Syrian invasion, which
led to great suffering and distress in Samaria (2 Kings
6:24-33). By a remarkable providential interposition the city
was saved from utter destruction, and the Syrians were put to
flight (2 Kings 7:6-15).

Jehoram was wounded in a battle with the Syrians at Ramah, and
obliged to return to Jezreel (2 Kings 8:29; 9:14, 15), and soon
after the army proclaimed their leader Jehu king of Israel, and
revolted from their allegiance to Jehoram (2 Kings 9). Jehoram
was pierced by an arrow from Jehu’s bow on the piece of ground
at Jezreel which Ahab had taken from Naboth, and there he died
(2 Kings 9:21-29).

(5.) The eldest son and successor of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah.
He reigned eight years (B.C. 892-885) alone as king of Judah,
having been previously for some years associated with his father
(2 Chr. 21:5, 20; 2 Kings 8:16). His wife was Athaliah, the
daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. His daughter Jehosheba was married
to the high priest Jehoiada. He sank into gross idolatry, and
brought upon himself and his kingdom the anger of Jehovah. The
Edomites revolted from under his yoke, and the Philistines and
the Arabians and Cushites invaded the land, and carried away
great spoil, along with Jehoram’s wives and all his children,
except Ahaziah. He died a painful death from a fearful malady,
and was refused a place in the sepulchre of the kings (2 Kings
8:16-24; 2 Chr. 21).

Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David’s body-guard (1 Chr. 11:43).

(2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark
to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24).

(3.) Son of Ahilud, “recorder” or annalist under David and
Solomon (2 Sam. 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor
or vizier of the kingdom.

(4.) Solomon’s purveyor in Issachar (1 Kings 4:17).

(5.) The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After
fortifying his kingdom against Israel (2 Chr. 17:1, 2), he set
himself to cleanse the land of idolatry (1 Kings 22:43). In the
third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the
land to instruct the people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7-9). He
enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of
God resting on the people “in their basket and their store.”

The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance
with Ahab, the king of Israel, which involved him in much
disgrace, and brought disaster on his kingdom (1 Kings 22:1-33).
Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet
Jehu (2 Chr. 19:1-3) reproached him for the course he had been
pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his former course
of opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the
worship of God and in the righteous government of the people (2
Chr. 19:4-11).

Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of
Israel, for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with
Ophir. But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was
speedily wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the
co-operation of the king of Israel, and although it was
successful, the trade was not prosecuted (2 Chr. 20:35-37; 1
Kings 22:48-49).

He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against
the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was
successful. The Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of
Mesha in offering his own son a sacrifice on the walls of
Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies of Israel filled him
with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his own land (2
Kings 3:4-27).

The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2
Chr. 20. The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy
with the surrounding nations, and came against Jehoshaphat. The
allied forces were encamped at Engedi. The king and his people
were filled with alarm, and betook themselves to God in prayer.
The king prayed in the court of the temple, “O our God, wilt
thou not judge them? for we have no might against this great
company that cometh against us.” Amid the silence that followed,
the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that on
the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it was,
for they quarrelled among themselves, and slew one another,
leaving to the people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of
the slain. This was recognized as a great deliverance wrought
for them by God (B.C. 890). Soon after this Jehoshaphat died,
after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years of age,
and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (1 Kings 22:50). He had
this testimony, that “he sought the Lord with all his heart” (2
Chr. 22:9). The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than
under his reign.

(6.) The son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Israel (2
Kings 9:2, 14).

Jehoshaphat, Valley of
Mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, 12. This is the name
given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the
Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here
Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Ps.
83:6-8); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the
Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, 19), with an utter
overthrow. This has been fulfilled; but Joel speaks of the final
conflict, when God would destroy all Jerusalem’s enemies, of
whom Tyre and Zidon, etc., were types. The “valley of
Jehoshaphat” may therefore be simply regarded as a general term
for the theatre of God’s final judgments on the enemies of

This valley has from ancient times been used by the Jews as a
burial-ground. It is all over paved with flat stones as
tombstones, bearing on them Hebrew inscriptions.

Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel.
She is called Jehoshabeath in 2 Chr. 22:11. She was the only
princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest,
Jehoiada (2 Chr. 22:11).

The special and significant name (not merely an appellative
title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to
the ancient Hebrews (Ex. 6:2, 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton
of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that
it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great
Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place.
Whenever this name occurred in the sacred books they pronounced
it, as they still do, “Adonai” (i.e., Lord), thus using another
word in its stead. The Massorets gave to it the vowel-points
appropriate to this word. This Jewish practice was founded on a
false interpretation of Lev. 24:16. The meaning of the word
appears from Ex. 3:14 to be “the unchanging, eternal,
self-existent God,” the “I am that I am,” a convenant-keeping
God. (Comp. Mal. 3:6; Hos. 12:5; Rev. 1:4, 8.)

The Hebrew name “Jehovah” is generally translated in the
Authorized Version (and the Revised Version has not departed
from this rule) by the word LORD printed in small capitals, to
distinguish it from the rendering of the Hebrew Adonai and the
Greek Kurios, which are also rendered Lord, but printed in the
usual type. The Hebrew word is translated “Jehovah” only in Ex.
6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, and in the compound names
mentioned below.

It is worthy of notice that this name is never used in the LXX.,
the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New
Testament. It is found, however, on the “Moabite stone” (q.v.),
and consequently it must have been in the days of Mesba so
commonly pronounced by the Hebrews as to be familiar to their
heathen neighbours.

Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham
to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the
thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Gen. 22:14, “in
the mount of the Lord it shall be seen,” has been regarded as
equivalent to the saying, “Man’s extremity is God’s

Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which
he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with
uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the
Amalekites (Ex. 17:15).

Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he
erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him
(Judg. 6:24).

Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to
Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was
a type of the gospel Church.

Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version,
“The LORD our righteousness,” a title given to the Messiah (Jer.
23:6, marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, marg.).

Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), one of
the Levite porters.

(2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king
Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:21).

(3.) 2 Chr. 17:18.

Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the
time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chr. 6:14, 15). He was carried
into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon.
He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with

Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed, and father of Azariah (1
Chr. 2:38).

(2.) One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag
(1 Chr. 12:3).

(3.) The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah (1 Kings 16:1, 7; 2
Chr. 19:2; 20:34), who pronounced the sentence of God against
Baasha, the king of Israel.

(4.) King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 9:2), and
grandson of Nimshi. The story of his exaltation to the throne is
deeply interesting. During the progress of a war against the
Syrians, who were becoming more and more troublesome to Israel,
in a battle at Ramoth-gilead Jehoram, the king of Israel, had
been wounded; and leaving his army there, had returned to
Jezreel, whither his ally, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had also gone
on a visit of sympathy with him (2 Kings 8:28, 29). The
commanders, being left in charge of the conduct of the war, met
in council; and while engaged in their deliberations, a
messenger from Elisha appeared in the camp, and taking Jehu from
the council, led him into a secret chamber, and there anointed
him king over Israel, and immediately retired and disappeared (2
Kings 9:5, 6). On being interrogated by his companions as to the
object of this mysterious visitor, he informed them of what had
been done, when immediately, with the utmost enthusiasm, they
blew their trumpets and proclaimed him king (2 Kings 9:11-14).
He then with a chosen band set forth with all speed to Jezreel,
where, with his own hand, he slew Jehoram, shooting him through
the heart with an arrow (9:24). The king of Judah, when trying
to escape, was fatally wounded by one of Jehu’s soldiers at
Beth-gan. On entering the city, Jehu commanded the eunchs of the
royal palace to cast down Jezebel into the street, where her
mangled body was trodden under foot by the horses. Jehu was now
master of Jezreel, whence he communicated with the persons in
authority in Samaria the capital, commanding them to appear
before him on the morrow with the heads of all the royal princes
of Samaria. Accordingly on the morrow seventy heads were piled
up in two heaps at his gate. At “the shearing-house” (2 Kings
10:12-14) other forty-two connected with the house of Ahab were
put to death (2 Kings 10:14). As Jehu rode on toward Samaria, he
met Jehonadab (q.v.), whom he took into his chariot, and they
entered the capital together. By a cunning stratagem he cut off
all the worshippers of Baal found in Samaria (2 Kings 10:19-25),
and destroyed the temple of the idol (2 Kings 10:27).

Notwithstanding all this apparent zeal for the worship of
Jehovah, Jehu yet tolerated the worship of the golden calves at
Dan and Bethel. For this the divine displeasure rested upon him,
and his kingdom suffered disaster in war with the Syrians (2
Kings 10:29-33). He died after a reign of twenty-eight years
(B.C. 884-856), and was buried in Samaria (10:34-36). “He was
one of those decisive, terrible, and ambitious, yet prudent,
calculating, and passionless men whom God from time to time
raises up to change the fate of empires and execute his
judgments on the earth.” He was the first Jewish king who came
in contact with the Assyrian power in the time of Shalmaneser

Able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1).
He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the
prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the
time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by
Zephaniah (q.v.).

A Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite
Baruch to read Jeremiah’s roll to them (Jer. 36:14, 21).

Snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (1 Chr.
9:35; 8:29).

(2.) One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the
removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 16:5).

(3.) 2 Chr. 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph.

(4.) 2 Chr. 26:11. A scribe.

(5.) 1 Chr. 5:7. A Reubenite chief.

(6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the
restoration of the Passover by Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9).

(7.) Ezra 8:13.

(8.) Ezra 10:43.

Dove, the eldest of Job’s three daughters born after his time of
trial (Job 42:14).

Whom God sets free, or the breaker through, a “mighty man of
valour” who delivered Israel from the oppression of the
Ammonites (Judg. 11:1-33), and judged Israel six years (12:7).
He has been described as “a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a
sort of warrior Elijah.” After forty-five years of comparative
quiet Israel again apostatized, and in “process of time the
children of Ammon made war against Israel” (11:5). In their
distress the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the
land of Tob, to which he had fled when driven out wrongfully by
his brothers from his father’s inheritance (2), and the people
made him their head and captain. The “elders of Gilead” in their
extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook
the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy
to the king of Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The
people obeyed his summons, and “the spirit of the Lord came upon
him.” Before engaging in war he vowed that if successful he
would offer as a “burnt-offering” whatever would come out of the
door of his house first to meet him on his return. The defeat of
the Ammonites was complete. “He smote them from Aroer, even till
thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of
the vineyards [Heb. Abel Keramim], with a very great slaughter”
(Judg. 11:33). The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as
insulted in not having been called by Jephthah to go with him to
war against Ammon. This led to a war between the men of Gilead
and Ephraim (12:4), in which many of the Ephraimites perished.
(See [315]SHIBBOLETH.) “Then died Jephthah the Gileadite, and
was buried in one of the cities of Gilead” (7).

Jephthah’s vow
(Judg. 11:30, 31). After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites,
Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him
was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor,
and in his despair he cried out, “Alas, my daughter! thou hast
brought me very low…I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and
cannot go back.” With singular nobleness of spirit she answered,
“Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy
mouth.” She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with
her companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach
against her father’s rashness, and is content to yield her life
since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did
Jephthah offer up his daughter as a “burnt-offering”? This
question has been much debated, and there are many able
commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually
offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of
Jephthah’s known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his
evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which such
sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Deut. 12:31), and
the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the
Epistle to the Hebrews (11:32), to conclude that she was only
doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.

Nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of Caleb, who was
Joshua’s companion in exploring Canaan (Num. 13:6), a Kenezite
(Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1 Chr.

Loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb (1 Chr.
2:9, 25, 26, etc.).

(2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1 Chr. 24:29).

(3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26).

Raised up or appointed by Jehovah. (1.) A Gadite who joined
David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:10).

(2.) A Gadite warrior (1 Chr. 12:13).

(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.

(4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of
Jordan (1 Chr. 5:24).

(5.) The father of Hamutal (2 Kings 23:31), the wife of Josiah.

(6.) One of the “greater prophets” of the Old Testament, son of
Hilkiah (q.v.), a priest of Anathoth (Jer. 1:1; 32:6). He was
called to the prophetical office when still young (1:6), in the
thirteenth year of Josiah (B.C. 628). He left his native place,
and went to reside in Jerusalem, where he greatly assisted
Josiah in his work of reformation (2 Kings 23:1-25). The death
of this pious king was bewailed by the prophet as a national
calamity (2 Chr. 35:25).

During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no
reference to Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of
Jehoiakim the enmity of the people against him broke out in
bitter persecution, and he was placed apparently under restraint
(Jer. 36:5). In the fourth year of Jehoiakim he was commanded to
write the predictions given to him, and to read them to the
people on the fast-day. This was done by Baruch his servant in
his stead, and produced much public excitement. The roll was
read to the king. In his recklessness he seized the roll, and
cut it to pieces, and cast it into the fire, and ordered both
Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended. Jeremiah procured another
roll, and wrote in it the words of the roll the king had
destroyed, and “many like words” besides (Jer. 36:32).

He remained in Jerusalem, uttering from time to time his words
of warning, but without effect. He was there when Nebuchadnezzar
besieged the city (Jer. 37:4, 5), B.C. 589. The rumour of the
approach of the Egyptians to aid the Jews in this crisis induced
the Chaldeans to withdraw and return to their own land. This,
however, was only for a time. The prophet, in answer to his
prayer, received a message from God announcing that the
Chaldeans would come again and take the city, and burn it with
fire (37:7, 8). The princes, in their anger at such a message by
Jeremiah, cast him into prison (37:15-38:13). He was still in
confinement when the city was taken (B.C. 588). The Chaldeans
released him, and showed him great kindness, allowing him to
choose the place of his residence. He accordingly went to Mizpah
with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea. Johanan
succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah’s
counsels, went down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with
him (Jer. 43:6). There probably the prophet spent the remainder
of his life, in vain seeking still to turn the people to the
Lord, from whom they had so long revolted (44). He lived till
the reign of Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchadnezzar, and must have
been about ninety years of age at his death. We have no
authentic record of his death. He may have died at Tahpanhes,
or, according to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the
army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain.

Jeremiah, Book of
Consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections,
arranged in five books. I. The introduction, ch. 1. II. Reproofs
of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch.
2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch.
14-17:18; (6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general
review of all nations, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch.
25; with an historical appendix of three sections, (1.) ch. 26;
(2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29. IV. Two sections picturing the
hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32, 33; to
which is added an historical appendix in three sections, (1.)
ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 35. V. The conclusion, in
two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45.

In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added
three sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44.

The principal Messianic prophecies are found in 23:1-8;
31:31-40; and 33:14-26.

Jeremiah’s prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions
found in them of the same words and phrases and imagery. They
cover the period of about 30 years. They are not recorded in the
order of time. When and under what circumstances this book
assumed its present form we know not.

The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in
other particulars, singularly at variance with the original. The
LXX. omits 10:6-8; 27:19-22; 29:16-20; 33:14-26; 39:4-13; 52:2,
3, 15, 28-30, etc. About 2,700 words in all of the original are
omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious and arbitrary,
and render the version unreliable.

Place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove
of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place
where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh. 3:16). Its
site was near the Ain es-Sultan, Elisha’s Fountain (2 Kings
2:19-22), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most
important city in the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1; 34:15), and the
strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to
Western Palestine.

This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the
Israelites (Josh. 6). God gave it into their hands. The city was
“accursed” (Heb. herem, “devoted” to Jehovah), and accordingly
(Josh. 6:17; comp. Lev. 27:28, 29; Deut. 13:16) all the
inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were to be destroyed,
“only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of
iron” were reserved and “put into the treasury of the house of
Jehovah” (Josh. 6:24; comp. Num. 31:22, 23, 50-54). Only Rahab
“and her father’s household, and all that she had,” were
preserved from destruction, according to the promise of the
spies (Josh. 2:14). In one of the Amarna tablets Adoni-zedec
(q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt informing him that the Abiri
(Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the fortress of Jericho,
and were plundering “all the king’s lands.” It would seem that
the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from

This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21), and
it was inhabited in the time of the Judges (Judg. 3:13; 2 Sam.
10:5). It is not again mentioned till the time of David (2 Sam.
10:5). “Children of Jericho” were among the captives who
returned under Zerubbabel Ezra 2:34; Neh. 7:36). Hiel (q.v.) the
Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified city (1
Kings 16:34). Between the beginning and the end of his
undertaking all his children were cut off.

In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the
south-east of the ancient one, and near the opening of the
valley of Achor. It was a rich and flourishing town, having a
considerable trade, and celebrated for the palm trees which
adorned the plain around. It was visited by our Lord on his last
journey to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind men (Matt.
20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52), and brought salvation to the house of
Zacchaeus the publican (Luke 19:2-10).

The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern
Jericho, is situated some two miles farther to the east. It is
in a ruinous condition, having been destroyed by the Turks in
1840. “The soil of the plain,” about the middle of which the
ancient city stood, “is unsurpassed in fertility; there is
abundance of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts
are almost perfect; yet nearly the whole plain is waste and
desolate…The climate of Jericho is exceedingly hot and
unhealthy. This is accounted for by the depression of the plain,
which is about 1,200 feet below the level of the sea.”

There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites,
the Jericho of Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of
the Crusades. Er-Riha, the modern Jericho, dates from the time
of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has found in a hollow scooped out for
some purpose or other near the foot of the biggest mound above
the Sultan’s Spring specimens of Amorite or pre-Israelitish
pottery precisely identical with what he had discovered on the
site of ancient Lachish. He also traced in this place for a
short distance a mud brick wall in situ, which he supposes to be
the very wall that fell before the trumpets of Joshua. The wall
is not far from the foot of the great precipice of Quarantania
and its numerous caverns, and the spies of Joshua could easily
have fled from the city and been speedily hidden in these

Heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1 Chr. 7:7).

(2.) 1 Chr. 24:30, a Merarite Levite.

(3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr.

(4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (1 Chr. 25:4).

(5.) 1 Chr. 27:19, ruler of Naphtali.

(6.) One of David’s sons (2 Chr. 11:18).

(7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (2
Chr. 31:13) in the reign of Hezekiah.

Increase of the people. (1.) The son of Nebat (1 Kings
11:26-39), “an Ephrathite,” the first king of the ten tribes,
over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the
son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by
Solomon to be chief superintendent of the “burnden”, i.e., of
the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the
prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of
becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been
discovered, he fled to Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-40), where he
remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I.
On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent
to invite him to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam
favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly
proclaimed “king of Israel” (1 Kings 12: 1-20). He rebuilt and
fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once
adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the
two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two
extremities of his kingdom, “golden calves,” which he set up as
symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up
to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the
shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man
“who made Israel to sin.” This policy was followed by all the
succeeding kings of Israel.

While he was engaged in offering incense at Bethel, a prophet
from Judah appeared before him with a warning message from the
Lord. Attempting to arrest the prophet for his bold words of
defiance, his hand was “dried up,” and the altar before which he
stood was rent asunder. At his urgent entreaty his “hand was
restored him again” (1 Kings 13:1-6, 9; comp. 2 Kings 23:15);
but the miracle made no abiding impression on him. His reign was
one of constant war with the house of Judah. He died soon after
his son Abijah (1 Kings 14:1-18).

(2.) Jeroboam II., the son and successor of Jehoash, and the
fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one
years, B.C. 825-784 (2 Kings 14:23). He followed the example of
the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship of the golden
calves (2 Kings 14:24). His reign was contemporary with those of
Amaziah (2 Kings 14:23) and Uzziah (15:1), kings of Judah. He
was victorious over the Syrians (13:4; 14:26, 27), and extended
Israel to its former limits, from “the entering of Hamath to the
sea of the plain” (14:25; Amos 6:14). His reign of forty-one
years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as yet.
With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely
prevailed in the land (Amos 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Hos. 4:12-14). The
prophets Hosea (1:1), Joel (3:16; Amos 1:1, 2), Amos (1:1), and
Jonah (2 Kings 14:25) lived during his reign. He died, and was
buried with his ancestors (14:29). He was succeeded by his son
Zachariah (q.v.).

His name occurs in Scripture only in 2 Kings 13:13; 14:16, 23,
27, 28, 29; 15:1, 8; 1 Chr. 5:17; Hos. 1:1; Amos 1:1; 7:9, 10,
11. In all other passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that
is meant.

Cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and
grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1).

(2.) The father of Azareel, the “captain” of the tribe of Dan (1
Chr. 27:22).

(3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite.

(4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the

(5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite.

(6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.

Contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a
name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal (Judg.
6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).

Contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon
(2 Sam. 11:21).

Founded by God, a “desert” on the ascent from the valley of the
Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of
Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2 Chr. 20:16, 20). It
corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah.

Called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the “city of God,” the “holy
city;” by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning “the holy;” once
“the city of Judah” (2 Chr. 25:28). This name is in the original
in the dual form, and means “possession of peace,” or
“foundation of peace.” The dual form probably refers to the two
mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as
some suppose, to the two parts of the city, the “upper” and the
“lower city.” Jerusalem is a “mountain city enthroned on a
mountain fastness” (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2;
122:3). It stands on the edge of one of the highest table-lands
in Palestine, and is surrounded on the south-eastern, the
southern, and the western sides by deep and precipitous ravines.

It is first mentioned in Scripture under the name Salem (Gen.
14:18; comp. Ps. 76:2). When first mentioned under the name
Jerusalem, Adonizedek was its king (Josh. 10:1). It is
afterwards named among the cities of Benjamin (Judg. 19:10; 1
Chr. 11:4); but in the time of David it was divided between
Benjamin and Judah. After the death of Joshua the city was taken
and set on fire by the men of Judah (Judg. 1:1-8); but the
Jebusites were not wholly driven out of it. The city is not
again mentioned till we are told that David brought the head of
Goliath thither (1 Sam. 17:54). David afterwards led his forces
against the Jebusites still residing within its walls, and drove
them out, fixing his own dwelling on Zion, which he called “the
city of David” (2 Sam. 5:5-9; 1 Chr. 11:4-8). Here he built an
altar to the Lord on the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite
(2 Sam. 24:15-25), and thither he brought up the ark of the
covenant and placed it in the new tabernacle which he had
prepared for it. Jerusalem now became the capital of the

After the death of David, Solomon built the temple, a house for
the name of the Lord, on Mount Moriah (B.C. 1010). He also
greatly strengthened and adorned the city, and it became the
great centre of all the civil and religious affairs of the
nation (Deut. 12:5; comp. 12:14; 14:23; 16:11-16; Ps. 122).

After the disruption of the kingdom on the accession to the
throne of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, Jerusalem became the
capital of the kingdom of the two tribes. It was subsequently
often taken and retaken by the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and by
the kings of Israel (2 Kings 14:13, 14; 18:15, 16; 23:33-35;
24:14; 2 Chr. 12:9; 26:9; 27:3, 4; 29:3; 32:30; 33:11), till
finally, for the abounding iniquities of the nation, after a
siege of three years, it was taken and utterly destroyed, its
walls razed to the ground, and its temple and palaces consumed
by fire, by Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25; 2
Chr. 36; Jer. 39), B.C. 588. The desolation of the city and the
land was completed by the retreat of the principal Jews into
Egypt (Jer. 40-44), and by the final carrying captive into
Babylon of all that still remained in the land (52:3), so that
it was left without an inhabitant (B.C. 582). Compare the
predictions, Deut. 28; Lev. 26:14-39.

But the streets and walls of Jerusalem were again to be built,
in troublous times (Dan. 9:16, 19, 25), after a captivity of
seventy years. This restoration was begun B.C. 536, “in the
first year of Cyrus” (Ezra 1:2, 3, 5-11). The Books of Ezra and
Nehemiah contain the history of the re-building of the city and
temple, and the restoration of the kingdom of the Jews,
consisting of a portion of all the tribes. The kingdom thus
constituted was for two centuries under the dominion of Persia,
till B.C. 331; and thereafter, for about a century and a half,
under the rulers of the Greek empire in Asia, till B.C. 167. For
a century the Jews maintained their independence under native
rulers, the Asmonean princes. At the close of this period they
fell under the rule of Herod and of members of his family, but
practically under Rome, till the time of the destruction of
Jerusalem, A.D. 70. The city was then laid in ruins.

The modern Jerusalem by-and-by began to be built over the
immense beds of rubbish resulting from the overthrow of the
ancient city; and whilst it occupies certainly the same site,
there are no evidences that even the lines of its streets are
now what they were in the ancient city. Till A.D. 131 the Jews
who still lingered about Jerusalem quietly submitted to the
Roman sway. But in that year the emperor (Hadrian), in order to
hold them in subjection, rebuilt and fortified the city. The
Jews, however, took possession of it, having risen under the
leadership of one Bar-Chohaba (i.e., “the son of the star”) in
revolt against the Romans. Some four years afterwards (A.D.
135), however, they were driven out of it with great slaughter,
and the city was again destroyed; and over its ruins was built a
Roman city called Aelia Capitolina, a name which it retained
till it fell under the dominion of the Mohammedans, when it was
called el-Khuds, i.e., “the holy.”

In A.D. 326 Helena, mother of the emperor Constantine, made a
pilgrimage to Jerusalem with the view of discovering the places
mentioned in the life of our Lord. She caused a church to be
built on what was then supposed to be the place of the nativity
at Bethlehem. Constantine, animated by her example, searched for
the holy sepulchre, and built over the supposed site a
magnificent church, which was completed and dedicated A.D. 335.
He relaxed the laws against the Jews till this time in force,
and permitted them once a year to visit the city and wail over
the desolation of “the holy and beautiful house.”

In A.D. 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of
the emperor Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it
till A.D. 637, when it was taken by the Arabians under the
Khalif Omar. It remained in their possession till it passed, in
A.D. 960, under the dominion of the Fatimite khalifs of Egypt,
and in A.D. 1073 under the Turcomans. In A.D. 1099 the crusader
Godfrey of Bouillon took the city from the Moslems with great
slaughter, and was elected king of Jerusalem. He converted the
Mosque of Omar into a Christian cathedral. During the
eighty-eight years which followed, many churches and convents
were erected in the holy city. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
was rebuilt during this period, and it alone remains to this
day. In A.D. 1187 the sultan Saladin wrested the city from the
Christians. From that time to the present day, with few
intervals, Jerusalem has remained in the hands of the Moslems.
It has, however, during that period been again and again taken
and retaken, demolished in great part and rebuilt, no city in
the world having passed through so many vicissitudes.

In the year 1850 the Greek and Latin monks residing in Jerusalem
had a fierce dispute about the guardianship of what are called
the “holy places.” In this dispute the emperor Nicholas of
Russia sided with the Greeks, and Louis Napoleon, the emperor of
the French, with the Latins. This led the Turkish authorities to
settle the question in a way unsatisfactory to Russia. Out of
this there sprang the Crimean War, which was protracted and
sanguinary, but which had important consequences in the way of
breaking down the barriers of Turkish exclusiveness.

Modern Jerusalem “lies near the summit of a broad
mountain-ridge, which extends without interruption from the
plain of Esdraelon to a line drawn between the southern end of
the Dead Sea and the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean.”
This high, uneven table-land is everywhere from 20 to 25
geographical miles in breadth. It was anciently known as the
mountains of Ephraim and Judah.

“Jerusalem is a city of contrasts, and differs widely from
Damascus, not merely because it is a stone town in mountains,
whilst the latter is a mud city in a plain, but because while in
Damascus Moslem religion and Oriental custom are unmixed with
any foreign element, in Jerusalem every form of religion, every
nationality of East and West, is represented at one time.”

Jerusalem is first mentioned under that name in the Book of
Joshua, and the Tell-el-Amarna collection of tablets includes
six letters from its Amorite king to Egypt, recording the attack
of the Abiri about B.C. 1480. The name is there spelt Uru-Salim
(“city of peace”). Another monumental record in which the Holy
City is named is that of Sennacherib’s attack in B.C. 702. The
“camp of the Assyrians” was still shown about A.D. 70, on the
flat ground to the north-west, included in the new quarter of
the city.

The city of David included both the upper city and Millo, and
was surrounded by a wall built by David and Solomon, who appear
to have restored the original Jebusite fortifications. The name
Zion (or Sion) appears to have been, like Ariel (“the hearth of
God”), a poetical term for Jerusalem, but in the Greek age was
more specially used of the Temple hill. The priests’ quarter
grew up on Ophel, south of the Temple, where also was Solomon’s
Palace outside the original city of David. The walls of the city
were extended by Jotham and Manasseh to include this suburb and
the Temple (2 Chr. 27:3; 33:14).

Jerusalem is now a town of some 50,000 inhabitants, with ancient
mediaeval walls, partly on the old lines, but extending less far
to the south. The traditional sites, as a rule, were first shown
in the 4th and later centuries A.D., and have no authority. The
results of excavation have, however, settled most of the
disputed questions, the limits of the Temple area, and the
course of the old walls having been traced.

Possession, or possessed; i.e., “by a husband”, the wife of
Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).

Deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, the father of
Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1 Chr. 26:25); called also
Isshiah (24:21).

(2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 15).

(3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:21).

(4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7).

(5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19).

A city of the kingdom of Israel (2 Chr. 13:19).

Upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of
Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).

Seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of
priests (1 Chr. 24:13).

Uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1
Chr. 2:18).

The waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the
Dead Sea (Num. 21:20; 23:28; 1 Sam. 23:19, 24); or rather not a
proper name at all, but simply “the waste” or “wilderness,” the
district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down.

(1.) Head of the ninth priestly order (Ezra 2:36); called also
Jeshuah (1 Chr. 24:11).

(2.) A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in
the priestly cities (2 Chr. 31:15).

(3.) Ezra 2:6; Neh. 7:11.

(4.) Ezra 2:40; Neh. 7:43.

(5.) The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under
Zerubbabel (Neh. 7:7; 12:1, 7, 10, 26); called Joshua (Hag. 1:1,
12; 2:2, 4; Zech. 3:1, 3, 6, 8, 9).

(6.) A Levite (Ezra 8:33).

(7.) Neh. 3:19.

(8.) A Levite who assisted in the reformation under Nehemiah
(8:7; 9:4, 5).

(9.) Son of Kadmiel (Neh. 12:24).

(10.) A city of Judah (Neh. 11:26).

(11.) Neh. 8:17; Joshua, the son of Nun.

A poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of
affection, meaning, “the dear upright people” (Deut. 32:15;
33:5, 26; Isa. 44:2).

Firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth
4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight
sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase
“stem of Jesse” is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and
“root of Jesse” for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse
was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam.
17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of
David’s procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1
Sam. 22:3).

(1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; R.V.,

(2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11).

Je’sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord.
To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as
“Jesus of Nazareth” (John 18:7), and “Jesus the son of Joseph”
(John 6:42).

This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was
originally Hoshea (Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into
Jehoshua (Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27), or Joshua. After the Exile
it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus. It was
given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save
(Matt. 1:21).

The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great
periods, (1) that of his private life, till he was about thirty
years of age; and (2) that of his public life, which lasted
about three years.

In the “fulness of time” he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign
of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a
carpenter (Matt. 1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42). His birth was
announced to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-20). Wise men from the east
came to Bethlehem to see him who was born “King of the Jews,”
bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12). Herod’s cruel jealousy
led to Joseph’s flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant
Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matt.
2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower
Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.). At the age of
twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his
parents. There, in the temple, “in the midst of the doctors,”
all that heard him were “astonished at his understanding and
answers” (Luke 2:41, etc.).

Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this,
that he returned to Nazareth and “increased in wisdom and
stature, and in favour with God and man” (Luke 2:52).

He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years
of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three
years. “Each of these years had peculiar features of its own.
(1.) The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both
because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and
because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging
into public notice. It was spent for the most part in Judea.
(2.) The second year was the year of public favour, during which
the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was
incessant, and his frame rang through the length and breadth of
the land. It was almost wholly passed in Galilee. (3.) The third
was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away.
His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more
pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The
first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and
the last six in other parts of the land.”, Stalker’s Life of
Jesus Christ, p. 45.

The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of
Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical
detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different
aspects. (See [316]CHIRST.)

Surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Ex. 4:18
marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.).

(2.) The oldest of Gideon’s seventy sons (Judg. 8:20).

(3.) The father of Amasa, David’s general (1 Kings 2:5, 32);
called Ithra (2 Sam. 17:25).

(4.) 1 Chr. 7:38.

(5.) 1 Chr. 2:32; one of Judah’s posterity.

(6.) 1 Chr. 4:17.

A peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir
(Gen. 36:40).

Suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42).

His excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who
succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his
exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro’s flocks.
While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after
their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing
with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the “mount of
God,” and “Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto
Pharaoh” (Ex. 18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the
multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to
appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of
fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only
the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before
the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called
Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro
was an official name. (See [317]MOSES.)

An enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).

Snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah (1 Chr. 9:6).

Assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau’s three sons by Aholibamah
(Gen. 36:5, 14, 18).

(2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10).

(3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10, 11).

(4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:19).

(5.) 1 Chr. 8:39.

The name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one
belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of
Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jer. 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in
contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten
tribes, who were called Israelites.

During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name,
however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without
distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).

Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen. 39:14; 40:15;
Ex. 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1 Sam. 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile
this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Cor.
11:22; Phil. 3:5).

The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history
of Palestine and with the narratives of the lives of their
rulers and chief men. They are now [1897] dispersed over all
lands, and to this day remain a separate people, “without a
king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without
an image [R.V. pillar,’ marg. obelisk’], and without an ephod,
and without teraphim” (Hos. 3:4). Till about the beginning of
the present century [1800] they were everywhere greatly
oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition
is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European
countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the
“Jewish disabilities” were removed, and they were admitted to a
seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated
at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.

There are three names used in the New Testament to designate
this people, (1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to
distinguish them from Gentiles. (2.) Hebrews, with regard to
their language and education, to distinguish them from
Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language. (3.)
Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen
people of God. “To other races we owe the splendid inheritance
of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious
education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone.”

A woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts
16:1; 2 Tim. 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and
daughter of Herod Agrippa I.

Chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and
the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was
the “first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by
marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this
case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her
name on history as the representative of all that is designing,
crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great
instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by
no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man,
passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared
no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour.
Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to
Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V.,
‘prophets of the Asherah’], which ate at her table (1 Kings
18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual
kind.” Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the
kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came
to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she
looked out at the window of the palace, and said, “Had Zimri
peace, who slew his master?” He looked up and called to her
chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that
she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her
under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of
the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the
Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19).

Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a wicked
woman (Rev. 2: 20).

It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt of
Dido, the founder of Carthage.

Assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite
archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).

God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar (Josh. 19:18), where the
kings of Israel often resided (1 Kings 18:45; 21:1; 2 Kings
9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu
executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2
Kings 9:14-37; 10:1-11). It has been identified with the modern
Zerin, on the most western point of the range of Gilboa,
reaching down into the great and fertile valley of Jezreel, to
which it gave its name.

(2.) A town in Judah (Josh. 15:56), to the south-east of Hebron.
Ahinoam, one of David’s wives, probably belonged to this place
(1 Sam. 27:3).

(3.) A symbolical name given by Hosea to his oldest son (Hos.
1:4), in token of a great slaughter predicted by him, like that
which had formerly taken place in the plain of Esdraelon (comp.
Hos. 1:4, 5).

Jezreel, Blood of
The murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1
Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 9:6-10).

Jezreel, Day of
The time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds
of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5).

Jezreel, Ditch of
(1 Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the fortification surrounding the
city, outside of which Naboth was executed.

Jezreel, Fountain of
Where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 29:1).
In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs,
one of which, perhaps that here referred to, “flows from under a
sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms
the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from
crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid
pool forty or fifty feet in diameter, full of fish” (Robinson).
This may be identical with the “well of Harod” (Judg. 7:1; comp.
2 Sam. 23:25), probably the Ain Jalud, i.e., the “spring of

Jezreel, Portion of
The field adjoining the city (2 Kings 9:10, 21, 36, 37). Here
Naboth was stoned to death (1 Kings 21:13).

Jezreel, Tower of
One of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city (2
Kings 9:17).

Jezreel, Valley of
Lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of
Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the
Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of
the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over
the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the “children of the east”
(Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here
defeated by the Philistines, and Saul and Jonathan, with the
flower of the army of Israel, fell (1 Sam. 31:1-6).

This name was in after ages extended to the whole of the plain
of Esdraelon (q.v.). It was only this plain of Jezreel and that
north of Lake Huleh that were then accessible to the chariots of
the Canaanites (comp. 2 Kings 9:21; 10:15).

Jehovah is his father. (1.) One of the three sons of Zeruiah,
David’s sister, and “captain of the host” during the whole of
David’s reign (2 Sam. 2:13; 10:7; 11:1; 1 Kings 11:15). His
father’s name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at
Bethlehem is mentioned (2 Sam. 2:32). His two brothers were
Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot, who was killed by Abner
(2 Sam. 2:13-32), whom Joab afterwards treacherously murdered
(3:22-27). He afterwards led the assault at the storming of the
fortress on Mount Zion, and for this service was raised to the
rank of “prince of the king’s army” (2 Sam. 5:6-10; 1 Chr.
27:34). His chief military achievements were, (1) against the
allied forces of Syria and Ammon; (2) against Edom (1 Kings
11:15, 16); and (3) against the Ammonites (2 Sam. 10:7-19; 11:1,
11). His character is deeply stained by the part he willingly
took in the murder of Uriah (11:14-25). He acted apparently from
a sense of duty in putting Absalom to death (18:1-14). David was
unmindful of the many services Joab had rendered to him, and
afterwards gave the command of the army to Amasa, Joab’s cousin
(2 Sam. 20:1-13; 19:13). When David was dying Joab espoused the
cause of Adonijah in preference to that of Solomon. He was
afterwards slain by Benaiah, by the command of Solomon, in
accordance with his father’s injunction (2 Sam. 3:29; 20:5-13),
at the altar to which he had fled for refuge. Thus this hoary
conspirator died without one to lift up a voice in his favour.
He was buried in his own property in the “wilderness,” probably
in the north-east of Jerusalem (1 Kings 2:5, 28-34). Benaiah
succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the army.

(2.) 1 Chr. 4:14.

(3.) Ezra 2:6.

Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of
Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4), a Korhite porter.

(2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1 Chr. 6:21), probably
the same as Ethan (42).

(3.) The son of Asaph, and “recorder” (q.v.) or chronicler to
King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37).

(4.) Son of Joahaz, and “recorder” (q.v.) or keeper of the state
archives under King Josiah (2 Chr. 34:8).

(2 Chr. 34:8), a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.).

Whom Jehovah has graciously given. (1.) The grandson of
Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the same as
Hananiah (1 Chr. 3:19).

(2.) The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch
of Galilee (Luke 8:3). She was one of the women who ministered
to our Lord, and to whom he appeared after his resurrection
(Luke 8:3; 24:10).

Whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the
father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).

(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1
Chr. 12:3).

(3.) One of King Ahab’s sons (1 Kings 22:26).

(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (See [318]JEHOASH

(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (See
[319]JEHOASH [2].)

(6.) 1 Chr. 7:8.

(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David
and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:28).

Persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz
(q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was
suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon
him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once
more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and
even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived
the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in
a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of
integrity (Ezek. 14:14, 20) and of submissive patience under the
sorest calamities (James 5:11). His history, so far as it is
known, is recorded in his book.

Dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons of Joktan, and
founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.) King of Edom,
succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, 34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Josh.
11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua.

Job, Book of
A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this
book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of
sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see
Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of “wisdom,” and the
style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some
to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others
argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or
Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was “learned in
all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds”
(Acts 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the
knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether

As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of
the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a
historical person, and the localities and names were real and
not fictious. It is “one of the grandest portions of the
inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort
and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument
of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the
Epistle to the Romans is to the New.” It is a didactic narrative
in a dramatic form.

This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C.
600 (Ezek. 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures
used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part
of the inspired Word (Heb. 12:5; 1 Cor. 3:19).

The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion,
nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the
truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are
seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the
blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and
thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age.
It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in
righteousness (2 Tim. 3:16).

It consists of,

(1.) An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1, 2).

(2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6).

Job’s desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the
controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues
between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the
commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the
growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of
the controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution of the
controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah,
followed by Job’s humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault
and folly.

(3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose

Sir J. W. Dawson in “The Expositor” says: “It would now seem
that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better
explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern
Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other
way. This view also agrees better than any other with its
references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other

Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of
Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the
sister of Kohath, Amram’s father (Ex. 6:20; comp. 16, 18;

Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel’s two sons
appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1 Sam. 8:2). (See
VASHNI.) (2.) A descendant of Reuben (1 Chr. 5:4, 8). (3.) One
of David’s famous warriors (1 Chr. 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the
family of Gershom (1 Chr. 15:7, 11). (5.) 1 Chr. 7:3. (6.) 1
Chr. 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was
the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his

A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:7).

Joel, Book of
Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to
that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem
(1:14; 2:1, 15, 32; 3:1, 12, 17, 20, 21).

He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800),
and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah.

The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public
calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a want of
water and an extraordinary plague of locusts (1:1-2:11). (2.)
The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to turn
to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive (2:12-17), and
foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed
fruitfulness (18-26). (3.) Then follows a Messianic prophecy,
quoted by Peter (Acts 2:39). (4.) Finally, the prophet foretells
portents and judgments as destined to fall on the enemies of God
(ch. 3, but in the Hebrew text 4).

Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of
David’s body-guard (1 Chr. 12:6).

Whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One of the Gadite heroes
who joined David in the desert of Judah (1 Chr. 12:12).

(2.) The oldest of King Josiah’s sons (1 Chr. 3:15).

(3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round
Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (2
Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8). He warned Gedaliah of the plans of
Ishmael against him, a warning which was unheeded (Jer. 40:13,
16). He afterwards pursued the murderer of the governor, and
rescued the captives (41:8, 13, 15, 16). He and his associates
subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (43:2, 4, 5), taking
Jeremiah with them. “The flight of Gedaliah’s community to Egypt
extinguished the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish
state. The work of the ten centuries since Joshua crossed the
Jordan had been undone.”

(1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the
apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the
high priest; otherwise unknown.

(2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this
name in the acts of the Apostles (12:12, 25; 13:5, 13; 15:37).

(3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the “Greater” (Matt. 4:21;
10:2; Mark 1:19; 3:17; 10:35). He was one, probably the younger,
of the sons of Zebedee (Matt. 4:21) and Salome (Matt. 27:56;
comp. Mark 15:40), and was born at Bethsaida. His father was
apparently a man of some wealth (comp. Mark 1:20; Luke 5:3; John
19:27). He was doubtless trained in all that constituted the
ordinary education of Jewish youth. When he grew up he followed
the occupation of a fisherman on the Lake of Galilee. When John
the Baptist began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea, John,
with many others, gathered round him, and was deeply influenced
by his teaching. There he heard the announcement, “Behold the
Lamb of God,” and forthwith, on the invitation of Jesus, became
a disciple and ranked among his followers (John 1:36, 37) for a
time. He and his brother then returned to their former
avocation, for how long is uncertain. Jesus again called them
(Matt. 4: 21; Luke 5:1-11), and now they left all and
permanently attached themselves to the company of his disciples.
He became one of the innermost circle (Mark 5:37; Matt. 17:1;
26:37; Mark 13:3). He was the disciple whom Jesus loved. In zeal
and intensity of character he was a “Boanerges” (Mark 3:17).
This spirit once and again broke out (Matt. 20:20-24; Mark
10:35-41; Luke 9:49, 54). At the betrayal he and Peter follow
Christ afar off, while the others betake themselves to hasty
flight (John 18:15). At the trial he follows Christ into the
council chamber, and thence to the praetorium (18:16, 19, 28)
and to the place of crucifixion (19:26, 27). To him and Peter,
Mary first conveys tidings of the resurrection (20:2), and they
are the first to go and see what her strange words mean. After
the resurrection he and Peter again return to the Sea of
Galilee, where the Lord reveals himself to them (21:1, 7). We
find Peter and John frequently after this together (Acts 3:1;
4:13). John remained apparently in Jerusalem as the leader of
the church there (Acts 15:6; Gal. 2:9). His subsequent history
is unrecorded. He was not there, however, at the time of Paul’s
last visit (Acts 21:15-40). He appears to have retired to
Ephesus, but at what time is unknown. The seven churches of Asia
were the objects of his special care (Rev. 1:11). He suffered
under persecution, and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he
again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A.D.
98, having outlived all or nearly all the friends and companions
even of his maturer years. There are many interesting traditions
regarding John during his residence at Ephesus, but these cannot
claim the character of historical truth.

John, First Epistle of
The fourth of the catholic or “general” epistles. It was
evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at
Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose of
the apostle (1:1-4) is to declare the Word of Life to those to
whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship
with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the
means of union with God are, (1) on the part of Christ, his
atoning work (1:7; 2:2; 3:5; 4:10, 14; 5:11, 12) and his
advocacy (2:1); and (2), on the part of man, holiness (1:6),
obedience (2:3), purity (3:3), faith (3:23; 4:3; 5:5), and love
(2:7, 8; 3:14; 4:7; 5:1).

John, Gospel of
The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle
John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent
times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn
its genuineness, but without success.

The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself
(John 20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the
purpose of supplying the omissions of the synoptical, i.e., of
the first three, Gospels, but there is no evidence for this.
“There is here no history of Jesus and his teaching after the
manner of the other evangelists. But there is in historical form
a representation of the Christian faith in relation to the
person of Christ as its central point; and in this
representation there is a picture on the one hand of the
antagonism of the world to the truth revealed in him, and on the
other of the spiritual blessedness of the few who yield
themselves to him as the Light of life” (Reuss).

After the prologue (1:1-5), the historical part of the book
begins with verse 6, and consists of two parts. The first part
(1:6-ch. 12) contains the history of our Lord’s public ministry
from the time of his introduction to it by John the Baptist to
its close. The second part (ch. 13-21) presents our Lord in the
retirement of private life and in his intercourse with his
immediate followers (13-17), and gives an account of his
sufferings and of his appearances to the disciples after his
resurrection (18-21).

The peculiarities of this Gospel are the place it gives (1) to
the mystical relation of the Son to the Father, and (2) of the
Redeemer to believers; (3) the announcement of the Holy Ghost as
the Comforter; (4) the prominence given to love as an element in
the Christian character. It was obviously addressed primarily to

It was probably written at Ephesus, which, after the destruction
of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), became the centre of Christian life and
activity in the East, about A.D. 90.

John, Second Epistle of
Is addressed to “the elect lady,” and closes with the words,
“The children of thy elect sister greet thee;” but some would
read instead of “lady” the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen
verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle.
The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned
against false teachers.

John the Baptist
The “forerunner of our Lord.” We have but fragmentary and
imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly
descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of
Abia (1 Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the
daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the
subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). His birth,
which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold
by an angel. Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a
token of God’s truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with
reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech
restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64).
After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what
is mentioned in Luke 1:80. John was a Nazarite from his birth
(Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12). He spent his early years in the
mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead
Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).

At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes
from “every quarter” were attracted to him. The sum of his
preaching was the necessity of repentance. He denounced the
Sadducees and Pharisees as a “generation of vipers,” and warned
them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke 3:8).
“As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating.
Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people
at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and
consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against
extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder.” His doctrine
and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the
people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the
banks of the Jordan. There he baptized thousands unto

The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matt.
3:5), and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John,
on the special ground that it became him to “fulfil all
righteousness” (3:15). John’s special office ceased with the
baptism of Jesus, who must now “increase” as the King come to
his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear
testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his
disciples, saying, “Behold the Lamb of God.” His public ministry
was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a
close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had
reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his
brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was shut up in the castle of
Machaerus (q.v.), a fortress on the southern extremity of
Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded.
His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave,
went and told Jesus all that had occurred (Matt. 14:3-12).
John’s death occurred apparently just before the third Passover
of our Lord’s ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him
that he was a “burning and a shining light” (John 5:35).

John, Third Epistle of
Is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of
that name in Macedonia (Acts 19: 29) or in Corinth (Rom. 16:23)
or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain. It was written for the
purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were
strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither
for the purpose of preaching the gospel (ver. 7).

The Second and Third Epistles were probably written soon after
the First, and from Ephesus.

(whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada. (1.) Neh. 3:6. (2.) One of
the high priests (12:10, 11, 22).

(whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son
and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, 12, 26).

(whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.) The founder of one of
the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10).

(2.) Neh. 11:5; a descendant of Judah.

(3.) Neh. 12:6.

(4.) Ezra 8:16, a “man of understanding” whom Ezra sent to
“bring ministers for the house of God.”

A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:56).

Whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah (1
Chr. 4:22).

Gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with
its suburbs to the Levites (1 Chr. 6:68). It lay somewhere in
the Jordan valley (1 Kings 4:12, R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly

Gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11; 21:34), a city “of Carmel”
(12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the
Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles
south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.

Snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:2, 3; 1
Chr. 1:32).

Little, the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1 Chr.
1:19). There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was
the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern

Subdued by God. (1.) A city of Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15,
38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer.

(2.) Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition
against Edom (2 Chr. 25:5-10), which was completely successful.
He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So
wonderful did this victory appear to him that he acknowledged
that it could have been achieved only by the special help of
God, and therefore he called Selah (q.v.), their great fortress
city, by the name of Joktheel (2 Kings 14:7).

=Jehon’adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the
Rechabites (q.v.), 2 Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, 10.

(2.) The son of Shimeah, David’s brother (2 Sam. 13:3). He was
“a very subtil man.”

A dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of
Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries
(2 Kings 14:25-27) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry
very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was
contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them,
and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the
prophets whose writings we possess. His personal history is
mainly to be gathered from the book which bears his name. It is
chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he
appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a
type of the “Son of man.”

Jonah, Book of
This book professes to give an account of what actually took
place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought
to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a
history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some
reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so
largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in
its form; (2) others, denying the possibility of miracles
altogether, hold that therefore it cannot be true history.

Jonah and his story is referred to by our Lord (Matt. 12:39, 40;
Luke 11:29), a fact to which the greatest weight must be
attached. It is impossible to interpret this reference on any
other theory. This one argument is of sufficient importance to
settle the whole question. No theories devised for the purpose
of getting rid of difficulties can stand against such a proof
that the book is a veritable history.

There is every reason to believe that this book was written by
Jonah himself. It gives an account of (1) his divine commission
to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following
(1:1-17); (2) his prayer and miraculous deliverance (1:17-2:10);
(3) the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience
in delivering the message from God, and its results in the
repentance of the Ninevites, and God’s long-sparing mercy toward
them (ch. 3); (4) Jonah’s displeasure at God’s merciful
decision, and the rebuke tendered to the impatient prophet (ch.
4). Nineveh was spared after Jonah’s mission for more than a
century. The history of Jonah may well be regarded “as a part of
that great onward movement which was before the Law and under
the Law; which gained strength and volume as the fulness of the
times drew near.”, Perowne’s Jonah.

(1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, 40, 41, etc.).

(2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15-17) and
Andrew; but the reading should be (also in 1:42), as in the
Revised Version, “John,” instead of Jonas.

Whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are
mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are, (1.) A Levite
descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is recorded in
17:7-13 and 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh
“to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of
having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants.” He
became priest of the idol image at Dan, and this office
continued in his family till the Captivity.

(2.) The eldest son of king Saul, and the bosom friend of David.
He is first mentioned when he was about thirty years of age,
some time after his father’s accession to the throne (1 Sam.
13:2). Like his father, he was a man of great strength and
activity (2 Sam. 1:23), and excelled in archery and slinging (1
Chr. 12:2;2 Sam. 1:22). The affection that evidently subsisted
between him and his father was interrupted by the growth of
Saul’s insanity. At length, “in fierce anger,” he left his
father’s presence and cast in his lot with the cause of David (1
Sam. 20:34). After an eventful career, interwoven to a great
extent with that of David, he fell, along with his father and
his two brothers, on the fatal field of Gilboa (1 Sam. 31:2, 8).
He was first buried at Jabesh-gilead, but his remains were
afterwards removed with those of his father to Zelah, in
Benjamin (2 Sam. 21:12-14). His death was the occasion of
David’s famous elegy of “the Song of the Bow” (2 Sam. 1:17-27).
He left one son five years old, Merib-baal, or Mephibosheth (2
Sam. 4:4; comp. 1 Chr. 8:34).

(3.) Son of the high priest Abiathar, and one who adhered to
David at the time of Absalom’s rebellion (2 Sam. 15:27, 36). He
is the last descendant of Eli of whom there is any record.

(4.) Son of Shammah, and David’s nephew, and also one of his
chief warriors (2 Sam. 21:21). He slew a giant in Gath.

Dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., “the silent dove in
distant places”, title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of
some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be

Beauty, a town in the portion of Dan (Josh. 19:46; A.V.,
“Japho”), on a sandy promontory between Caesarea and Gaza, and
at a distance of 30 miles north-west from Jerusalem. It is one
of the oldest towns in Asia. It was and still is the chief
sea-port of Judea. It was never wrested from the Phoenicians. It
became a Jewish town only in the second century B.C. It was from
this port that Jonah “took ship to flee from the presence of the
Lord” (Jonah 1:3). To this place also the wood cut in Lebanon by
Hiram’s men for Solomon was brought in floats (2 Chr. 2:16); and
here the material for the building of the second temple was also
landed (Ezra 3:7). At Joppa, in the house of Simon the tanner,
“by the sea-side,” Peter resided “many days,” and here, “on the
house-top,” he had his “vision of tolerance” (Acts 9:36-43). It
bears the modern name of Jaffa, and exibituds all the
decrepitude and squalor of cities ruled over by the Turks.
“Scarcely any other town has been so often overthrown, sacked,
pillaged, burned, and rebuilt.” Its present population is said
to be about 16,000. It was taken by the French under Napoleon in
1799, who gave orders for the massacre here of 4,000 prisoners.
It is connected with Jerusalem by the only carriage road that
exists in the country, and also by a railway completed in 1892.
It is noticed on monuments B.C. 1600-1300, and was attacked by
Sannacharib B.C. 702.

=Jeho’ram. (1.) One of the kings of Israel (2 Kings 8:16, 25,
28). He was the son of Ahab.

(2.) Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne
of Judah (2 Kings 8:24).

Heb. Yarden, “the descender;” Arab. Nahr-esh-Sheriah, “the
watering-place” the chief river of Palestine. It flows from
north to south down a deep valley in the centre of the country.
The name descender is significant of the fact that there is
along its whole course a descent to its banks; or it may simply
denote the rapidity with which it “descends” to the Dead Sea.

It originates in the snows of Hermon, which feed its perennial
fountains. Two sources are generally spoken of. (1.) From the
western base of a hill on which once stood the city of Dan, the
northern border-city of Palestine, there gushes forth a
considerable fountain called the Leddan, which is the largest
fountain in Syria and the principal source of the Jordan. (2.)
Beside the ruins of Banias, the ancient Caesarea Philippi and
the yet more ancient Panium, is a lofty cliff of limestone, at
the base of which is a fountain. This is the other source of the
Jordan, and has always been regarded by the Jews as its true
source. It rushes down to the plain in a foaming torrent, and
joins the Leddan about 5 miles south of Dan (Tell-el-Kady). (3.)
But besides these two historical fountains there is a third,
called the Hasbany, which rises in the bottom of a valley at the
western base of Hermon, 12 miles north of Tell-el-Kady. It joins
the main stream about a mile below the junction of the Leddan
and the Banias. The river thus formed is at this point about 45
feet wide, and flows in a channel from 12 to 20 feet below the
plain. After this it flows, “with a swift current and a
much-twisted course,” through a marshy plain for some 6 miles,
when it falls into the Lake Huleh, “the waters of Merom” (q.v.).

During this part of its course the Jordan has descended about
1,100 feet. At Banias it is 1,080 feet above sea-level. Flowing
from the southern extremity of Lake Huleh, here almost on a
level with the sea, it flows for 2 miles “through a waste of
islets and papyrus,” and then for 9 miles through a narrow gorge
in a foaming torrent onward to the Sea of Galilee (q.v.).

“In the whole valley of the Jordan from the Lake Huleh to the
Sea of Galilee there is not a single settled inhabitant. Along
the whole eastern bank of the river and the lakes, from the base
of Hermon to the ravine of Hieromax, a region of great
fertility, 30 miles long by 7 or 8 wide, there are only some
three inhabited villages. The western bank is almost as
desolate. Ruins are numerous enough. Every mile or two is an old
site of town or village, now well nigh hid beneath a dense
jungle of thorns and thistles. The words of Scripture here recur
to us with peculiar force: I will make your cities waste, and
bring your sanctuaries unto desolation…And I will bring the
land into desolation: and your enemies which dwell therein shall
be astonished at it…And your land shall be desolate, and your
cities waste. Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as
it lieth desolate’ (Lev. 26:31-34).”, Dr. Porter’s Handbook.

From the Sea of Galilee, at the level of 682 feet below the
Mediterranean, the river flows through a long, low plain called
“the region of Jordan” (Matt. 3:5), and by the modern Arabs the
Ghor, or “sunken plain.” This section is properly the Jordan of
Scripture. Down through the midst of the “plain of Jordan” there
winds a ravine varying in breadth from 200 yards to half a mile,
and in depth from 40 to 150 feet. Through it the Jordan flows in
a rapid, rugged, tortuous course down to the Dead Sea. The whole
distance from the southern extremity of the Sea of Galilee to
the Dead Sea is in a straight line about 65 miles, but following
the windings of the river about 200 miles, during which it falls
618 feet. The total length of the Jordan from Banias is about
104 miles in a straight line, during which it falls 2,380 feet.

There are two considerable affluents which enter the river
between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, both from the east.
(1.) The Wady Mandhur, called the Yarmuk by the Rabbins and the
Hieromax by the Greeks. It formed the boundary between Bashan
and Gilead. It drains the plateau of the Hauran. (2.) The Jabbok
or Wady Zerka, formerly the northern boundary of Ammon. It
enters the Jordan about 20 miles north of Jericho.

The first historical notice of the Jordan is in the account of
the separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. 13:10). “Lot beheld the
plain of Jordan as the garden of the Lord.” Jacob crossed and
recrossed “this Jordan” (32:10). The Israelites passed over it
as “on dry ground” (Josh. 3:17; Ps. 114:3). Twice afterwards its
waters were miraculously divided at the same spot by Elijah and
Elisha (2 Kings 2:8, 14).

The Jordan is mentioned in the Old Testament about one hundred
and eighty times, and in the New Testament fifteen times. The
chief events in gospel history connected with it are (1) John
the Baptist’s ministry, when “there went out to him Jerusalem,
and all Judaea, and were baptized of him in Jordan” (Matt. 3:6).
(2.) Jesus also “was baptized of John in Jordan” (Mark 1:9).

Remover or increaser. (1.) The elder of the two sons of Jacob by
Rachel (Gen. 30:23, 24), who, on the occasion of his birth,
said, “God hath taken away [Heb. asaph] my reproach.” “The Lord
shall add [Heb. yoseph] to me another son” (Gen. 30:24). He was
a child of probably six years of age when his father returned
from Haran to Canaan and took up his residence in the old
patriarchal town of Hebron. “Now Israel loved Joseph more than
all his children, because he was the son of his old age,” and he
“made him a long garment with sleeves” (Gen. 37:3, R.V. marg.),
i.e., a garment long and full, such as was worn by the children
of nobles. This seems to be the correct rendering of the words.
The phrase, however, may also be rendered, “a coat of many
pieces”, i.e., a patchwork of many small pieces of divers

When he was about seventeen years old Joseph incurred the
jealous hatred of his brothers (Gen. 37:4). They “hated him, and
could not speak peaceably unto him.” Their anger was increased
when he told them his dreams (37:11).

Jacob desiring to hear tidings of his sons, who had gone to
Shechem with their flocks, some 60 miles from Hebron, sent
Joseph as his messenger to make inquiry regarding them. Joseph
found that they had left Shechem for Dothan, whither he followed
them. As soon as they saw him coming they began to plot against
him, and would have killed him had not Reuben interposed. They
ultimately sold him to a company of Ishmaelite merchants for
twenty pieces (shekels) of silver (about $2, 10s.), ten pieces
less than the current value of a slave, for “they cared little
what they had for him, if so be they were rid of him.” These
merchants were going down with a varied assortment of
merchandise to the Egyptian market, and thither they conveyed
him, and ultimately sold him as a slave to Potiphar, an “officer
of Pharaoh’s, and captain of the guard” (Gen. 37:36). “The Lord
blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake,” and Potiphar
made him overseer over his house. At length a false charge
having been brought against him by Potiphar’s wife, he was at
once cast into the state prison (39; 40), where he remained for
at least two years. After a while the “chief of the cupbearers”
and the “chief of the bakers” of Pharaoh’s household were cast
into the same prison (40:2). Each of these new prisoners dreamed
a dream in the same night, which Joseph interpreted, the event
occurring as he had said.

This led to Joseph’s being remembered subsequently by the chief
butler when Pharaoh also dreamed. At his suggestion Joseph was
brought from prison to interpret the king’s dreams. Pharaoh was
well pleased with Joseph’s wisdom in interpreting his dreams,
and with his counsel with reference to the events then
predicted; and he set him over all the land of Egypt (Gen.
41:46), and gave him the name of Zaphnath-paaneah. He was
married to Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On, and thus
became a member of the priestly class. Joseph was now about
thirty years of age.

As Joseph had interpreted, seven years of plenty came, during
which he stored up great abundance of corn in granaries built
for the purpose. These years were followed by seven years of
famine “over all the face of the earth,” when “all countries
came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn” (Gen. 41:56, 57; 47:13,
14). Thus “Joseph gathered up all the money that was in the land
of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they
bought.” Afterwards all the cattle and all the land, and at last
the Egyptians themselves, became the property of Pharaoh.

During this period of famine Joseph’s brethren also came down to
Egypt to buy corn. The history of his dealings with them, and of
the manner in which he at length made himself known to them, is
one of the most interesting narratives that can be read (Gen.
42-45). Joseph directed his brethren to return and bring Jacob
and his family to the land of Egypt, saying, “I will give you
the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the
land. Regard not your stuff; for the good of all the land is
yours.” Accordingly Jacob and his family, to the number of
threescore and ten souls, together with “all that they had,”
went down to Egypt. They were settled in the land of Goshen,
where Joseph met his father, and “fell on his neck, and wept on
his neck a good while” (Gen. 46:29).

The excavations of Dr. Naville have shown the land of Goshen to
be the Wady Tumilat, between Ismailia and Zagazig. In Goshen
(Egyptian Qosem) they had pasture for their flocks, were near
the Asiatic frontier of Egypt, and were out of the way of the
Egyptian people. An inscription speaks of it as a district given
up to the wandering shepherds of Asia.

Jacob at length died, and in fulfilment of a promise which he
had exacted, Joseph went up to Canaan to bury his father in “the
field of Ephron the Hittite” (Gen. 47:29-31; 50:1-14). This was
the last recorded act of Joseph, who again returned to Egypt.

“The Story of the Two Brothers,’ an Egyptian romance written for
the son of the Pharaoh of the Oppression, contains an episode
very similar to the Biblical account of Joseph’s treatment by
Potiphar’s wife. Potiphar and Potipherah are the Egyptian
Pa-tu-pa-Ra, the gift of the sun-god.’ The name given to Joseph,
Zaphnath-paaneah, is probably the Egyptian Zaf-nti-pa-ankh,
nourisher of the living one,’ i.e., of the Pharaoh. There are
many instances in the inscriptions of foreigners in Egypt
receiving Egyptian names, and rising to the highest offices of

By his wife Asenath, Joseph had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim
(Gen. 41:50). Joseph having obtained a promise from his brethren
that when the time should come that God would “bring them unto
the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob,”
they would carry up his bones out of Egypt, at length died, at
the age of one hundred and ten years; and “they embalmed him,
and he was put in a coffin” (Gen. 50:26). This promise was
faithfully observed. Their descendants, long after, when the
Exodus came, carried the body about with them during their forty
years’ wanderings, and at length buried it in Shechem, in the
parcel of ground which Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor
(Josh. 24:32; comp. Gen. 33:19). With the death of Joseph the
patriarchal age of the history of Israel came to a close.

The Pharaoh of Joseph’s elevation was probably Apepi, or Apopis,
the last of the Hyksos kings. Some, however, think that Joseph
came to Egypt in the reign of Thothmes III. (see [320]PHARAOH),
long after the expulsion of the Hyksos.

The name Joseph denotes the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh
in Deut. 33:13-17; the kingdom of Israel in Ezek. 37:16, 19,
Amos 5:6; and the whole covenant people of Israel in Ps. 81:4.

(2.) One of the sons of Asaph, head of the first division of
sacred musicians (1 Chr. 25:2, 9).

(3.) The son of Judah, and father of Semei (Luke 3:26). Other
two of the same name in the ancestry of Christ are also
mentioned (3:24, 30).

(4.) The foster-father of our Lord (Matt. 1:16; Luke 3:23). He
lived at Nazareth in Galilee (Luke 2:4). He is called a “just
man.” He was by trade a carpenter (Matt. 13:55). He is last
mentioned in connection with the journey to Jerusalem, when
Jesus was twelve years old. It is probable that he died before
Jesus entered on his public ministry. This is concluded from the
fact that Mary only was present at the marriage feast in Cana of
Galilee. His name does not appear in connection with the scenes
of the crucifixion along with that of Mary (q.v.), John 19:25.

(5.) A native of Arimathea, probably the Ramah of the Old
Testament (1 Sam. 1:19), a man of wealth, and a member of the
Sanhedrim (Matt. 27:57; Luke 23:50), an “honourable counsellor,
who waited for the kingdom of God.” As soon as he heard the
tidings of Christ’s death, he “went in boldly” (lit. “having
summoned courage, he went”) “unto Pilate, and craved the body of
Jesus.” Pilate having ascertained from the centurion that the
death had really taken place, granted Joseph’s request, who
immediately, having purchased fine linen (Mark 15:46), proceeded
to Golgotha to take the body down from the cross. There,
assisted by Nicodemus, he took down the body and wrapped it in
the fine linen, sprinkling it with the myrrh and aloes which
Nicodemus had brought (John 19:39), and then conveyed the body
to the new tomb hewn by Joseph himself out of a rock in his
garden hard by. There they laid it, in the presence of Mary
Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joses, and other women, and rolled
a great stone to the entrance, and departed (Luke 23:53, 55).
This was done in haste, “for the Sabbath was drawing on” (comp.
Isa. 53:9).

(6.) Surnamed Barsabas (Acts 1:23); also called Justus. He was
one of those who “companied with the apostles all the time that
the Lord Jesus went out and in among them” (Acts 1:21), and was
one of the candidates for the place of Judas.

Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of
the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of
Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Num. 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in
Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (R.V., Joshua).

He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with
whom he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of
the Exodus, and held the place of commander of the host of the
Israelites at their great battle against the Amalekites in
Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-16). He became Moses’ minister or servant,
and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai
to receive the two tables (Ex. 32:17). He was also one of the
twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan
(Num. 13:16, 17), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging
report. Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death,
invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority
over the people as his successor (Deut. 31:23). The people were
encamped at Shittim when he assumed the command (Josh. 1:1); and
crossing the Jordan, they encamped at Gilgal, where, having
circumcised the people, he kept the Passover, and was visited by
the Captain of the Lord’s host, who spoke to him encouraging
words (1:1-9).

Now began the wars of conquest which Joshua carried on for many
years, the record of which is in the book which bears his name.
Six nations and thirty-one kings were conquered by him (Josh.
11:18-23; 12:24). Having thus subdued the Canaanites, Joshua
divided the land among the tribes, Timnath-serah in Mount
Ephraim being assigned to himself as his own inheritance. (See
[321]SHILOH; [322]PRIEST.)

His work being done, he died, at the age of one hundred and ten
years, twenty-five years after having crossed the Jordan. He was
buried in his own city of Timnath-serah (Josh. 24); and “the
light of Israel for the time faded away.”

Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Heb. 4:8) in the
following particulars: (1) In the name common to both; (2)
Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised
Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3)
as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law.

The character of Joshua is thus well sketched by Edersheim:,
“Born a slave in Egypt, he must have been about forty years old
at the time of the Exodus. Attached to the person of Moses, he
led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Ex.
17:9, 13), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven
the God-given rod.’ It was no doubt on that occasion that his
name was changed from Oshea, help,’ to Jehoshua, Jehovah is
help’ (Num. 13:16). And this name is the key to his life and
work. Alike in bringing the people into Canaan, in his wars, and
in the distribution of the land among the tribes, from the
miraculous crossing of Jordan and taking of Jericho to his last
address, he was the embodiment of his new name, Jehovah is
help.’ To this outward calling his character also corresponded.
It is marked by singleness of purpose, directness, and
decision…He sets an object before him, and unswervingly
follows it” (Bible Hist., iii. 103)

Joshua, The Book of
Contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to
that of Joshua. It consists of three parts: (1.) The history of
the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.) The allotment of the land
to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of
refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal
of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been
compared to the Domesday Book of the Norman conquest. (3.) The
farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23,

This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1)
the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the “other writings” =
Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old
Testament. There is every reason for concluding that the uniform
tradition of the Jews is correct when they assign the authorship
of the book to Joshua, all except the concluding section; the
last verses (24:29-33) were added by some other hand.

There are two difficulties connected with this book which have
given rise to much discussion, (1.) The miracle of the standing
still of the sun and moon on Gibeon. The record of it occurs in
Joshua’s impassioned prayer of faith, as quoted (Josh. 10:12-15)
from the “Book of Jasher” (q.v.). There are many explanations
given of these words. They need, however, present no difficulty
if we believe in the possibility of God’s miraculous
interposition in behalf of his people. Whether it was caused by
the refraction of the light, or how, we know not.

(2.) Another difficulty arises out of the command given by God
utterly to exterminate the Canaanites. “Shall not the Judge of
all the earth do right?” It is enough that Joshua clearly knew
that this was the will of God, who employs his terrible
agencies, famine, pestilence, and war, in the righteous
government of this world. The Canaanites had sunk into a state
of immorality and corruption so foul and degrading that they had
to be rooted out of the land with the edge of the sword. “The
Israelites’ sword, in its bloodiest executions, wrought a work
of mercy for all the countries of the earth to the very end of
the world.”

This book resembles the Acts of the Apostles in the number and
variety of historical incidents it records, and in its many
references to persons and places; and as in the latter case the
epistles of Paul (see Paley’s Horae Paul.) confirm its
historical accuracy by their incidental allusions and
“undesigned coincidences,” so in the former modern discoveries
confirm its historicity. The Amarna tablets (see
[323]ADONIZEDEC) are among the most remarkable discoveries of
the age. Dating from about B.C. 1480 down to the time of Joshua,
and consisting of official communications from Amorite,
Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they
afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to
the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of
the conquest. A letter, also still extant, from a military
officer, “master of the captains of Egypt,” dating from near the
end of the reign of Rameses II., gives a curious account of a
journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine
as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social
condition of the country at that time. Among the things brought
to light by this letter and the Amarna tablets is the state of
confusion and decay that had now fallen on Egypt. The Egyptian
garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of
Thothmes III., some two hundred years before, had now been
withdrawn. The way was thus opened for the Hebrews. In the
history of the conquest there is no mention of Joshua having
encountered any Egyptian force. The tablets contain many appeals
to the king of Egypt for help against the inroads of the
Hebrews, but no help seems ever to have been sent. Is not this
just such a state of things as might have been anticipated as
the result of the disaster of the Exodus? In many points, as
shown under various articles, the progress of the conquest is
remarkably illustrated by the tablets. The value of modern
discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been
thus well described:

“The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical
credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has
of late years greatly increased. The outcome of recent
excavations and explorations is altogether against it. As long
as these books contained, in the main, the only known accounts
of the events they mention, there was some plausibility in the
theory that perhaps these accounts were written rather to teach
moral lessons than to preserve an exact knowledge of events. It
was easy to say in those times men had not the historic sense.
But the recent discoveries touch the events recorded in the
Bible at very many different points in many different
generations, mentioning the same persons, countries, peoples,
events that are mentioned in the Bible, and showing beyond
question that these were strictly historic. The point is not
that the discoveries confirm the correctness of the Biblical
statements, though that is commonly the case, but that the
discoveries show that the peoples of those ages had the historic
sense, and, specifically, that the Biblical narratives they
touch are narratives of actual occurrences.”

Healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. The son of Amon, and
his successor on the throne of Judah (2 Kings 22:1; 2 Chr.
34:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22, 23. He stands
foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving
loyalty to Jehovah (23:25). He “did that which was right in the
sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his
father.” He ascended the throne at the early age of eight years,
and it appears that not till eight years afterwards did he begin
“to seek after the God of David his father.” At that age he
devoted himself to God. He distinguished himself by beginning a
war of extermination against the prevailing idolatry, which had
practically been the state religion for some seventy years (2
Chr. 34:3; comp. Jer. 25:3, 11, 29).

In the eighteenth year of his reign he proceeded to repair and
beautify the temple, which by time and violence had become
sorely dilapidated (2 Kings 22:3, 5, 6; 23:23; 2 Chr. 34:11).
While this work was being carried on, Hilkiah, the high priest,
discovered a roll, which was probably the original copy of the
law, the entire Pentateuch, written by Moses.

When this book was read to him, the king was alarmed by the
things it contained, and sent for Huldah, the “prophetess,” for
her counsel. She spoke to him words of encouragement, telling
him that he would be gathered to his fathers in peace before the
threatened days of judgment came. Josiah immediately gathered
the people together, and engaged them in a renewal of their
ancient national covenant with God. The Passover was then
celebrated, as in the days of his great predecessor, Hezekiah,
with unusual magnificence. Nevertheless, “the Lord turned not
from the fierceness of his great wrath wherewith his anger was
kindled against Judah” (2 Kings 22:3-20; 23:21-27; 2 Chr.
35:1-19). During the progress of this great religious revolution
Jeremiah helped it on by his earnest exhortations.

Soon after this, Pharaoh-Necho II. (q.v.), king of Egypt, in an
expedition against the king of Assyria, with the view of gaining
possession of Carchemish, sought a passage through the territory
of Judah for his army. This Josiah refused to permit. He had
probably entered into some new alliance with the king of
Assyria, and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the
progress of Necho.

The army of Judah went out and encountered that of Egypt at
Megiddo, on the verge of the plain of Esdraelon. Josiah went
into the field in disguise, and was fatally wounded by a random
arrow. His attendants conveyed him toward Jerusalem, but had
only reached Hadadrimmon, a few miles south of Megiddo, when he
died (2 Kings 23:28, 30; comp. 2 Chr. 35:20-27), after a reign
of thirty-one years. He was buried with the greatest honours in
fulfilment of Huldah’s prophecy (2 Kings 22:20; comp. Jer.
34:5). Jeremiah composed a funeral elegy on this the best of the
kings of Israel (Lam. 4:20; 2 Chr. 35:25). The outburst of
national grief on account of his death became proverbial (Zech.
12:11; comp. Rev. 16:16).

Or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used
metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matt.
5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew

Jehovah is perfect. (1.) The youngest of Gideon’s seventy sons.
He escaped when the rest were put to death by the order of
Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). When “the citizens of Shechem and the
whole house of Millo” were gathered together “by the plain of
the pillar” (i.e., the stone set up by Joshua, 24:26; comp. Gen.
35:4) “that was in Shechem, to make Abimelech king,” from one of
the heights of Mount Gerizim he protested against their doing so
in the earliest parable, that of the bramble-king. His words
then spoken were prophetic. There came a recoil in the feelings
of the people toward Abimelech, and then a terrible revenge, in
which many were slain and the city of Shechem was destroyed by
Abimelech (Judg. 9:45). Having delivered his warning, Jotham
fled to Beer from the vengeance of Abimelech (9:7-21).

(2.) The son and successor of Uzziah on the throne of Judah. As
during his last years Uzziah was excluded from public life on
account of his leprosy, his son, then twenty-five years of age,
administered for seven years the affairs of the kingdom in his
father’s stead (2 Chr. 26:21, 23; 27:1). After his father’s
death he became sole monarch, and reigned for sixteen years
(B.C. 759-743). He ruled in the fear of God, and his reign was
prosperous. He was contemporary with the prophets Isaiah, Hosea,
and Micah, by whose ministrations he profited. He was buried in
the sepulchre of the kings, greatly lamented by the people (2
Kings 15:38; 2 Chr. 27:7-9).

(1.) A day’s journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles (Num.

(2.) A Sabbath-day’s journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the
city walls (Acts 1:12). According to Jewish tradition, it was
the distance one might travel without violating the law of Ex.
16:29. (See [324]SABBATH.)

Whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One of the Benjamite archers who
joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:4).

(2.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chr. 12:20).

Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated
Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2 Kings 12:21). He is
called also Zabad (2 Chr. 24:26).

Jubilee, music, Lamech’s second son by Adah, of the line of
Cain. He was the inventor of “the harp” (Heb. kinnor, properly
“lyre”) and “the organ” (Heb. ugab, properly “mouth-organ” or
Pan’s pipe), Gen. 4:21.

A joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great
semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year.
During this year the land was to be fallow, and the Israelites
were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the
fields (Lev. 25:11, 12). All landed property during that year
reverted to its original owner (13-34; 27:16-24), and all who
were slaves were set free (25:39-54), and all debts were

The return of the jubilee year was proclaimed by a blast of
trumpets which sounded throughout the land. There is no record
in Scripture of the actual observance of this festival, but
there are numerous allusions (Isa. 5:7, 8, 9, 10; 61:1, 2; Ezek.
7:12, 13; Neh. 5:1-19; 2 Chr. 36:21) which place it beyond a
doubt that it was observed.

The advantages of this institution were manifold. “1. It would
prevent the accumulation of land on the part of a few to the
detriment of the community at large. 2. It would render it
impossible for any one to be born to absolute poverty, since
every one had his hereditary land. 3. It would preclude those
inequalities which are produced by extremes of riches and
poverty, and which make one man domineer over another. 4. It
would utterly do away with slavery. 5. It would afford a fresh
opportunity to those who were reduced by adverse circumstances
to begin again their career of industry in the patrimony which
they had temporarily forfeited. 6. It would periodically rectify
the disorders which crept into the state in the course of time,
preclude the division of the people into nobles and plebeians,
and preserve the theocracy inviolate.”

(1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14).
In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; 7:5, the word refers to the
tribe of Judah.

(2.) The father of Simeon in Christ’s maternal ancestry (Luke

(3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ’s maternal
ancestry (26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and
with Obadiah (1 Chr. 3:21).

(4.) One of the Lord’s “brethren” (Mark 6:3).

Praise, the fourth son of Jacob by Leah. The name originated in
Leah’s words of praise to the Lord on account of his birth: “Now
will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his name
Yehudah” (Gen. 29:35).

It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his
life was spared (Gen. 37:26, 27). He took a lead in the affairs
of the family, and “prevailed above his brethren” (Gen. 43:3-10;
44:14, 16-34; 46:28; 1 Chr. 5:2).

Soon after the sale of Joseph to the Ishmaelites, Judah went to
reside at Adullam, where he married a woman of Canaan. (See
[325]ONAN; [326]TAMAR.) After the death of his wife Shuah, he
returned to his father’s house, and there exercised much
influence over the patriarch, taking a principal part in the
events which led to the whole family at length going down into
Egypt. We hear nothing more of him till he received his father’s
blessing (Gen. 49:8-12).

Judah, Kingdom of
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the
tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after
the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem
became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was
called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being
only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth.

For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at
re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other
ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between
them. For the next eighty years there was no open war between
them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance,
co-operating against their common enemies, especially against
Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a
somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the
kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of
the temple (B.C. 588) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of
Nebuchadnezzar’s body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21).

The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred
and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 3,435 square
miles. (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM [327]OF.)

Judah, Tribe of
Judah and his three surviving sons went down with Jacob into
Egypt (Gen. 46:12; Ex. 1:2). At the time of the Exodus, when we
meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased to the
number of 74,000 males (Num. 1:26, 27). Its number increased in
the wilderness (26:22). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented
the tribe as one of the spies (13:6; 34:19). This tribe marched
at the van on the east of the tabernacle (Num. 2:3-9; 10:14),
its standard, as is supposed, being a lion’s whelp. Under Caleb,
during the wars of conquest, they conquered that portion of the
country which was afterwards assigned to them as their
inheritance. This was the only case in which any tribe had its
inheritance thus determined (Josh. 14:6-15; 15:13-19).

The inheritance of the tribe of Judah was at first fully
one-third of the whole country west of Jordan, in all about
2,300 square miles (Josh. 15). But there was a second
distribution, when Simeon received an allotment, about 1,000
square miles, out of the portion of Judah (Josh. 19:9). That
which remained to Judah was still very large in proportion to
the inheritance of the other tribes. The boundaries of the
territory are described in Josh. 15:20-63.

This territory given to Judah was divided into four sections.
(1.) The south (Heb. negeb), the undulating pasture-ground
between the hills and the desert to the south (Josh. 15:21.)
This extent of pasture-land became famous as the favourite
camping-ground of the old patriarchs. (2.) The “valley” (15:33)
or lowland (Heb. shephelah), a broad strip lying between the
central highlands and the Mediterranean. This tract was the
garden as well as the granary of the tribe. (3.) The
“hill-country,” or the mountains of Judah, an elevated plateau
stretching from below Hebron northward to Jerusalem. “The towns
and villages were generally perched on the tops of hills or on
rocky slopes. The resources of the soil were great. The country
was rich in corn, wine, oil, and fruit; and the daring shepherds
were able to lead their flocks far out over the neighbouring
plains and through the mountains.” The number of towns in this
district was thirty-eight (Josh. 15:48-60). (4.) The
“wilderness,” the sunken district next the Dead Sea (Josh.
15:61), “averaging 10 miles in breadth, a wild, barren,
uninhabitable region, fit only to afford scanty pasturage for
sheep and goats, and a secure home for leopards, bears, wild
goats, and outlaws” (1 Sam. 17:34; 22:1; Mark 1:13). It was
divided into the “wilderness of En-gedi” (1 Sam. 24:1), the
“wilderness of Judah” (Judg. 1:16; Matt. 3:1), between the
Hebron mountain range and the Dead Sea, the “wilderness of Maon”
(1 Sam. 23:24). It contained only six cities.

Nine of the cities of Judah were assigned to the priests (Josh.

Judah upon Jordan
The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this
rendering in Josh. 19:34. It has been suggested that, following
the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus, “and
Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising.” The sixty cities
(Havoth-jair, Num. 32:41) on the east of Jordan were reckoned as
belonging to Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite
only on his mother’s side, but on his father’s side of the tribe
of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5, 21-23).

The Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, 3).

(2.) Son of Simon (John 6:71; 13:2, 26), surnamed Iscariot,
i.e., a man of Kerioth (Josh. 15:25). His name is uniformly the
last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic
(i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably
gradually unfolded itself till “Satan entered into him” (John
13:27), and he betrayed our Lord (18:3). Afterwards he owned his
sin with “an exceeding bitter cry,” and cast the money he had
received as the wages of his iniquity down on the floor of the
sanctuary, and “departed and went and hanged himself” (Matt.
27:5). He perished in his guilt, and “went unto his own place”
(Acts 1:25). The statement in Acts 1:18 that he “fell headlong
and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out,”
is in no way contrary to that in Matt. 27:5. The sucide first
hanged himself, perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, “and the rope
giving way, or the branch to which he hung breaking, he fell
down headlong on his face, and was crushed and mangled on the
rocky pavement below.”

Why such a man was chosen to be an apostle we know not, but it
is written that “Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray
him” (John 6:64). Nor can any answer be satisfactorily given to
the question as to the motives that led Judas to betray his
Master. “Of the motives that have been assigned we need not care
to fix on any one as that which simply led him on. Crime is, for
the most part, the result of a hundred motives rushing with
bewildering fury through the mind of the criminal.”

(3.) A Jew of Damascus (Acts 9:11), to whose house Ananias was
sent. The street called “Straight” in which it was situated is
identified with the modern “street of bazaars,” where is still
pointed out the so-called “house of Judas.”

(4.) A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent from
Jerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the
decision of the council (Acts 15:22, 27, 32). He was a “prophet”
and a “chief man among the brethren.”

= Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name,
(1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Matt. 13:55; John 14:22; Acts 1:13), called
also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and (2)
Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:19). He who is called “the
brother of James” (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas
surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in
John 14:22.

After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the
country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, 14; 2:2). But under the
Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of
the three divisions of Palestine (Matt. 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25),
although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally
(Acts 28:21).

The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and
Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah,
Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it
was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a

Jude, Epistle of
The author was “Judas, the brother of James” the Less (Jude
1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mark
3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and
doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation;
but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has
all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it

There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place
at which it was written. It was apparently written in the later
period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were
persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach (ver. 17).
It may thus have been written about A.D. 66 or 70, and
apparently in Palestine.

The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (ver. 1), and
its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading
efforts of a certain class of errorists to which they were
exposed. The style of the epistle is that of an “impassioned
invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is
hurried along, collecting example after example of divine
vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and
piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words
and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the
licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church;
returning again and again to the subject, as though all language
was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy,
and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the
doctrines of the gospel.”

The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests
the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the

The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the
finest in the New Testament.

(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler,
rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This
is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs
of the Israelites during the interval between the death of
Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of
general anarchy and confusion. “The office of judges or regents
was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could
they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by
the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to
consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim
(Num. 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by
whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income
attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of
dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those
of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar
position of having been from before his birth ordained to begin
to deliver Israel.’ Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but
was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a
prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the
people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office
of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio
upon him.” Of five of the judges, Tola (Judg. 10:1), Jair (3),
Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all
beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is
not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its
onward progress.

In Ex. 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that
while for revenue purposes the “taskmasters” were over the
people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the
Romans, governed by their own rulers.

Judges, Book of
Is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance
and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the
“judges.” The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book,
but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the
Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon.

The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it
with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a “link in the chain
of books.” (2.) The history of the thirteen judges (3:7-16:31)
in the following order:

| FIRST PERIOD (3:7-ch. 5) | Years | I. Servitude under
Chushan-rishathaim of | Mesopotamia 8 | 1. OTHNIEL delivers
Israel, rest 40 | II. Servitude under Eglon of Moab: | Ammon,
Amalek 18 | 2. EHUD’S deliverance, rest 80 | 3. SHAMGAR Unknown.
| III. Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in | Canaan 20 | 4.
DEBORAH and, | 5. BARAK 40 | (206) | | SECOND PERIOD (6-10:5) |
| IV. Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and | children of the east
7 | 6. GIDEON 40 | ABIMELECH, Gideon’s son, reigns as | king
over Israel 3 | 7. TOLA 23 | 8. JAIR 22 | (95) | | THIRD PERIOD
(10:6-ch. 12) | | V. Servitude under Ammonites with the |
Philistines 18 | 9. JEPHTHAH 6 | 10. IBZAN 7 | 11. ELON 10 | 12.
ABDON 8 | (49) | | FOURTH PERIOD (13-16) | VI. Seritude under
Philistines 40 | 13. SAMSON 20 | (60) | In all 410

Samson’s exploits probably synchronize with the period
immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation
under Samuel (1 Sam. 7:2-6).

After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He
directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty
years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the
land and oppressed it for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to
deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel
for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into
the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli and Samuel are
included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology of
this whole period is uncertain.

(3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix
(17-21), which has no formal connection with that which goes
before. It records (a) the conquest (17, 18) of Laish by a
portion of the tribe of Dan; and (b) the almost total extinction
of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of
their assisting the men of Gibeah (19-21). This section properly
belongs to the period only a few years after the death of
Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the

The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal
evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix
warrants this conclusion. It was probably composed during Saul’s
reign, or at the very beginning of David’s. The words in 18:30,
31, imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the
Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (1 Sam. 21). In
David’s reign the ark was at Gibeon (1 Chr. 16:39)

Judgment hall
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Matt. 27:27), “common
hall.” In all these passages the Revised Version renders
“palace.” In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered “Praetorium”
(q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence
of the praetor, and then the governor’s residence in general,
though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word
“praitorion” has this meaning (comp. Acts 23:35). Pilate’s
official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part
of the fortress of Antonia.

The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the
palace. The “whole band” spoken of by Mark were gathered
together in the palace court.

Judgment seat
(Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed
according as the magistrate might direct, and from which
judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a
tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator’s
residence. (See [328]GABBATHA.)

Judgments of God
(1.) The secret decisions of God’s will (Ps. 110:5; 36:6). (2.)
The revelations of his will (Ex. 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Ps.
119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Ex.
6:6; 12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in
Gen. 7; 19:24, 25; Judg. 1:6, 7; Acts 5:1-10, etc.

Judgment, The final
The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day
(Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, 11; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Thess. 1:7-10).

The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is
committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, 27; Rev. 1:7). “It
pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest
the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies,
together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both

The persons to be judged are, (1) the whole race of Adam without
a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52; Rev.
20:11-15); and (2) the fallen angels (2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 1:6).

The rule of judgment is the standard of God’s law as revealed to
men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke
12:47, 48; Rom. 2:12-16); the Jew who “sinned in the law shall
be judged by the law” (Rom. 2:12); the Christian enjoying the
light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him
(Matt. 11:20-24; John 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will
be brought to light (1 Cor. 4:5; Luke 8:17; 12:2, 3) to
vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced.

The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb.
9:27; Acts 17:31).

As the Scriptures represent the final judgment “as certain
[Eccl. 11:9], universal [2 Cor. 5:10], righteous [Rom. 2:5],
decisive [1 Cor. 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences
[Heb. 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal
interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our
precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere
to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him
in peace.”

Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau’s
wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2-14).

A Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations
(Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.

The centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor’s
body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Acts
27:1, 3, 43). He entreated Paul “courteously,” showing in many
ways a friendly regard for him.

(Rom. 16:7), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations
along with Andronicus.

(Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish
broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and
abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his
journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: “This is
the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing
thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always
selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where
it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind;
and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the
camels, we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under
a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this
very desert, a day’s journey from Beersheba, that the prophet
Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub” (1 Kings 19:4,
5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of
extremity for human food (Ps. 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the
encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e.,
“place of broom” (Num. 33:18).

“The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal
which throws out the most intense heat.”

The principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was
worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was
identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because
he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed
Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside
the gates of Lystra (14:13).

Is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been
distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice
means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means
the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.

Justice of God
That perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous
in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine
nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes
righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously.
Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an
unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative
justice is his requiring of his rational creatures conformity in
all respects to the moral law. His rectoral or distributive
justice is his dealing with his accountable creatures according
to the requirements of the law in rewarding or punishing them
(Ps. 89:14). In remunerative justice he distributes rewards
(James 1:12; 2 Tim. 4:8); in vindictive or punitive justice he
inflicts punishment on account of transgression (2 Thess. 1:6).
He cannot, as being infinitely righteous, do otherwise than
regard and hate sin as intrinsically hateful and deserving of
punishment. “He cannot deny himself” (2 Tim. 2:13). His
essential and eternal righteousness immutably determines him to
visit every sin as such with merited punishment.

A forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature,
it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins
of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and
treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as
conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.)
of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law
are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a
judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set
aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense;
and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all
the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the
law (Rom. 5:1-10).

It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by God
himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of his
Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:3-9).
Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without
righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a
righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law,
namely, Christ’s righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 4:6-8).

The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or
credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus
Christ. Faith is called a “condition,” not because it possesses
any merit, but only because it is the instrument, the only
instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ
and his righteousness (Rom. 1:17; 3:25, 26; 4:20, 22; Phil.
3:8-11; Gal. 2:16).

The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures
also at the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the
doctrine of justification by faith does not lead to
licentiousness (Rom. 6:2-7). Good works, while not the ground,
are the certain consequence of justification (6:14; 7:6). (See

(1.) Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias
are mentioned only in Acts 1:23. “They must have been among the
earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the
end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the
brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they
did, are entirely unknown” (Lindsay’s Acts of the Apostles).

(2.) A Jewish proselyte at Corinth, in whose house, next door to
the synagogue, Paul held meetings and preached after he left the
synagogue (Acts 18:7).

(3.) A Jewish Christian, called Jesus, Paul’s only
fellow-labourer at Rome, where he wrote his Epistle to the
Colossians (Col. 4:11).

Extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of
Judah (Josh. 15:55; 21:16). Its modern name is Yutta, a place
about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been
the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of
John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by
thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39).
(See [330]MARY.)