Select Page
Easton's Bible Dictionary (K)

          Gathering of God, a city in the extreme south of Judah, near to
          Idumaea (Josh. 15:21), the birthplace of Benaiah, one of David’s
          chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22). It was called also
          Jekabzeel (Neh. 11:25), after the Captivity.

          Holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on
          the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from
          Horeb. It lay in the “wilderness” or “desert of Zin” (Gen. 14:7;
          Num. 13:3-26; 14:29-33; 20:1; 27:14), on the border of Edom
          (20:16). From this place, in compliance with the desire of the
          people, Moses sent forth “twelve spies” to spy the land. After
          examining it in all its districts, the spies brought back an
          evil report, Joshua and Caleb alone giving a good report of the
          land (13:18-31). Influenced by the discouraging report, the
          people abandoned all hope of entering into the Promised Land.
          They remained a considerable time at Kadesh. (See [331]HORMAH;
          [332]KORAH.) Because of their unbelief, they were condemned by
          God to wander for thirty-eight years in the wilderness. They
          took their journey from Kadesh into the deserts of Paran, “by
          way of the Red Sea” (Deut. 2:1). (One theory is that during
          these thirty-eight years they remained in and about Kadesh.)

          At the end of these years of wanderings, the tribes were a
          second time gathered together at Kadesh. During their stay here
          at this time Miriam died and was buried. Here the people
          murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done
          formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings,
          “with his rod smote the rock twice,” instead of “speaking to the
          rock before their eyes,” as the Lord had commanded him (comp.
          Num. 27:14; Deut. 9:23; Ps. 106:32, 33). Because of this act of
          his, in which Aaron too was involved, neither of them was to be
          permitted to set foot within the Promised Land (Num. 20:12, 24).
          The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his
          territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and
          “came unto Mount Hor” (20:22).

          This place has been identified with Ain el-Kadeis, about 12
          miles east-south-east of Beersheba. (See [333]SPIES.)

          The sacred city of the Hittites, on the left bank of the
          Orontes, about 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs. It is
          identified with the great mound Tell Neby Mendeh, some 50 to 100
          feet high, and 400 yards long. On the ruins of the temple of
          Karnak, in Egypt, has been found an inscription recording the
          capture of this city by Rameses II. (See [334]PHARAOH.) Here the
          sculptor “has chiselled in deep work on the stone, with a bold
          execution of the several parts, the procession of the warriors,
          the battle before Kadesh, the storming of the fortress, the
          overthrow of the enemy, and the camp life of the Egyptians.”
          (See [335]HITTITES.)

          Before God; i.e., his servant, one of the Levites who returned
          with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh. 9:4; 10:9; 12:8).

          Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the
          north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen.
          15:19). Probably they were identical with the “children of the
          east,” who inhabited the country between Palestine and the

          Reedy; brook of reeds. (1.) A stream forming the boundary
          between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean eastward to
          Tappuah (Josh. 16:8). It has been identified with the sedgy
          streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea
          between Joppa and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river’

          (2.) A town in the north of Asher (Josh. 19:28). It has been
          identified with Ain-Kana, a village on the brow of a valley some
          7 miles south-east of Tyre. About a mile north of this place are
          many colossal ruins strown about. And in the side of a
          neighbouring ravine are figures of men, women, and children cut
          in the face of the rock. These are supposed to be of Phoenician

          Bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were
          loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer.
          40:8, 13, 15, 16).

          A floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway
          between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea (Josh. 15:3).

          Foundation, a place in the open desert wastes on the east of
          Jordan (Judg. 8:10), not far beyond Succoth and Penuel, to the
          south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band of
          Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.

          City, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of
          the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath
          (19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).

          Double city, a town of Naphali, assigned to the Gershonite
          Levites, and one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 21:32). It was
          probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias,
          identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.

          (Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el
          Jelil. (See [336]CANA.)

          Dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13).

          It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins
          generally (Isa. 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who
          dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black
          hair-tents (Cant. 1:5). To “dwell in the tents of Kedar” was to
          be cut off from the worship of the true God (Ps. 120:5). The
          Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 49:28,

          Eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).

          Beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the
          Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18). It lay not far
          north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.

          Sanctuary. (1.) A place in the extreme south of Judah (Josh.
          15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).

          (2.) A city of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis,
          near Lejjun.

          (3.) A “fenced city” of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge
          (Josh. 19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite
          Levites (Josh. 21:32). It was originally a Canaanite royal city
          (Josh. 12:22), and was the residence of Barak (Judg. 4:6); and
          here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali
          before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain
          of Esdraelon, “for Jehovah among the mighty” (9, 10). In the
          reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29).
          It was situated near the “plain” (rather “the oak”) of Zaanaim,
          and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills
          fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh.

          It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative,
          where Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper
          Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant from the plain of
          Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12
          miles from Tabor.

          The valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and
          Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of
          Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate “of the
          cedar.” The word means “black,” and may refer to the colour of
          the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the
          cedars which grew there. John 18:1, “Cedron,” only here in New
          Testament. (See [337]KIDRON.)

          Assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert
          (Num. 33:22, 23).

          Citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David
          rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Sam. 23:1-8);
          but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they
          sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men “departed
          from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go.” They fled to
          the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through
          Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). “And David was in the wilderness of Ziph,
          in a wood” (1 Sam. 23:15). Here Jonathan sought him out, “and
          strengthened his hand in God.” This was the last interview
          between David and Jonathan (23:16-18). It is the modern Khurbet
          Kila. Others identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin
          (Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba, mentioned in the Amarna tablets.

          Dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the
          people (Neh. 8:7; 10:10).

          Helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor
          (Gen. 22:21).

          (2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of
          Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).

          (3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).

          Possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who
          called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has been identified
          with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60
          miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.

          Hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He
          became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42).

          (2.) Caleb’s younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh.
          15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the
          time of David (1 Chr. 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg.
          1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb’s brother.

          (3.) Caleb’s grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).

          Smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between
          southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of
          this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a “Midianite” (Num.
          10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the
          Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, “the
          gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They
          formed an important guild in an age when the art of metallurgy
          was confined to a few” (Sayce’s Races, etc.). They showed
          kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness. They
          accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho (Judg. 1:16),
          and then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in
          the desert to the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards
          friendly relations with the Israelites when settled in Canaan
          (Judg. 4:11, 17-21; 1 Sam. 27:10; 30:29). The Rechabites
          belonged to this tribe (1 Chr. 2:55) and in the days of Jeremiah
          (35:7-10) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul
          bade them depart from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:6) when, in
          obedience to the divine commission, he was about to “smite
          Amalek.” And his reason is, “for ye showed kindness to all the
          children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt.” Thus “God is
          not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people;
          but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the
          great day, and recompensed in the resurrection of the just” (M.
          Henry’s Commentary). They are mentioned for the last time in
          Scripture in 1 Sam. 27:10; comp. 30:20.

          (1.) The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made
          with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned among the
          original inhabitants of Canaan (Ex. 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and
          probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of

          (2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V.,

          Mentioned only Ezek. 13:18, 21, as an article of apparel or
          ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous women of Israel.
          The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears to have
          been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves
          in (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). Some think that it was a long veil or
          head-dress, denoting by its form the position of those who wore

          Horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job’s third
          daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to

          Cities. (1.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). Judas
          the traitor was probably a native of this place, and hence his
          name Iscariot. It has been identified with the ruins of
          el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See [338]HAZOR

          (2.) A city of Moab (Jer. 48:24, 41), called Kirioth (Amos 2:2).

          (Gen. 33:19, R.V., marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl.
          “pieces of money,” marg., “lambs;” Josh. 24:32, “pieces of
          silver;” Job 42:11, “piece of money”). The kesitah was probably
          a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a
          lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used.
          (See [339]PIECES.)

          A large pot for cooking. The same Hebrew word (dud, “boiling”)
          is rendered also “pot” (Ps. 81:6), “caldron” (2 Chr. 35:13),
          “basket” (Jer. 24:2). It was used for preparing the
          peace-offerings (1 Sam. 2:13, 14).

          Incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after
          Sarah’s death (Gen. 25:1-6), by whom he had six sons, whom he
          sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She
          is styled “Abraham’s concubine” (1 Chr. 1:32). Through the
          offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the “father of many

          Frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew
          maphteah, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and in the Greek New
          Testament kleis, from its use in shutting (Matt. 16:19; Luke
          11:52; Rev. 1:18, etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are
          frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and
          keys of wood, and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22).

          The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office
          (Isa. 22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also
          Matt. 16:19; 18:18). The “key of knowledge” (Luke 11:52; comp.
          Matt. 23:13) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding
          the kingdom of God. The “power of the keys” is a phrase in
          general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.

          Cassia, the name of Job’s second daughter (42:14), born after
          prosperity had returned to him.

          Abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21).

          The graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the
          Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady
          Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig,
          where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found,
          about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day’s journey
          from Ain Hudherah.

          “Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke
          out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the
          privations of the march; and then God at once punished them by
          lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and killed
          many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses (Num.
          11:1, 2). Then a disgust fell on the multitude at having nothing
          to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh, no
          fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits…The
          people loathed the light food,’ and cried out to Moses, Give us
          flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat.'” In this emergency
          Moses, in despair, cried unto God. An answer came. God sent “a
          prodigious flight of quails, on which the people satiated their
          gluttonous appetite for a full month. Then punishment fell on
          them: they loathed the food which they had desired; it bred
          disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into a
          plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were
          buried without the camp; and in memory of man’s sin and of the
          divine wrath this name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust,
          was given to the place of their sepulchre” (Num. 11:34, 35;
          33:16, 17; Deut. 9:22; comp. Ps. 78:30, 31)., Rawlinson’s Moses,
          p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in a north-eastern
          direction to Hazeroth.

          Two heaps, a city of Ephraim, assigned to the Kohathite Levites,
          and appointed as a city of refuge (Josh. 21: 22). It is also
          called Jokmeam (1 Chr. 6:68).

          The young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9;
          38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid
          in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex.
          23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned
          for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which
          regards it as “a protest against cruelty and outraging the order
          of nature.” A kid cooked in its mother’s milk is “a gross,
          unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious
          passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it.
          Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and
          originally, I suspect,” says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book),
          “was connected with idolatrous sacrifices.”

          = Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows
          through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of
          Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley
          is known in Scripture only by the name “the brook Kidron.” David
          crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from
          Absalom (2 Sam. 15:23, 30), and it was frequently crossed by our
          Lord in his journeyings to and fro (John 18:1). Here Asa burned
          the obscene idols of his mother (1 Kings 15:13), and here
          Athaliah was executed (2 Kings 11:16). It afterwards became the
          receptacle for all manner of impurities (2 Chr. 29:16; 30:14);
          and in the time of Josiah this valley was the common cemetery of
          the city (2 Kings 23:6; comp. Jer. 26:23).

          Through this mountain ravine no water runs, except after heavy
          rains in the mountains round about Jerusalem. Its length from
          its head to en-Rogel is 2 3/4 miles. Its precipitous, rocky
          banks are filled with ancient tombs, especially the left bank
          opposite the temple area. The greatest desire of the Jews is to
          be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the “valley of
          Jehoshaphat” mentioned in Joel 3:2.

          Below en-Rogel the Kidron has no historical or sacred interest.
          It runs in a winding course through the wilderness of Judea to
          the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. Its whole length, in a
          straight line, is only some 20 miles, but in this space its
          descent is about 3,912 feet. (See [340]KEDRON.)

          Recent excavations have brought to light the fact that the old
          bed of the Kidron is about 40 feet lower than its present bed,
          and about 70 feet nearer the sanctuary wall.

          An elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It
          was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.

          (Heb. sing. parah, i.e., “fruitful”), mentioned in Pharaoh’s
          dream (Gen. 41: 18). Here the word denotes “buffaloes,” which
          fed on the reeds and sedge by the river’s brink.

          Is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with
          authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one
          kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued.
          Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New
          Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1 Pet. 2:13,
          17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called
          a king (Matt. 14:9; Mark 6:22).

          This title is applied to God (1 Tim. 1:17), and to Christ, the
          Son of God (1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Matt. 27:11). The people of God are
          also called “kings” (Dan. 7:22, 27; Matt. 19:28; Rev. 1:6,
          etc.). Death is called the “king of terrors” (Job 18:14).

          Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Sam. 8:7; Isa.
          33:22). But there came a time in the history of that people when
          a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations (1
          Sam. 8:5). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the
          people cried out, “Nay, but we will have a king over us.” The
          misconduct of Samuel’s sons was the immediate cause of this

          The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of
          the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and
          partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1
          Sam. 10:1). The limits of the king’s power were prescribed (1
          Sam. 10:25). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or
          remembrancer (2 Sam. 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe (2 Sam.
          8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward
          (Isa. 22:15); (4) the “king’s friend,” a confidential companion
          (1 Kings 4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14);
          (6) captain of the bodyguard (2 Sam. 20:23); (7) officers over
          the king’s treasures, etc. (1 Chr. 27:25-31); (8)
          commander-in-chief of the army (1 Chr. 27:34); (9) the royal
          counsellor (1 Chr. 27:32; 2 Sam. 16:20-23).

          (For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological
          table in Appendix.)

   Kingdom of God
          (Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, 15; Luke 4:43) = “kingdom of Christ”
          (Matt. 13:41; 20:21) = “kingdom of Christ and of God” (Eph. 5:5)
          = “kingdom of David” (Mark 11:10) = “the kingdom” (Matt. 8:12;
          13:19) = “kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all
          denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1)
          Christ’s mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2)
          the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this
          rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or
          the Church.

   Kingly office of Christ
          One of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his
          people. Christ’s office as mediator comprehends three different
          functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are
          not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one
          office of mediator.

          Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all
          things to his Church (Eph. 1:22; 4:15; Col. 1:18; 2:19). He
          executes this mediatorial kingship in his Church, and over his
          Church, and over all things in behalf of his Church. This
          royalty differs from that which essentially belongs to him as
          God, for it is given to him by the Father as the reward of his
          obedience and sufferings (Phil. 2:6-11), and has as its especial
          object the upbuilding and the glory of his redeemed Church. It
          attaches, moreover, not to his divine nature as such, but to his
          person as God-man.

          Christ’s mediatorial kingdom may be regarded as comprehending,
          (1) his kingdom of power, or his providential government of the
          universe; (2) his kingdom of grace, which is wholly spiritual in
          its subjects and administration; and (3) his kingdom of glory,
          which is the consummation of all his providential and gracious

          Christ sustained and exercised the function of mediatorial King
          as well as of Prophet and Priest, from the time of the fall of
          man, when he entered on his mediatorial work; yet it may be said
          that he was publicly and formally enthroned when he ascended up
          on high and sat down at the Father’s right hand (Ps. 2:6; Jer.
          23:5; Isa. 9:6), after his work of humiliation and suffering on
          earth was “finished.”

   King’s dale
          Mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18, the name given to
          “the valley of Shaveh,” where the king of Sodom met Abram.

   Kings, The Books of
          The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the
          Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first
          made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as
          the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel
          being the first and second books of Kings.

          They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the
          accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by
          Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about
          four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles
          (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of
          Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chr. 28-2 Chr. 36:21. While
          in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or
          Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to
          the kingly.

          The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some
          portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical,
          e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jer. 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There
          are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings
          (2 Kings 21-23 and Jer. 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events
          recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge.
          These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that
          Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more
          probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled
          them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan,
          Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which
          they now exist.

          In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these
          books are ranked among the “Prophets.” They are frequently
          quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles (Matt. 6:29;
          12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4; comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp.
          2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:4, etc.).

          The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) “the book of
          the acts of Solomon” (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the “book of the
          chronicles of the kings of Judah” (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3)
          the “book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel” (14:19;
          15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).

          The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the
          date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was
          released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date
          of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.

          Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the
          Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain
          important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin.
          (1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his
          inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev.
          25:25, 28; Ruth 3:9, 12). He was also required to redeem his
          relation who had sold himself into slavery (Lev. 25:48, 49).

          God is the Goel of his people because he redeems them (Ex. 6:6;
          Isa. 43:1; 41:14; 44:6, 22; 48:20; Ps. 103:4; Job 19:25, etc.).

          (2.) The goel also was the avenger (q.v.) of blood (Num. 35:21)
          in the case of the murder of the next of kin.

          A wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the
          Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus (2 Kings
          16:9; Amos 1:5; 9:7). Isaiah (22:6), who also was contemporary
          with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have
          supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south
          of Elam.

          Built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a
          small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from
          Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also
          Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31,
          36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see
          [341]MOABITE STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel,
          and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom.
          After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his
          supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat,
          king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led
          their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge
          in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then
          took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and
          offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in
          the sight of the allied armies. “There was great indignation
          against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to
          their own land.” The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and
          Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings

          City, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern
          Kuriet el-Enab, i.e., “city of grapes”, about 7 1/2 miles
          west-north-west of Jerusalem.

          Two cities; a double city. (1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1
          Chr. 6:76).

          (2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, 10). It
          was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of
          Ezekiel (25:9) it was one of the four cities which formed the
          “glory of Moab” (comp. Jer. 48:1, 23). It has been identified
          with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on the south
          slope of Jebel Attarus, the ancient Ataroth.

          City of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from
          the name of its founder, one of the Anakim (Gen. 23:2; 35:27;
          Josh. 15:13). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion.
          The Jews interpret the name as meaning “the city of the four”,
          i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they
          allege, buried there.

          City of streets, Num. 22:39, a Moabite city, which some identify
          with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam,
          whom he had invited from Pethor, among the “mountains of the
          east,” beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites,
          whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was
          probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the
          city, that the soothsayer first saw the encampments of Israel.

          City of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town
          (Josh. 9:17) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was
          assigned (18:15, 28). The ark was brought to this place (1 Sam.
          7:1, 2) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a
          Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to
          Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2, 3, 12; 1 Chr. 15:1-29; comp. Ps. 132). It
          was also called Baalah (Josh. 15:9) and Kirjath-baal (60). It
          has been usually identified with Kuriet el-Enab (i.e., “city of
          grapes”), among the hills, about 8 miles north-east of Ain Shems
          (i.e., Beth-shemesh). The opinion, however, that it is to be
          identified with Erma, 4 miles east of Ain Shems, on the edge of
          the valley of Sorek, seems to be better supported. (See

          The words of Ps. 132:6, “We found it in the fields of the wood,”
          refer to the sojourn of the ark at Kirjath-jearim. “Wood” is
          here the rendering of the Hebrew word jaar, which is the
          singular of jearim.

          City of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Josh. 15:49; the same
          as Kirjath-sepher (15:16; Judg. 1:11) and Debir (q.v.), a
          Canaanitish royal city included in Judah (Josh. 10:38; 15:49),
          and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It
          was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron.

          City of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now
          represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of
          Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites
          were acquainted with writing and books. “The town probably
          contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the
          residence of some learned priest.” The “books” were probably
          engraved stones or bricks.

   Kir of Moab
          Isa. 15:1. The two strongholds of Moab were Ar and Kir, which
          latter is probably the Kir-haraseth (16:7) following.

          A bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21;

          (2.) A Benjamite of Jerusalem (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36).

          (3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).

          (4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5).

          (5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1
          Sam. 9:1, 3; 10:11, 21; 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14). All that is
          recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his
          asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called
          Cis, Acts 13:21 (R.V., Kish).

          Hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites
          (Josh. 19:20), the same as Kishon (21:28).

          Winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises
          about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly
          direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into
          the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of
          Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters
          of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it
          find their way to the sea. It bears the modern name of Nahr
          el-Mokattah, i.e., “the river of slaughter” (comp. 1 Kings
          18:40). In the triumphal song of Deborah (Judg. 5:21) it is
          spoken of as “that ancient river,” either (1) because it had
          flowed on for ages, or (2), according to the Targum, because it
          was “the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel
          of old;” or (3) probably the reference is to the exploits in
          that region among the ancient Canaanites, for the adjoining
          plain of Esdraelon was the great battle-field of Palestine.

          This was the scene of the defeat of Sisera (Judg. 4:7, 13), and
          of the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings
          18:40). “When the Kishon was at its height, it would be, partly
          on account of its quicksands, as impassable as the ocean itself
          to a retreating army.” (See [343]DEBORAH.)

          Of affection (Gen. 27:26, 27; 29:13; Luke 7:38, 45);
          reconciliation (Gen. 33:4; 2 Sam. 14:33); leave-taking (Gen.
          31:28, 55; Ruth 1:14; 2 Sam. 19:39); homage (Ps. 2:12; 1 Sam.
          10:1); spoken of as between parents and children (Gen. 27:26;
          31:28, 55; 48:10; 50:1; Ex. 18:7; Ruth 1:9, 14); between male
          relatives (Gen. 29:13; 33:4; 45:15). It accompanied social
          worship as a symbol of brotherly love (Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20;
          2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Pet. 5:14). The worship of idols
          was by kissing the image or the hand toward the image (1 Kings
          19:18; Hos. 13:2).

          An unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut.
          14:13). The Hebrew word used, ‘ayet, is rendered “vulture” in
          Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, “falcon” in Revised Version. It
          is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing
          sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine.

          A man’s wall, a town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40). It has
          been identified with Jelameh.

          Knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath
          (Josh. 19:15); supposed to be “Cana of Galilee.”

          (Gen. 10:4). (See [344]CHITTIM.)

          To prepare dough in the process of baking (Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam.
          28:24; Hos. 7:4).

          The vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
          was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
          The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
          unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in

          (1.) Heb. hereb, “the waster,” a sharp instrument for
          circumcision (Josh. 5:2, 3, lit. “knives of flint;” comp. Ex.
          4:25); a razor (Ezek. 5:1); a graving tool (Ex. 20:25); an axe
          (Ezek. 26:9).

          (2.) Heb. maakeleth, a large knife for slaughtering and cutting
          up food (Gen. 22:6, 10; Prov. 30:14).

          (3.) Heb. sakkin, a knife for any purpose, a table knife (Prov.

          (4.) Heb. mahalaph, a butcher’s knife for slaughtering the
          victims offered in sacrifice (Ezra 1:9).

          (5.) Smaller knives (Heb. ta’ar, Jer. 36:26) were used for
          sharpening pens. The pruning-knives mentioned in Isa. 18:5 (Heb.
          mizmaroth) were probably curved knives.

          “Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never
          knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning
          or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to
          knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either
          by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and
          respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to
          stand without and call to the owner to come forth (Deut. 24:10).
          This was to avoid the violent intrusion of cruel creditors.
          Peter stood knocking at the outer door (Acts 12:13, 16), and the
          three men sent to Joppa by Cornelius made inquiry and stood
          before the gate’ (10:17, 18). The idea is that the guard over
          your privacy is to be placed at the entrance.”

          Knocking is used as a sign of importunity (Matt. 7:7, 8; Luke
          13:25), and of the coming of Christ (Luke 12:36; Rev. 3:20).

          Some architectural ornament. (1.) Heb. kaphtor (Ex. 25:31-36),
          occurring in the description of the candlestick. It was an
          ornamental swell beneath the cups of the candlestick, probably
          an imitation of the fruit of the almond.

          (2.) Heb. peka’im, found only in 1 Kings 6:18 and 7:24, an
          ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar
          wainscot in the temple and on the castings on the brim of the
          brazen sea.

          He-camel, occurs only in Ezek. 23:23, some province or place in
          the Babylonian empire, used in this passage along with Shoa

          Assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram (Gen.
          46:11). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age
          of one hundred and thirty-three years (Ex. 6:18).

          The descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three
          divisions of the Levites (Ex. 6:16, 18; Num. 3:17). In the
          journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most
          holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark
          (Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south
          of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, 31). Their numbers at different
          times are specified (3:28; 4:36; 26:57, 62). Samuel was of this

          Ice, hail. (1.) The third son of Esau, by Aholibamah (Gen.
          36:14; 1 Chr. 1:35).

          (2.) A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the
          father of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 6:21). The institution of the
          Aaronic priesthood and the Levitical service at Sinai was a
          great religious revolution. The old priesthood of the heads of
          families passed away. This gave rise to murmurings and
          discontent, while the Israelites were encamped at Kadesh for the
          first time, which came to a head in a rebellion against Moses
          and Aaron, headed by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Two hundred and
          fifty princes, “men of renown” i.e., well-known men from among
          the other tribes, joined this conspiracy. The whole company
          demanded of Moses and Aaron that the old state of things should
          be restored, alleging that “they took too much upon them” (Num.
          16:1-3). On the morning after the outbreak, Korah and his
          associates presented themselves at the door of the tabernacle,
          and “took every man his censer, and put fire in them, and laid
          incense thereon.” But immediately “fire from the Lord” burst
          forth and destroyed them all (Num. 16:35). Dathan and Abiram
          “came out and stood in the door of their tents, and their wives,
          and their sons, and their little children,” and it came to pass
          “that the ground clave asunder that was under them; and the
          earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up.” A plague
          thereafter began among the people who sympathized in the
          rebellion, and was only stayed by Aaron’s appearing between the
          living and the dead, and making “an atonement for the people”

          The descendants of the sons of Korah who did not participate in
          the rebellion afterwards rose to eminence in the Levitical

          That portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. (1.)
          They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite
          division (2 Chr. 20:19). There are eleven psalms (42-49; 84; 85;
          87; 88) dedicated to the sons of Korah.

          (2.) Some of the sons of Korah also were “porters” of the temple
          (1 Chr. 9:17-19); one of them was over “things that were made in
          the pans” (31), i.e., the baking in pans for the meat-offering
          (Lev. 2:5).

          Partridge. (1.) A Levite and temple-warder of the Korahites, the
          son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah,
          temple-porters (1 Chr. 9:19; 26:1).

          (2.) A Levitical porter at the east gate of the temple (2 Chr.

          (3.) In 1 Chr. 26:19 the word should be “Korahites,” as in the
          Revised Version.

          A Levitical family descended from Korah (Ex. 6:24; 1 Chr. 12:6;
          26:1; 2 Chr. 20:19).

          Thorn. (1.) A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8, “Coz;” R.V.,

          (2.) A priest, the head of the seventh division of the priests
          (Ezra 2:61; Neh. 3:4, 21; 7:63). In 1 Chr. 24:10 the word has
          the article prefixed, and it is taken as a part of the word