Easton's Bible Dictionary (K)
Gathering of God, a city in the extreme south of Judah, near to
Idumaea (Josh. 15:21), the birthplace of Benaiah, one of David’s
chief warriors (2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chr. 11:22). It was called also
Jekabzeel (Neh. 11:25), after the Captivity.
Holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on
the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from
Horeb. It lay in the “wilderness” or “desert of Zin” (Gen. 14:7;
Num. 13:3-26; 14:29-33; 20:1; 27:14), on the border of Edom
(20:16). From this place, in compliance with the desire of the
people, Moses sent forth “twelve spies” to spy the land. After
examining it in all its districts, the spies brought back an
evil report, Joshua and Caleb alone giving a good report of the
land (13:18-31). Influenced by the discouraging report, the
people abandoned all hope of entering into the Promised Land.
They remained a considerable time at Kadesh. (See HORMAH;
KORAH.) Because of their unbelief, they were condemned by
God to wander for thirty-eight years in the wilderness. They
took their journey from Kadesh into the deserts of Paran, “by
way of the Red Sea” (Deut. 2:1). (One theory is that during
these thirty-eight years they remained in and about Kadesh.)
At the end of these years of wanderings, the tribes were a
second time gathered together at Kadesh. During their stay here
at this time Miriam died and was buried. Here the people
murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done
formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings,
“with his rod smote the rock twice,” instead of “speaking to the
rock before their eyes,” as the Lord had commanded him (comp.
Num. 27:14; Deut. 9:23; Ps. 106:32, 33). Because of this act of
his, in which Aaron too was involved, neither of them was to be
permitted to set foot within the Promised Land (Num. 20:12, 24).
The king of Edom would not permit them to pass on through his
territory, and therefore they commenced an eastward march, and
“came unto Mount Hor” (20:22).
This place has been identified with Ain el-Kadeis, about 12
miles east-south-east of Beersheba. (See SPIES.)
The sacred city of the Hittites, on the left bank of the
Orontes, about 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs. It is
identified with the great mound Tell Neby Mendeh, some 50 to 100
feet high, and 400 yards long. On the ruins of the temple of
Karnak, in Egypt, has been found an inscription recording the
capture of this city by Rameses II. (See PHARAOH.) Here the
sculptor “has chiselled in deep work on the stone, with a bold
execution of the several parts, the procession of the warriors,
the battle before Kadesh, the storming of the fortress, the
overthrow of the enemy, and the camp life of the Egyptians.”
Before God; i.e., his servant, one of the Levites who returned
with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh. 9:4; 10:9; 12:8).
Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the
north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen.
15:19). Probably they were identical with the “children of the
east,” who inhabited the country between Palestine and the
Reedy; brook of reeds. (1.) A stream forming the boundary
between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean eastward to
Tappuah (Josh. 16:8). It has been identified with the sedgy
streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea
between Joppa and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river’
(2.) A town in the north of Asher (Josh. 19:28). It has been
identified with Ain-Kana, a village on the brow of a valley some
7 miles south-east of Tyre. About a mile north of this place are
many colossal ruins strown about. And in the side of a
neighbouring ravine are figures of men, women, and children cut
in the face of the rock. These are supposed to be of Phoenician
Bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were
loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer.
40:8, 13, 15, 16).
A floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway
between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea (Josh. 15:3).
Foundation, a place in the open desert wastes on the east of
Jordan (Judg. 8:10), not far beyond Succoth and Penuel, to the
south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band of
Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.
City, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of
the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath
(19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).
Double city, a town of Naphali, assigned to the Gershonite
Levites, and one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 21:32). It was
probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias,
identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.
(Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el
Jelil. (See CANA.)
Dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13).
It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins
generally (Isa. 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who
dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black
hair-tents (Cant. 1:5). To “dwell in the tents of Kedar” was to
be cut off from the worship of the true God (Ps. 120:5). The
Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 49:28,
Eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
Beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the
Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18). It lay not far
north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.
Sanctuary. (1.) A place in the extreme south of Judah (Josh.
15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.).
(2.) A city of Issachar (1 Chr. 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis,
(3.) A “fenced city” of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge
(Josh. 19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite
Levites (Josh. 21:32). It was originally a Canaanite royal city
(Josh. 12:22), and was the residence of Barak (Judg. 4:6); and
here he and Deborah assembled the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali
before the commencement of the conflict with Sisera in the plain
of Esdraelon, “for Jehovah among the mighty” (9, 10). In the
reign of Pekah it was taken by Tiglath-Pileser (2 Kings 15:29).
It was situated near the “plain” (rather “the oak”) of Zaanaim,
and has been identified with the modern Kedes, on the hills
fully four miles north-west of Lake El Huleh.
It has been supposed by some that the Kedesh of the narrative,
where Barak assembled his troops, was not the place in Upper
Galilee so named, which was 30 miles distant from the plain of
Esdraelon, but Kedish, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 12
miles from Tabor.
The valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and
Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of
Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1 Kings 15:13, translate “of the
cedar.” The word means “black,” and may refer to the colour of
the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the
cedars which grew there. John 18:1, “Cedron,” only here in New
Testament. (See KIDRON.)
Assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert
(Num. 33:22, 23).
Citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David
rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1 Sam. 23:1-8);
but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they
sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men “departed
from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go.” They fled to
the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through
Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). “And David was in the wilderness of Ziph,
in a wood” (1 Sam. 23:15). Here Jonathan sought him out, “and
strengthened his hand in God.” This was the last interview
between David and Jonathan (23:16-18). It is the modern Khurbet
Kila. Others identify it with Khuweilfeh, between Beit Jibrin
(Eleutheropolis) and Beersheba, mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
Dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the
people (Neh. 8:7; 10:10).
Helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor
(2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of
Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24).
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
Possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who
called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has been identified
with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60
miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.
Hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He
became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) Caleb’s younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh.
15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the
time of David (1 Chr. 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg.
1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb’s brother.
(3.) Caleb’s grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).
Smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between
southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of
this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a “Midianite” (Num.
10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the
Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, “the
gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They
formed an important guild in an age when the art of metallurgy
was confined to a few” (Sayce’s Races, etc.). They showed
kindness to Israel in their journey through the wilderness. They
accompanied them in their march as far as Jericho (Judg. 1:16),
and then returned to their old haunts among the Amalekites, in
the desert to the south of Judah. They sustained afterwards
friendly relations with the Israelites when settled in Canaan
(Judg. 4:11, 17-21; 1 Sam. 27:10; 30:29). The Rechabites
belonged to this tribe (1 Chr. 2:55) and in the days of Jeremiah
(35:7-10) are referred to as following their nomad habits. Saul
bade them depart from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:6) when, in
obedience to the divine commission, he was about to “smite
Amalek.” And his reason is, “for ye showed kindness to all the
children of Israel when they came up out of Egypt.” Thus “God is
not unrighteous to forget the kindnesses shown to his people;
but they shall be remembered another day, at the farthest in the
great day, and recompensed in the resurrection of the just” (M.
Henry’s Commentary). They are mentioned for the last time in
Scripture in 1 Sam. 27:10; comp. 30:20.
(1.) The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made
with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned among the
original inhabitants of Canaan (Ex. 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and
probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of
(2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V.,
Mentioned only Ezek. 13:18, 21, as an article of apparel or
ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous women of Israel.
The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears to have
been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves
in (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). Some think that it was a long veil or
head-dress, denoting by its form the position of those who wore
Horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job’s third
daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to
Cities. (1.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). Judas
the traitor was probably a native of this place, and hence his
name Iscariot. It has been identified with the ruins of
el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See HAZOR
(2.) A city of Moab (Jer. 48:24, 41), called Kirioth (Amos 2:2).
(Gen. 33:19, R.V., marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl.
“pieces of money,” marg., “lambs;” Josh. 24:32, “pieces of
silver;” Job 42:11, “piece of money”). The kesitah was probably
a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a
lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used.
A large pot for cooking. The same Hebrew word (dud, “boiling”)
is rendered also “pot” (Ps. 81:6), “caldron” (2 Chr. 35:13),
“basket” (Jer. 24:2). It was used for preparing the
peace-offerings (1 Sam. 2:13, 14).
Incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after
Sarah’s death (Gen. 25:1-6), by whom he had six sons, whom he
sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She
is styled “Abraham’s concubine” (1 Chr. 1:32). Through the
offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the “father of many
Frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew
maphteah, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and in the Greek New
Testament kleis, from its use in shutting (Matt. 16:19; Luke
11:52; Rev. 1:18, etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are
frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and
keys of wood, and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22).
The word is used figuratively of power or authority or office
(Isa. 22:22; Rev. 3:7; Rev. 1:8; comp. 9:1; 20:1; comp. also
Matt. 16:19; 18:18). The “key of knowledge” (Luke 11:52; comp.
Matt. 23:13) is the means of attaining the knowledge regarding
the kingdom of God. The “power of the keys” is a phrase in
general use to denote the extent of ecclesiastical authority.
Cassia, the name of Job’s second daughter (42:14), born after
prosperity had returned to him.
Abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21).
The graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the
Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady
Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig,
where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found,
about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day’s journey
from Ain Hudherah.
“Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke
out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the
privations of the march; and then God at once punished them by
lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and killed
many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses (Num.
11:1, 2). Then a disgust fell on the multitude at having nothing
to eat but the manna day after day, no change, no flesh, no
fish, no high-flavoured vegetables, no luscious fruits…The
people loathed the light food,’ and cried out to Moses, Give us
flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat.'” In this emergency
Moses, in despair, cried unto God. An answer came. God sent “a
prodigious flight of quails, on which the people satiated their
gluttonous appetite for a full month. Then punishment fell on
them: they loathed the food which they had desired; it bred
disease in them; the divine anger aggravated the disease into a
plague, and a heavy mortality was the consequence. The dead were
buried without the camp; and in memory of man’s sin and of the
divine wrath this name, Kibroth-hattaavah, the Graves of Lust,
was given to the place of their sepulchre” (Num. 11:34, 35;
33:16, 17; Deut. 9:22; comp. Ps. 78:30, 31)., Rawlinson’s Moses,
p. 175. From this encampment they journeyed in a north-eastern
direction to Hazeroth.
Two heaps, a city of Ephraim, assigned to the Kohathite Levites,
and appointed as a city of refuge (Josh. 21: 22). It is also
called Jokmeam (1 Chr. 6:68).
The young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9;
38:17; Judg. 6:19; 14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid
in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Ex.
23:19; 34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned
for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which
regards it as “a protest against cruelty and outraging the order
of nature.” A kid cooked in its mother’s milk is “a gross,
unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious
passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it.
Besides, it is even yet associated with immoderate feasting; and
originally, I suspect,” says Dr. Thomson (Land and the Book),
“was connected with idolatrous sacrifices.”
= Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows
through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of
Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley
is known in Scripture only by the name “the brook Kidron.” David
crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from
Absalom (2 Sam. 15:23, 30), and it was frequently crossed by our
Lord in his journeyings to and fro (John 18:1). Here Asa burned
the obscene idols of his mother (1 Kings 15:13), and here
Athaliah was executed (2 Kings 11:16). It afterwards became the
receptacle for all manner of impurities (2 Chr. 29:16; 30:14);
and in the time of Josiah this valley was the common cemetery of
the city (2 Kings 23:6; comp. Jer. 26:23).
Through this mountain ravine no water runs, except after heavy
rains in the mountains round about Jerusalem. Its length from
its head to en-Rogel is 2 3/4 miles. Its precipitous, rocky
banks are filled with ancient tombs, especially the left bank
opposite the temple area. The greatest desire of the Jews is to
be buried there, from the idea that the Kidron is the “valley of
Jehoshaphat” mentioned in Joel 3:2.
Below en-Rogel the Kidron has no historical or sacred interest.
It runs in a winding course through the wilderness of Judea to
the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. Its whole length, in a
straight line, is only some 20 miles, but in this space its
descent is about 3,912 feet. (See KEDRON.)
Recent excavations have brought to light the fact that the old
bed of the Kidron is about 40 feet lower than its present bed,
and about 70 feet nearer the sanctuary wall.
An elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It
was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.
(Heb. sing. parah, i.e., “fruitful”), mentioned in Pharaoh’s
dream (Gen. 41: 18). Here the word denotes “buffaloes,” which
fed on the reeds and sedge by the river’s brink.
Is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with
authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one
kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, 24), whom Joshua subdued.
Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New
Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1 Pet. 2:13,
17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called
a king (Matt. 14:9; Mark 6:22).
This title is applied to God (1 Tim. 1:17), and to Christ, the
Son of God (1 Tim. 6:15, 16; Matt. 27:11). The people of God are
also called “kings” (Dan. 7:22, 27; Matt. 19:28; Rev. 1:6,
etc.). Death is called the “king of terrors” (Job 18:14).
Jehovah was the sole King of the Jewish nation (1 Sam. 8:7; Isa.
33:22). But there came a time in the history of that people when
a king was demanded, that they might be like other nations (1
Sam. 8:5). The prophet Samuel remonstrated with them, but the
people cried out, “Nay, but we will have a king over us.” The
misconduct of Samuel’s sons was the immediate cause of this
The Hebrew kings did not rule in their own right, nor in name of
the people who had chosen them, but partly as servants and
partly as representatives of Jehovah, the true King of Israel (1
Sam. 10:1). The limits of the king’s power were prescribed (1
Sam. 10:25). The officers of his court were, (1) the recorder or
remembrancer (2 Sam. 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3); (2) the scribe (2 Sam.
8:17; 20:25); (3) the officer over the house, the chief steward
(Isa. 22:15); (4) the “king’s friend,” a confidential companion
(1 Kings 4:5); (5) the keeper of the wardrobe (2 Kings 22:14);
(6) captain of the bodyguard (2 Sam. 20:23); (7) officers over
the king’s treasures, etc. (1 Chr. 27:25-31); (8)
commander-in-chief of the army (1 Chr. 27:34); (9) the royal
counsellor (1 Chr. 27:32; 2 Sam. 16:20-23).
(For catalogue of kings of Israel and Judah see chronological
table in Appendix.)
Kingdom of God
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, 15; Luke 4:43) = “kingdom of Christ”
(Matt. 13:41; 20:21) = “kingdom of Christ and of God” (Eph. 5:5)
= “kingdom of David” (Mark 11:10) = “the kingdom” (Matt. 8:12;
13:19) = “kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 3:2; 4:17; 13:41), all
denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1)
Christ’s mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2)
the blessings and advantages of all kinds that flow from this
rule; (3) the subjects of this kingdom taken collectively, or
Kingly office of Christ
One of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his
people. Christ’s office as mediator comprehends three different
functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are
not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one
office of mediator.
Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all
things to his Church (Eph. 1:22; 4:15; Col. 1:18; 2:19). He
executes this mediatorial kingship in his Church, and over his
Church, and over all things in behalf of his Church. This
royalty differs from that which essentially belongs to him as
God, for it is given to him by the Father as the reward of his
obedience and sufferings (Phil. 2:6-11), and has as its especial
object the upbuilding and the glory of his redeemed Church. It
attaches, moreover, not to his divine nature as such, but to his
person as God-man.
Christ’s mediatorial kingdom may be regarded as comprehending,
(1) his kingdom of power, or his providential government of the
universe; (2) his kingdom of grace, which is wholly spiritual in
its subjects and administration; and (3) his kingdom of glory,
which is the consummation of all his providential and gracious
Christ sustained and exercised the function of mediatorial King
as well as of Prophet and Priest, from the time of the fall of
man, when he entered on his mediatorial work; yet it may be said
that he was publicly and formally enthroned when he ascended up
on high and sat down at the Father’s right hand (Ps. 2:6; Jer.
23:5; Isa. 9:6), after his work of humiliation and suffering on
earth was “finished.”
Mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18, the name given to
“the valley of Shaveh,” where the king of Sodom met Abram.
Kings, The Books of
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the
Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first
made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as
the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel
being the first and second books of Kings.
They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the
accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by
Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about
four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles
(q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of
Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chr. 28-2 Chr. 36:21. While
in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or
Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to
The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some
portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical,
e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jer. 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There
are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings
(2 Kings 21-23 and Jer. 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events
recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge.
These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that
Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more
probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled
them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan,
Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which
they now exist.
In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these
books are ranked among the “Prophets.” They are frequently
quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles (Matt. 6:29;
12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4; comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; comp.
2 Kings 1:8; Matt. 3:4, etc.).
The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) “the book of
the acts of Solomon” (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the “book of the
chronicles of the kings of Judah” (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3)
the “book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel” (14:19;
15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).
The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the
date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was
released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date
of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.
Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the
Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain
important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin.
(1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his
inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev.
25:25, 28; Ruth 3:9, 12). He was also required to redeem his
relation who had sold himself into slavery (Lev. 25:48, 49).
God is the Goel of his people because he redeems them (Ex. 6:6;
Isa. 43:1; 41:14; 44:6, 22; 48:20; Ps. 103:4; Job 19:25, etc.).
(2.) The goel also was the avenger (q.v.) of blood (Num. 35:21)
in the case of the murder of the next of kin.
A wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the
Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus (2 Kings
16:9; Amos 1:5; 9:7). Isaiah (22:6), who also was contemporary
with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have
supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south
Built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a
small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from
Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also
Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31,
36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see
MOABITE STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel,
and fought successfully for the independence of his kingdom.
After this Jehoram, king of Israel, in seeking to regain his
supremacy over Moab, entered into an alliance with Jehoshaphat,
king of Judah, and with the king of Edom. The three kings led
their armies against Mesha, who was driven back to seek refuge
in Kir-haraseth. The Moabites were driven to despair. Mesha then
took his eldest son, who would have reigned in his stead, and
offered him as a burnt-offering on the wall of the fortress in
the sight of the allied armies. “There was great indignation
against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to
their own land.” The invaders evacuated the land of Moab, and
Mesha achieved the independence of his country (2 Kings
City, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern
Kuriet el-Enab, i.e., “city of grapes”, about 7 1/2 miles
west-north-west of Jerusalem.
Two cities; a double city. (1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1
(2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, 10). It
was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of
Ezekiel (25:9) it was one of the four cities which formed the
“glory of Moab” (comp. Jer. 48:1, 23). It has been identified
with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on the south
slope of Jebel Attarus, the ancient Ataroth.
City of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from
the name of its founder, one of the Anakim (Gen. 23:2; 35:27;
Josh. 15:13). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion.
The Jews interpret the name as meaning “the city of the four”,
i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they
allege, buried there.
City of streets, Num. 22:39, a Moabite city, which some identify
with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam,
whom he had invited from Pethor, among the “mountains of the
east,” beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites,
whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was
probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the
city, that the soothsayer first saw the encampments of Israel.
City of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town
(Josh. 9:17) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was
assigned (18:15, 28). The ark was brought to this place (1 Sam.
7:1, 2) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a
Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to
Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2, 3, 12; 1 Chr. 15:1-29; comp. Ps. 132). It
was also called Baalah (Josh. 15:9) and Kirjath-baal (60). It
has been usually identified with Kuriet el-Enab (i.e., “city of
grapes”), among the hills, about 8 miles north-east of Ain Shems
(i.e., Beth-shemesh). The opinion, however, that it is to be
identified with Erma, 4 miles east of Ain Shems, on the edge of
the valley of Sorek, seems to be better supported. (See
The words of Ps. 132:6, “We found it in the fields of the wood,”
refer to the sojourn of the ark at Kirjath-jearim. “Wood” is
here the rendering of the Hebrew word jaar, which is the
singular of jearim.
City of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Josh. 15:49; the same
as Kirjath-sepher (15:16; Judg. 1:11) and Debir (q.v.), a
Canaanitish royal city included in Judah (Josh. 10:38; 15:49),
and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It
was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron.
City of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now
represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of
Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites
were acquainted with writing and books. “The town probably
contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the
residence of some learned priest.” The “books” were probably
engraved stones or bricks.
Kir of Moab
Isa. 15:1. The two strongholds of Moab were Ar and Kir, which
latter is probably the Kir-haraseth (16:7) following.
A bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21;
(2.) A Benjamite of Jerusalem (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36).
(3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).
(4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5).
(5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1
Sam. 9:1, 3; 10:11, 21; 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14). All that is
recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his
asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called
Cis, Acts 13:21 (R.V., Kish).
Hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites
(Josh. 19:20), the same as Kishon (21:28).
Winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises
about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly
direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into
the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of
Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters
of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it
find their way to the sea. It bears the modern name of Nahr
el-Mokattah, i.e., “the river of slaughter” (comp. 1 Kings
18:40). In the triumphal song of Deborah (Judg. 5:21) it is
spoken of as “that ancient river,” either (1) because it had
flowed on for ages, or (2), according to the Targum, because it
was “the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel
of old;” or (3) probably the reference is to the exploits in
that region among the ancient Canaanites, for the adjoining
plain of Esdraelon was the great battle-field of Palestine.
This was the scene of the defeat of Sisera (Judg. 4:7, 13), and
of the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings
18:40). “When the Kishon was at its height, it would be, partly
on account of its quicksands, as impassable as the ocean itself
to a retreating army.” (See DEBORAH.)
Of affection (Gen. 27:26, 27; 29:13; Luke 7:38, 45);
reconciliation (Gen. 33:4; 2 Sam. 14:33); leave-taking (Gen.
31:28, 55; Ruth 1:14; 2 Sam. 19:39); homage (Ps. 2:12; 1 Sam.
10:1); spoken of as between parents and children (Gen. 27:26;
31:28, 55; 48:10; 50:1; Ex. 18:7; Ruth 1:9, 14); between male
relatives (Gen. 29:13; 33:4; 45:15). It accompanied social
worship as a symbol of brotherly love (Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20;
2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Pet. 5:14). The worship of idols
was by kissing the image or the hand toward the image (1 Kings
19:18; Hos. 13:2).
An unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut.
14:13). The Hebrew word used, ‘ayet, is rendered “vulture” in
Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, “falcon” in Revised Version. It
is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing
sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine.
A man’s wall, a town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40). It has
been identified with Jelameh.
Knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath
(Josh. 19:15); supposed to be “Cana of Galilee.”
(Gen. 10:4). (See CHITTIM.)
To prepare dough in the process of baking (Gen. 18:6; 1 Sam.
28:24; Hos. 7:4).
The vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened,
was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7).
The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still
unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in
(1.) Heb. hereb, “the waster,” a sharp instrument for
circumcision (Josh. 5:2, 3, lit. “knives of flint;” comp. Ex.
4:25); a razor (Ezek. 5:1); a graving tool (Ex. 20:25); an axe
(2.) Heb. maakeleth, a large knife for slaughtering and cutting
up food (Gen. 22:6, 10; Prov. 30:14).
(3.) Heb. sakkin, a knife for any purpose, a table knife (Prov.
(4.) Heb. mahalaph, a butcher’s knife for slaughtering the
victims offered in sacrifice (Ezra 1:9).
(5.) Smaller knives (Heb. ta’ar, Jer. 36:26) were used for
sharpening pens. The pruning-knives mentioned in Isa. 18:5 (Heb.
mizmaroth) were probably curved knives.
“Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never
knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning
or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to
knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either
by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and
respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to
stand without and call to the owner to come forth (Deut. 24:10).
This was to avoid the violent intrusion of cruel creditors.
Peter stood knocking at the outer door (Acts 12:13, 16), and the
three men sent to Joppa by Cornelius made inquiry and stood
before the gate’ (10:17, 18). The idea is that the guard over
your privacy is to be placed at the entrance.”
Knocking is used as a sign of importunity (Matt. 7:7, 8; Luke
13:25), and of the coming of Christ (Luke 12:36; Rev. 3:20).
Some architectural ornament. (1.) Heb. kaphtor (Ex. 25:31-36),
occurring in the description of the candlestick. It was an
ornamental swell beneath the cups of the candlestick, probably
an imitation of the fruit of the almond.
(2.) Heb. peka’im, found only in 1 Kings 6:18 and 7:24, an
ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar
wainscot in the temple and on the castings on the brim of the
He-camel, occurs only in Ezek. 23:23, some province or place in
the Babylonian empire, used in this passage along with Shoa
Assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram (Gen.
46:11). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age
of one hundred and thirty-three years (Ex. 6:18).
The descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three
divisions of the Levites (Ex. 6:16, 18; Num. 3:17). In the
journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most
holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark
(Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south
of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, 31). Their numbers at different
times are specified (3:28; 4:36; 26:57, 62). Samuel was of this
Ice, hail. (1.) The third son of Esau, by Aholibamah (Gen.
36:14; 1 Chr. 1:35).
(2.) A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the
father of Moses and Aaron (Ex. 6:21). The institution of the
Aaronic priesthood and the Levitical service at Sinai was a
great religious revolution. The old priesthood of the heads of
families passed away. This gave rise to murmurings and
discontent, while the Israelites were encamped at Kadesh for the
first time, which came to a head in a rebellion against Moses
and Aaron, headed by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. Two hundred and
fifty princes, “men of renown” i.e., well-known men from among
the other tribes, joined this conspiracy. The whole company
demanded of Moses and Aaron that the old state of things should
be restored, alleging that “they took too much upon them” (Num.
16:1-3). On the morning after the outbreak, Korah and his
associates presented themselves at the door of the tabernacle,
and “took every man his censer, and put fire in them, and laid
incense thereon.” But immediately “fire from the Lord” burst
forth and destroyed them all (Num. 16:35). Dathan and Abiram
“came out and stood in the door of their tents, and their wives,
and their sons, and their little children,” and it came to pass
“that the ground clave asunder that was under them; and the
earth opened her mouth and swallowed them up.” A plague
thereafter began among the people who sympathized in the
rebellion, and was only stayed by Aaron’s appearing between the
living and the dead, and making “an atonement for the people”
The descendants of the sons of Korah who did not participate in
the rebellion afterwards rose to eminence in the Levitical
That portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. (1.)
They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite
division (2 Chr. 20:19). There are eleven psalms (42-49; 84; 85;
87; 88) dedicated to the sons of Korah.
(2.) Some of the sons of Korah also were “porters” of the temple
(1 Chr. 9:17-19); one of them was over “things that were made in
the pans” (31), i.e., the baking in pans for the meat-offering
Partridge. (1.) A Levite and temple-warder of the Korahites, the
son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah,
temple-porters (1 Chr. 9:19; 26:1).
(2.) A Levitical porter at the east gate of the temple (2 Chr.
(3.) In 1 Chr. 26:19 the word should be “Korahites,” as in the
A Levitical family descended from Korah (Ex. 6:24; 1 Chr. 12:6;
26:1; 2 Chr. 20:19).
Thorn. (1.) A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:8, “Coz;” R.V.,
(2.) A priest, the head of the seventh division of the priests
(Ezra 2:61; Neh. 3:4, 21; 7:63). In 1 Chr. 24:10 the word has
the article prefixed, and it is taken as a part of the word