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Easton's Bible Dictionary (L)

          White. (1.) The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor,
          Abraham’s brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister
          Rebekah was Isaac’s wife (Gen. 24). Jacob, one of the sons of
          this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah
          and Rachel (ch. 29) he eventually married. (See [345]JACOB.)

          (2.) A city in the Arabian desert in the route of the Israelites
          (Deut. 1:1), probably identical with Libnah (Num. 33:20).

          Impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or
          maritime plain of Palestine (Josh. 10:3, 5; 12:11). It was taken
          and destroyed by the Israelites (Josh. 10:31-33). It afterwards
          became, under Rehoboam, one of the strongest fortresses of Judah
          (2 Chr. 10:9). It was assaulted and probably taken by
          Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:14, 17; 19:8; Isa. 36:2). An account of
          this siege is given on some slabs found in the chambers of the
          palace of Koyunjik, and now in the British Museum. The
          inscription has been deciphered as follows:, “Sennacherib, the
          mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the
          throne of judgment before the city of Lachish: I gave permission
          for its slaughter.” (See [346]NINEVEH.)

          Lachish has been identified with Tell-el-Hesy, where a cuneiform
          tablet has been found, containing a letter supposed to be from
          Amenophis at Amarna in reply to one of the Amarna tablets sent
          by Zimrida from Lachish. This letter is from the chief of Atim
          (=Etam, 1 Chr. 4:32) to the chief of Lachish, in which the
          writer expresses great alarm at the approach of marauders from
          the Hebron hills. “They have entered the land,” he says, “to lay
          waste…strong is he who has come down. He lays waste.” This
          letter shows that “the communication by tablets in cuneiform
          script was not only usual in writing to Egypt, but in the
          internal correspondence of the country. The letter, though not
          so important in some ways as the Moabite stone and the Siloam
          text, is one of the most valuable discoveries ever made in
          Palestine” (Conder’s Tell Amarna Tablets, p. 134).

          Excavations at Lachish are still going on, and among other
          discoveries is that of an iron blast-furnace, with slag and
          ashes, which is supposed to have existed B.C. 1500. If the
          theories of experts are correct, the use of the hot-air blast
          instead of cold air (an improvement in iron manufacture patented
          by Neilson in 1828) was known fifteen hundred years before
          Christ. (See [347]FURNACE.)

          Occurs only once, in the account of Jacob’s vision (Gen. 28:12).

          A lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of
          Palestine (Judg. 18:7, 14); called also Leshem (Josh. 19:47) and
          Dan (Judg. 18:7, 29; Jer. 8:16). It lay near the sources of the
          Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike
          tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded
          this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified
          with the ruin Tell-el-Kady, “the mound of the judge,” to the
          north of the Waters of Merom (Josh. 11:5).

          (2.) A place mentioned in Isa. 10:30. It has been supposed to be
          the modern el-Isawiyeh, about a mile north-east of Jerusalem.

          (3.) The father of Phalti (1 Sam. 25:44).

          (Matt. 27:46), a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Ps. 22:1.

          (1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year.
          Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Ex.
          29:38-42), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the
          New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of
          Pentecost (Lev. 23:18-20), and of the Passover (Ex. 12:5), and
          on many other occasions (1 Chr. 29:21; 2 Chr. 29:21; Lev. 9:3;

          (2.) Heb. taleh, a young sucking lamb (1 Sam. 7:9; Isa. 65:25).
          In the symbolical language of Scripture the lamb is the type of
          meekness and innocence (Isa. 11:6; 65:25; Luke 10:3; John

          The lamb was a symbol of Christ (Gen. 4:4; Ex. 12:3; 29:38; Isa.
          16:1; 53:7; John 1:36; Rev. 13:8).

          Christ is called the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), as the great
          sacrifice of which the former sacrifices were only types (Num.
          6:12; Lev. 14:12-17; Isa. 53:7; 1 Cor. 5:7).

          The strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from
          Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of
          marriage (Gen. 4:18-24). His address to his two wives, Adah and
          Zillah (4:23, 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian
          poetry. It has been called “Lamech’s sword-song.” He was “rude
          and ruffianly,” fearing neither God nor man. With him the
          curtain falls on the race of Cain. We know nothing of his

          (2.) The seventh in descent from Seth, being the only son of
          Methuselah. Noah was the oldest of his several sons (Gen.
          5:25-31; Luke 3:36).

          (Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form
          of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam.
          1:17-27). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos
          8:10). In 2 Sam. 3:33, 34 is recorded David’s lament over Abner.
          Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted
          calamity (Ezek. 27:2, 32; 28:12; 32:2, 16).

   Lamentations, Book of
          Called in the Hebrew canon ‘Ekhah, meaning “How,” being the
          formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the
          first word of the book (see 2 Sam. 1:19-27). The LXX. adopted
          the name rendered “Lamentations” (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now
          in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the
          prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the
          holy land by Chaldeans. In the Hebrew Bible it is placed among
          the Khethubim. (See [348]BIBLE.)

          As to its authorship, there is no room for hesitancy in
          following the LXX. and the Targum in ascribing it to Jeremiah.
          The spirit, tone, language, and subject-matter are in accord
          with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him.
          According to tradition, he retired after the destruction of
          Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to a cavern outside the Damascus
          gate, where he wrote this book. That cavern is still pointed
          out. “In the face of a rocky hill, on the western side of the
          city, the local belief has placed the grotto of Jeremiah.’
          There, in that fixed attitude of grief which Michael Angelo has
          immortalized, the prophet may well be supposed to have mourned
          the fall of his country” (Stanley, Jewish Church).

          The book consists of five separate poems. In chapter 1 the
          prophet dwells on the manifold miseries oppressed by which the
          city sits as a solitary widow weeping sorely. In chapter 2 these
          miseries are described in connection with the national sins that
          had caused them. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God.
          The chastisement would only be for their good; a better day
          would dawn for them. Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation
          that had come upon the city and temple, but traces it only to
          the people’s sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zion’s reproach
          may be taken away in the repentance and recovery of the people.

          The first four poems (chapters) are acrostics, like some of the
          Psalms (25, 34, 37, 119), i.e., each verse begins with a letter
          of the Hebrew alphabet taken in order. The first, second, and
          fourth have each twenty-two verses, the number of the letters in
          the Hebrew alphabet. The third has sixty-six verses, in which
          each three successive verses begin with the same letter. The
          fifth is not acrostic.

          Speaking of the “Wailing-place (q.v.) of the Jews” at Jerusalem,
          a portion of the old wall of the temple of Solomon, Schaff says:
          “There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail the
          downfall of the holy city, kissing the stone wall and watering
          it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew
          Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and
          suitable Psalms.”

          (1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the
          temple which bore the light (Ex. 25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chr.
          4:20; 13:11; Zech. 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil
          was generally burned in them (Ex. 27:20).

          (2.) A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon (Judg. 7:16, 20).
          (R.V., “torches.”)

          (3.) Domestic lamps (A.V., “candles”) were in common use among
          the Hebrews (Matt. 5:15; Mark 4:21, etc.).

          (4.) Lamps or torches were used in connection with marriage
          ceremonies (Matt. 25:1).

          This word is also frequently metaphorically used to denote life,
          welfare, guidance, etc. (2 Sam. 21:17; Ps. 119:105; Prov. 6:23;

          A boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14;
          27:17; Prov. 22:28; 23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be
          removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God.

          The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines
          of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev.
          3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called
          Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice,
          the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was
          one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor.
          At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of
          Christianity (Col. 2:1; 4:15; Rev. 1:11, etc.). It is now a
          deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or “old castle.”

   Laodicea, Epistle from
          (Col. 4:16), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as
          designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians
          by way of Laodicea.

          Torches. Deborah is called “the wife of Lapidoth” (Judg. 4:4).
          Some have rendered the expression “a woman of a fiery spirit,”
          under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a
          woman of a torch-like spirit.

          Of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water
          to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin
          tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water,
          which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went
          with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out
          of their hands (Judg. 7:7).

          The name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and
          Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, dukiphath, has been
          generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an
          onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which
          resembles the word “hoop;” a bird not uncommon in Palestine.
          Others identify it with the English peewit.

          A city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still
          found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of “Fair Havens.”

          Fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen. 10:19).
          It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot

          A thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the
          foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).

          The vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20).

          (1.) Heb. eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool
          breeze passes (Judg. 5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were
          sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden
          frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the

          (2.) Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window (Cant.

          (3.) Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or
          balcony (2 Kings 1:2). The lattice window is frequently used in
          Eastern countries.

          (Heb. kiyor), a “basin” for boiling in, a “pan” for cooking (1
          Sam. 2:14), a “fire-pan” or hearth (Zech. 12:6), the sacred
          wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple (Ex. 30:18, 28; 31:9;
          35:16; 38:8; 39:39; 40:7, 11, 30, etc.), a basin for the water
          used by the priests in their ablutions.

          That which was originally used in the tabernacle was of brass
          (rather copper; Heb. nihsheth), made from the metal mirrors the
          women brought out of Egypt (Ex. 38:8). It contained water
          wherewith the priests washed their hands and feet when they
          entered the tabernacle (40:32). It stood in the court between
          the altar and the door of the tabernacle (30:19, 21).

          In the temple there were ten lavers used for the sacrifices, and
          the molten sea for the ablutions of the priests (2 Chr. 4:6).
          The position and uses of these are described 1 Kings 7:23-39; 2
          Chr. 4:6. The “molten sea” was made of copper, taken from
          Tibhath and Chun, cities of Hadarezer, king of Zobah (1 Chr.
          18:8; 1 Kings 7:23-26).

          No lavers are mentioned in the second temple.

          A rule of action. (1.) The Law of Nature is the will of God as
          to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and
          discoverable by natural light (Rom. 1:20; 2:14, 15). This law
          binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the
          term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the
          moral relations of things.

          (2.) The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the
          rites and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only
          till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his
          work (Heb. 7:9, 11; 10:1; Eph. 2:16). It was fulfilled rather
          than abrogated by the gospel.

          (3.) The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy
          of the Hebrew nation.

          (4.) The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human
          conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. It was
          promulgated at Sinai. It is perfect (Ps. 19:7), perpetual (Matt.
          5:17, 18), holy (Rom. 7:12), good, spiritual (14), and exceeding
          broad (Ps. 119:96). Although binding on all, we are not under it
          as a covenant of works (Gal. 3:17). (See [349]COMMANDMENTS.)

          (5.) Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God.
          They are right because God commands them.

          (6.) Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are

   Law of Moses
          Is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3; 2
          Kings 23:25; Ezra 3:2). It is called by way of eminence simply
          “the Law” (Heb. Torah, Deut. 1:5; 4:8, 44; 17:18, 19; 27:3, 8).
          As a written code it is called the “book of the law of Moses” (2
          Kings 14:6; Isa. 8:20), the “book of the law of God” (Josh.

          The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is
          essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the
          commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.

          Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he
          expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matt. 22:35; Luke
          10:25). The functions of the “lawyer” and “scribe” were
          identical. (See [350]DOCTOR.)

          An abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps. (1.) The brother of
          Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he
          had lain four days in the tomb (John 11:1-44). This miracle so
          excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus
          and Lazarus to death.

          (2.) A beggar named in the parable recorded Luke 16:19-31.

          Of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren
          fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The
          oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30; 6:13. There are numerous
          allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their
          restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, 14,
          21; Mark 11:13; 13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity
          (Ps. 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek. 47:12); the faded, of decay (Job
          13:25; Isa. 1:30; 64:6; Jer. 8:13).

          Leaf of a door (1 Kings 6:34), the valve of a folding door.

          Leaf of a book (Jer. 36:23), perhaps a fold of a roll.

          A treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into
          an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Ex. 23:32, 33;
          34:12-16); (2) with the Amalekites (Ex. 17:8, 14; Deut.
          25:17-19); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut. 2:9, 19).
          Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other
          nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the
          kings of Tyre and Hamath, and Solomon with the kings of Tyre and

          Weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel (Gen.
          29:16). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father
          (Gen. 29:23). She was “tender-eyed” (17). She bore to Jacob six
          sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah (30:21). She accompanied
          Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going
          down into Egypt (Gen. 31), and was buried in the cave of
          Machpelah (49:31).

          For answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Ps. 88.
          The title “Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth” may be rendered “concerning
          sickness, to be sung” i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness.

          (Ps. 4:2; 5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as
          the Hebrew word kazabh is generally rendered.

          A girdle of, worn by Elijah (2 Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist
          (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20;
          Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is
          mentioned (Acts 9:43; 10:6, 32). It was probably learned in

          (1.) Heb. seor (Ex. 12:15, 19; 13:7; Lev. 2:11), the remnant of
          dough from the preceding baking which had fermented and become

          (2.) Heb. hamets, properly “ferment.” In Num. 6:3, “vinegar of
          wine” is more correctly “fermented wine.” In Ex. 13:7, the
          proper rendering would be, “Unfermented things [Heb. matstsoth]
          shall be consumed during the seven days; and there shall not be
          seen with thee fermented things [hamets], and there shall not be
          seen with thee leavened mass [seor] in all thy borders.” The
          chemical definition of ferment or yeast is “a substance in a
          state of putrefaction, the atoms of which are in a continual

          The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made
          to the Lord by fire (Lev. 2:11; 7:12; 8:2; Num. 6:15). Its
          secretly penetrating and diffusive power is referred to in 1
          Cor. 5:6. In this respect it is used to illustrate the growth of
          the kingdom of heaven both in the individual heart and in the
          world (Matt. 13:33). It is a figure also of corruptness and of
          perverseness of heart and life (Matt. 16:6, 11; Mark 8:15; 1
          Cor. 5:7, 8).

          White, “the white mountain of Syria,” is the loftiest and most
          celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running
          southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into
          two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the
          western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh.
          11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers
          Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka’a, “the valley,” a prolongation
          of the valley of the Jordan.

          Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern
          extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and
          extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far
          as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, “the entering of
          Hamath” (Num. 34:8; 1 Kings 8:65), in all about 90 geographical
          miles in extent. The average height of this range is from 6,000
          to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet,
          and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with
          perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range wild beasts
          as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9; Cant. 4:8). The scenes of
          the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and
          supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Ps.
          29:5, 6; 72:16; 104:16-18; Cant. 4:15; Isa. 2:13; 35:2; 60:13;
          Hos. 14:5). It is famous for its cedars (Cant. 5:15), its wines
          (Hos. 14:7), and its cool waters (Jer. 18:14). The ancient
          inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Josh. 13:5; Judg. 3:3).
          It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kings 5:2-6).

          The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or “Lebanon towards the
          sunrising,” runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain
          of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the
          south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest
          peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges

          Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of
          Palestine (Deut. 1:7; 11:24). It was assigned to Israel, but was
          never conquered (Josh. 13:2-6; Judg. 3:1-3).

          The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about
          300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a
          Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by
          Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.

          Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matt.
          10:3), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the
          Judas who was the brother of our Lord.

          Frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel
          (Judg. 21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the
          south of Nablus.

          (Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered “grass” in 1 Kings
          18:5, 2 Kings 19:26, Job 40:15, etc.; “herb” in Job 8:12; “hay”
          in Prov. 27:25, and Isa. 15:6; “leeks” only in Num. 11:5. This
          Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs,
          such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables,
          and not necessarily what are now called leeks. The leek was a
          favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated
          there and in Palestine.

          (Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was
          applied to “lees” from the custom of allowing wine to stand on
          the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa. 25:6).
          “Men settled on their lees” (Zeph. 1:12) are men “hardened or
          crusted.” The image is derived from the crust formed at the
          bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer. 48:11). The effect
          of wealthy undisturbed ease on the ungodly is hardening. They
          become stupidly secure (comp. Ps. 55:19; Amos 6:1). To drink the
          lees (Ps. 75:8) denotes severe suffering.

   Left hand
          Among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the
          face of the person being supposed to be toward the east.

          (Judg. 3:15; 20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully,
          and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left
          as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands
          is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in
          the tribe of Benjamin.

          A regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which
          differed at different times. It originally consisted of three
          thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six
          thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of
          the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to
          express simply a great multitude.

          A jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a
          victory over the Philistines (Judg. 15:9, 14, 16), slaying a
          thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words in 15:19,
          “a hollow place that was in the jaw” (A.V.), should be, as in
          Revised Version, “the hollow place that is in Lehi.”

          Dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov.
          31:1-9). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis
          identified him with Solomon.

          (Heb. adashim), a species of vetch (Gen. 25:34; 2 Sam. 23:11),
          common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by
          Jacob was of lentils (Gen. 25:29-34). They were among the
          provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam.
          17:28). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant
          which produces a fruit resembling a bean.

          (Heb. namer, so called because spotted, Cant. 4:8), was that
          great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of
          Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its
          fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6),
          its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer.
          13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6;
          Rev. 13:2).

          (Heb. tsara’ath, a “smiting,” a “stroke,” because the disease
          was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is
          from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated
          the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the
          disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev.
          13; 14; Num. 12:10-15, etc. There were reckoned six different
          circumstances under which it might develop itself, (1) without
          any apparent cause (Lev. 13:2-8); (2) its reappearance (9-17);
          (3) from an inflammation (18-28); (4) on the head or chin
          (29-37); (5) in white polished spots (38, 39); (6) at the back
          or in the front of the head (40-44).

          Lepers were required to live outside the camp or city (Num.
          5:1-4; 12:10-15, etc.). This disease was regarded as an awful
          punishment from the Lord (2 Kings 5:7; 2 Chr. 26:20). (See
          [351]MIRIAM; [352]GEHAZI; [353]UZZIAH.)

          This disease “begins with specks on the eyelids and on the
          palms, gradually spreading over the body, bleaching the hair
          white wherever they appear, crusting the affected parts with
          white scales, and causing terrible sores and swellings. From the
          skin the disease eats inward to the bones, rotting the whole
          body piecemeal.” “In Christ’s day no leper could live in a
          walled town, though he might in an open village. But wherever he
          was he was required to have his outer garment rent as a sign of
          deep grief, to go bareheaded, and to cover his beard with his
          mantle, as if in lamentation at his own virtual death. He had
          further to warn passers-by to keep away from him, by calling
          out, Unclean! unclean!’ nor could he speak to any one, or
          receive or return a salutation, since in the East this involves
          an embrace.”

          That the disease was not contagious is evident from the
          regulations regarding it (Lev. 13:12, 13, 36; 2 Kings 5:1).
          Leprosy was “the outward and visible sign of the innermost
          spiritual corruption; a meet emblem in its small beginnings, its
          gradual spread, its internal disfigurement, its dissolution
          little by little of the whole body, of that which corrupts,
          degrades, and defiles man’s inner nature, and renders him unmeet
          to enter the presence of a pure and holy God” (Maclear’s
          Handbook O.T). Our Lord cured lepers (Matt. 8:2, 3; Mark
          1:40-42). This divine power so manifested illustrates his
          gracious dealings with men in curing the leprosy of the soul,
          the fatal taint of sin.

          In Rom. 2:27, 29 means the outward form. The “oldness of the
          letter” (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal
          outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules
          of conduct. In 2 Cor. 3:6, “the letter” means the Mosaic law as
          a written law. (See [354]WRITING.)

          Peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan,
          and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:3).

          Adhesion. (1.) The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the
          name is found in Leah’s words (Gen. 29:34), “This time will my
          husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me.” He is mentioned as
          taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah (Gen.
          34:25-31). He and his three sons went down with Jacob (46:11)
          into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and
          thirty-seven years (Ex. 6:16).

          (2.) The father of Matthat, and son of Simeon, of the ancestors
          of Christ (Luke 3:29).

          (3.) Luke 3:24.

          (4.) One of the apostles, the son of Alphaeus (Mark 2:14; Luke
          5:27, 29), called also Matthew (Matt. 9:9).

          A transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning “twisted,”
          “coiled.” In Job 3:8, Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized
          Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern
          tradition, is an enemy of light; in 41:1 the crocodile is meant;
          in Ps. 104:26 it “denotes any large animal that moves by
          writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the
          deep.” This word is also used figuratively for a cruel enemy, as
          some think “the Egyptian host, crushed by the divine power, and
          cast on the shores of the Red Sea” (Ps. 74:14). As used in Isa.
          27:1, “leviathan the piercing [R.V. swift’] serpent, even
          leviathan that crooked [R.V. marg. winding’] serpent,” the word
          may probably denote the two empires, the Assyrian and the

   Levirate Law
          From Latin levir, “a husband’s brother,” the name of an ancient
          custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died
          without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the
          widow, so as to continue his brother’s family through the son
          that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5-10;
          comp. Ruth 3; 4:10). Its object was “to raise up seed to the
          departed brother.”

          A descendant of the tribe of Levi (Ex. 6:25; Lev. 25:32; Num.
          35:2; Josh. 21:3, 41). This name is, however, generally used as
          the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for
          the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service (1 Kings 8:4;
          Ezra 2:70), as assistants to the priests.

          When the Israelites left Egypt, the ancient manner of worship
          was still observed by them, the eldest son of each house
          inheriting the priest’s office. At Sinai the first change in
          this ancient practice was made. A hereditary priesthood in the
          family of Aaron was then instituted (Ex. 28:1). But it was not
          till that terrible scene in connection with the sin of the
          golden calf that the tribe of Levi stood apart and began to
          occupy a distinct position (Ex. 32). The religious primogeniture
          was then conferred on this tribe, which henceforth was devoted
          to the service of the sanctuary (Num. 3:11-13). They were
          selected for this purpose because of their zeal for the glory of
          God (Ex. 32:26), and because, as the tribe to which Moses and
          Aaron belonged, they would naturally stand by the lawgiver in
          his work.

          The Levitical order consisted of all the descendants of Levi’s
          three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari; whilst Aaron, Amram’s
          son (Amram, son of Kohat), and his issue constituted the
          priestly order.

          The age and qualification for Levitical service are specified in
          Num. 4:3, 23, 30, 39, 43, 47.

          They were not included among the armies of Israel (Num. 1:47;
          2:33; 26:62), but were reckoned by themselves. They were the
          special guardians of the tabernacle (Num. 1:51; 18:22-24). The
          Gershonites pitched their tents on the west of the tabernacle
          (3:23), the Kohathites on the south (3:29), the Merarites on the
          north (3:35), and the priests on the east (3:38). It was their
          duty to move the tent and carry the parts of the sacred
          structure from place to place. They were given to Aaron and his
          sons the priests to wait upon them and do work for them at the
          sanctuary services (Num. 8:19; 18:2-6).

          As being wholly consecrated to the service of the Lord, they had
          no territorial possessions. Jehovah was their inheritance (Num.
          18:20; 26:62; Deut. 10:9; 18:1, 2), and for their support it was
          ordained that they should receive from the other tribes the
          tithes of the produce of the land. Forty-eight cities also were
          assigned to them, thirteen of which were for the priests “to
          dwell in”, i.e., along with their other inhabitants. Along with
          their dwellings they had “suburbs”, i.e., “commons”, for their
          herds and flocks, and also fields and vineyards (Num. 35:2-5).
          Nine of these cities were in Judah, three in Naphtali, and four
          in each of the other tribes (Josh. 21). Six of the Levitical
          cities were set apart as “cities of refuge” (q.v.). Thus the
          Levites were scattered among the tribes to keep alive among them
          the knowledge and service of God. (See [355]PRIEST.)

          The third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate,
          after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical

          In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the
          worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1-7) regarding
          sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings
          (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by
          the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering
          of sacrifices (6; 7). (2.) An historical section (8-10), giving
          an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (8);
          Aaron’s first offering for himself and the people (9); Nadab and
          Abihu’s presumption in offering “strange fire before Jehovah,”
          and their punishment (10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the
          sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (11-16). An
          interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of
          the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the
          Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the
          following statement:, “Take these two catalogues of the clean
          and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [11] and
          Deuteronomy [14]. There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not
          occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds
          which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are
          numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus
          a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people
          were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong
          proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the
          journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes
          the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz.,
          that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna
          and the flora of the desert” (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887).
          (4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen
          (17-20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and
          their eating of the holy things (20; 21); about the offerings of
          Israel, that they were to be without blemish (22:17-33); and
          about the due celebration of the great festivals (23; 25). (6.)
          Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding
          obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows.

          The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered
          in the space of a month (comp. Ex. 40:17; Num. 1:1), the first
          month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book
          of Moses.

          No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost
          throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a
          prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is
          Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be
          interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It
          contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace
          of God.

          (1 Kings 4:6, R.V.; 5:13), forced service. The service of
          tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a
          “great levy” of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the
          population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram
          (12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger.
          Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).

          (Acts 18:14), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern
          sense of the word. The word “lewd” is from the Saxon, and means
          properly “ignorant,” “unlearned,” and hence low, vicious (Acts

          Found only Acts 6:9, one who once had been a slave, but who had
          been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case
          the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been
          carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other
          Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been
          liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from
          Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there
          established a synagogue.

          Transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the
          Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:20, 21).

          (2.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua
          (Josh. 10:29-32; 12:15). It became one of the Levitical towns in
          the tribe of Judah (21:13), and was strongly fortified.
          Sennacherib laid siege to it (2 Kings 19:8; Isa. 37:8). It was
          the native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah (2 Kings
          23:31). It stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the
          modern Arak el-Menshiyeh.

          White, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Ex.
          6:17; Num. 3:18, 21). (See LAADAN.)

          The country of the Ludim (Gen. 10:13), Northern Africa, a large
          tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts
          2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities.

          (Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent
          upon Egypt (Ex. 8:16-18). They were miraculously produced from
          the dust of the land. “The entomologists Kirby and Spence place
          these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of
          those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples
          they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied
          parasitic pests.” The plague of lice is referred to in Ps.

          Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but
          gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the
          “tick” which is much larger than lice.

          An intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically
          condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1 Tim. 1:9, 10; Rev. 21:27;
          22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by
          Abraham (Gen. 12:12, 13; 20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24);
          also by the Hebrew midwives (Ex. 1:15-19), by Michal (1 Sam.
          19:14), and by David (1 Sam. 20:6). (See [356]ANANIAS.)

          (only in A.V. Esther 3:12; 8:9; 9:3; Ezra 8:36), a governor or
          viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil
          power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version “satrap.”

          Generally of physical life (Gen. 2:7; Luke 16:25, etc.); also
          used figuratively (1) for immortality (Heb. 7:16); (2) conduct
          or manner of life (Rom. 6:4); (3) spiritual life or salvation
          (John 3:16, 17, 18, 36); (4) eternal life (Matt. 19:16, 17; John
          3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all
          life (John 1:4; 5:26, 39; 11:25; 12:50).

          The offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). “All the more
          joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the
          frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were
          habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived
          from light” (1 Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Ps. 97:11).
          Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the
          felicity it imparts (Ps. 119:105; Isa. 8:20; Matt. 4:16, etc.),
          and the glorious inheritance of the redeemed (Col. 1:12; Rev.
          21:23-25). God is said to dwell in light inaccessible (1 Tim.
          6:16). It frequently signifies instruction (Matt. 5:16; John
          5:35). In its highest sense it is applied to Christ as the “Sun
          of righteousness” (Mal. 4:2; Luke 2:32; John 1:7-9). God is
          styled “the Father of lights” (James 1:17). It is used of angels
          (2 Cor. 11:14), and of John the Baptist, who was a “burning and
          a shining light” (John 5:35), and of all true disciples, who are
          styled “the light of the world” (Matt. 5:14).

          Frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3-6).
          Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God’s wrath (2
          Sam. 22:15; Job 28:26; 37:4; Ps. 135:7; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They
          represent God’s glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some
          judgment of God on the world (20:9).

          (only in pl., Heb. ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental
          tree (Num. 24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See

          (Heb. leshem) occurs only in Ex. 28:19 and 39:12, as the name of
          a stone in the third row on the high priest’s breastplate. Some
          have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth
          (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral
          bearing this name. The “ligurite” is so named from Liguria in
          Italy, where it was found.

          The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., “whiteness”, was used
          as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as
          the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some
          interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old
          Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus
          (Cant. 2:1, 2; 2:16; 4:5; 5:13; 6:2, 3; 7:2). “Its flowers are
          large, and they are of a white colour, with streaks of pink.
          They supplied models for the ornaments of the pillars and the
          molten sea” (1 Kings 7:19, 22, 26; 2 Chr. 4:5). In the Canticles
          its beauty and fragrance shadow forth the preciousness of Christ
          to the Church. Groser, however (Scrip. Nat. Hist.), strongly
          argues that the word, both in the Old and New Testaments,
          denotes liliaceous plants in general, or if one genus is to be
          selected, that it must be the genus Iris, which is “large,
          vigorous, elegant in form, and gorgeous in colouring.”

          The lilies (Gr. krinia) spoken of in the New Testament (Matt.
          6:28; Luke 12:27) were probably the scarlet martagon (Lilium
          Chalcedonicum) or “red Turk’s-cap lily”, which “comes into
          flower at the season of the year when our Lord’s sermon on the
          mount is supposed to have been delivered. It is abundant in the
          district of Galilee; and its fine scarlet flowers render it a
          very conspicous and showy object, which would naturally attract
          the attention of the hearers” (Balfour’s Plants of the Bible).

          Of the true “floral glories of Palestine” the pheasant’s eye
          (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R. Asiaticus), and the
          anemone (A coronaria), the last named is however, with the
          greatest probability regarded as the “lily of the field” to
          which our Lord refers. “Certainly,” says Tristram (Nat. Hist. of
          the Bible), “if, in the wondrous richness of bloom which
          characterizes the land of Israel in spring, any one plant can
          claim pre-eminence, it is the anemone, the most natural flower
          for our Lord to pluck and seize upon as an illustration, whether
          walking in the fields or sitting on the hill-side.” “The white
          water-lily (Nymphcea alba) and the yellow water-lily (Nuphar
          lutea) are both abundant in the marshes of the Upper Jordan, but
          have no connection with the lily of Scripture.”

          The Hebrew word so rendered means “boiling” or “effervescing.”
          From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted
          by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of
          Moab “burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime.” The same
          Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2-4, and is there rendered
          “plaster.” Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains
          of Syria.

          (1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes “flax,” of which linen is
          made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., “linen cloth”, Lev. 13:47,
          48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11.

          Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Ex. 9:31), and also in
          Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of
          it: garments (2 Sam. 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and
          thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), turbans
          (Ezek. 44:18), and lamp-wicks (Isa. 42:3).

          (2.) Heb. buts, “whiteness;” rendered “fine linen” in 1 Chr.
          4:21; 15:27; 2 Chr. 2:14; 3:14; Esther 1:6; 8:15, and “white
          linen” 2 Chr. 5:12. It is not certain whether this word means
          cotton or linen.

          (3.) Heb. bad; rendered “linen” Ex. 28:42; 39:28; Lev. 6:10;
          16:4, 23, 32; 1 Sam. 2:18; 2 Sam. 6:14, etc. It is uniformly
          used of the sacred vestments worn by the priests. The word is
          from a root signifying “separation.”

          (4.) Heb. shesh; rendered “fine linen” Ex. 25:4; 26:1, 31, 36,
          etc. In Prov. 31:22 it is rendered in Authorized Version “silk,”
          and in Revised Version “fine linen.” The word denotes Egyptian
          linen of peculiar whiteness and fineness (byssus). The finest
          Indian linen, the finest now made, has in an inch one hundred
          threads of warp and eighty-four of woof; while the Egyptian had
          sometimes one hundred and forty in the warp and sixty-four in
          the woof. This was the usual dress of the Egyptian priest.
          Pharaoh arrayed Joseph in a dress of linen (Gen. 41:42).

          (5.) Heb. etun. Prov. 7:16, “fine linen of Egypt;” in Revised
          Version, “the yarn of Egypt.”

          (6.) Heb. sadin. Prov. 31:24, “fine linen;” in Revised Version,
          “linen garments” (Judg. 14:12, 13; Isa. 3:23). From this Hebrew
          word is probably derived the Greek word sindon, rendered “linen”
          in Mark 14:51, 52; 15:46; Matt. 27:59.

          The word “linen” is used as an emblem of moral purity (Rev.
          15:6). In Luke 16:19 it is mentioned as a mark of luxury.

          (See [358]YARN.)

          Were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word
          came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a
          possession (Ps. 16:6).

          (1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Ex. 12:22, 23; ver. 7,
          “upper door post,” but R.V. “lintel”); the head-piece of a door,
          which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of
          the paschal lamb.

          (2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 (R.V. correctly
          “chapiters,” as in A.V. marg.).

          The most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now
          found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very
          numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6;
          12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah.
          2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer.
          49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).

          No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old
          Testament for the lion. (1.) Gor (i.e., a “suckling”), the
          lion’s whelp (Gen. 49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e.,
          “shaggy”), the young lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
          104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies
          (Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.) ‘Ari (i.e., the
          “puller” in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without
          reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.)
          Shahal (the “roarer”), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
          Prov. 26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its strength
          and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The capital of
          Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.) Labi, from a
          root meaning “to roar,” a grown lion or lioness (Gen. 49:9; Num.
          23:24; 24:9; Ezek. 19:2; Nah. 2:11).

          The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety,
          distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it
          not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but
          also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and
          devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes,
          single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34,
          35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and
          “rent him as he would have rent a kid” (Judg. 14:5, 6). The
          strength (Judg. 14:18), courage (2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity
          (Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.

          Besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29, etc.), is used in the
          original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a
          cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex. 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the
          sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To “open the lips”
          is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to “refrain the lips” is to
          keep silence (Ps. 40:9; 1 Pet. 3:10). The “fruit of the lips”
          (Heb. 13:15) is praise, and the “calves of the lips”
          thank-offerings (Hos. 14:2). To “shoot out the lip” is to
          manifest scorn and defiance (Ps. 22:7). Many similar forms of
          expression are found in Scripture.

          (Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or
          palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In
          Num. 7:3, the words “covered wagons” are more literally “carts
          of the litter kind.” There they denote large and commodious
          vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the
          furniture of the temple.

          (Heb. kabhed, “heavy;” hence the liver, as being the heaviest of
          the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon
          the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21
          there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon
          “looked upon the liver,” to one of the most ancient of all modes
          of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.)
          is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and
          Josephus understood “the liver of goats.” By the “caul above the
          liver,” in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe
          of the liver itself.

   Living creatures
          As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are
          the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7);
          they join the elders in the “new song” (5:8, 9); they warn of
          danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the
          commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they
          associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and
          forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with
          the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).

          They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from
          justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially
          as connected with the throne of God, the “throne of grace.”

          Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew letaah, so called
          from its “hiding.” Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot
          lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See

          Not my people, a symbolical name given by God’s command to
          Hosea’s second son in token of Jehovah’s rejection of his people
          (Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This
          Hebrew word is rendered by “not my people” in ver. 10; 2:23.

          The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow,
          what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was
          to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner
          (Ex. 22:25; Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:35-38). At the end of seven
          years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might,
          however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew
          commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting
          usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial
          sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was
          regarded as discreditable (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18;
          20:16; 27:13; Jer. 15:10).

          Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a pledge
          from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept at
          night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset (Ex.
          22:26, 27; Deut. 24:12, 13). A widow’s garment (Deut. 24:17) and
          a millstone (6) could not be taken. A creditor could not enter
          the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside till the
          borrower brought it (10, 11). The Hebrew debtor could not be
          retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at farthest
          the year of jubilee (Ex. 21:2; Lev. 25:39, 42), but foreign
          sojourners were to be “bondmen for ever” (Lev. 25:44-54).

          The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron
          (Isa. 45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used,
          and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an
          opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See [360]KEY.)

          Lock of hair (Judg. 16:13, 19; Ezek. 8:3; Num. 6:5, etc.).

          There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust.
          In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of
          the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the
          Mosaic law they were reckoned “clean,” so that he could lawfully
          eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to
          this Oriental devastating insect.

          Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e.,
          straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian
          locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more
          destructive. “The legs and thighs of these insects are so
          powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the
          length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings
          and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving
          mass.” Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes
          they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked
          into cakes; “sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and
          then eaten.” They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient

          The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very
          appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites
          that can befall a country. “Their numbers exceed computation:
          the hebrews called them the countless,’ and the Arabs knew them
          as the darkeners of the sun.’ Unable to guide their own flight,
          though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy
          of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence
          to the doomed region given over to them for the time.
          Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore,
          their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the
          earth (Ex. 10:15; Judg. 6:5; 7:12; Jer. 46:23; Joel 2:10). It
          seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in
          breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to
          the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight!
          They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground.
          It may be like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them
          is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in
          anguish; all faces lose their colour’ (Joel 2:6). No walls can
          stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path
          are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the
          countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door or a window
          be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house.
          Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a
          moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex. 10:1-19),
          consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees,
          till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong
          north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into
          the Red Sea.”, Geikie’s Hours, etc., ii., 149.

          No pasture, (2 Sam. 17:27), a town in Gilead not far from
          Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is probably identical
          with Debir (Josh. 13:26).

          A shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name
          melunah is rendered “cottage” (q.v.) in Isa. 24:20. It also
          denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.

          The smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev.
          14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is
          the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the
          contents of six ordinary hen’s eggs=the twelfth part of a him,
          or nearly a pint.

          The maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul
          for her faith (2 Tim. 1:5).

          A knotted “eye” of cord, corresponding to the “taches” or knobs
          in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them
          into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex. 26:4, 5, 10,

          There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.

          (1.) Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD,
          printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God of
          the Hebrews. The form “Jehovah” is retained only in Ex. 6:3; Ps.
          83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, both in the Authorized and the Revised

          (2.) Heb. adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It
          denotes a master, as of slaves (Gen. 24:14, 27), or a ruler of
          his subjects (45:8), or a husband, as lord of his wife (18:12).

          The old plural form of this Hebrew word is ‘adonai. From a
          superstitious reverence for the name “Jehovah,” the Jews, in
          reading their Scriptures, whenever that name occurred, always
          pronounced it ‘Adonai.

          (3.) Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is
          invariably used for “Jehovah” and “Adonai.”

          (4.) Heb. ba’al, a master, as having domination. This word is
          applied to human relations, as that of husband, to persons
          skilled in some art or profession, and to heathen deities. “The
          men of Shechem,” literally “the baals of Shechem” (Judg. 9:2,
          3). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the
          Canaanites to a condition of vassalage (Josh. 16:10; 17:13).

          (5.) Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the “lords of the
          Philistines” (Judg. 3:3). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At
          this period the Philistines were not, as at a later period (1
          Sam. 21:10), under a kingly government. (See Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam.
          6:18.) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza,
          Ashkelon, and Ekron.

   Lord’s day
          Only once, in Rev. 1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to
          denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord’s
          resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus
          used the name. (See [361]SABBATH.)

   Lord’s Prayer
          The name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his
          disciples (Matt. 6:9-13). The closing doxology of the prayer is
          omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13. This
          prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to
          the offices of the Holy Spirit. “All Christian prayer is based
          on the Lord’s Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of
          His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The
          Lord’s Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most
          universal prayer.”

   Lord’s Supper
          (1 Cor. 11:20), called also “the Lord’s table” (10:21),
          “communion,” “cup of blessing” (10:16), and “breaking of bread”
          (Acts 2:42).

          In the early Church it was called also “eucharist,” or giving of
          thanks (comp. Matt. 26:27), and generally by the Latin Church
          “mass,” a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite,
          missa est, i.e., “Go, it is discharged.”

          The account of the institution of this ordinance is given in
          Matt. 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19, 20, and 1 Cor.
          11:24-26. It is not mentioned by John.

          It was designed, (1.) To commemorate the death of Christ: “This
          do in remembrance of me.” (2.) To signify, seal, and apply to
          believers all the benefits of the new covenant. In this
          ordinance Christ ratifies his promises to his people, and they
          on their part solemnly consecrate themselves to him and to his
          entire service. (3.) To be a badge of the Christian profession.
          (4.) To indicate and to promote the communion of believers with
          Christ. (5.) To represent the mutual communion of believers with
          each other.

          The elements used to represent Christ’s body and blood are bread
          and wine. The kind of bread, whether leavened or unleavened, is
          not specified. Christ used unleavened bread simply because it
          was at that moment on the paschal table. Wine, and no other
          liquid, is to be used (Matt. 26:26-29). Believers “feed” on
          Christ’s body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in any manner,
          but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is the mouth
          or hand of the soul. This they do (4) by the power of the Holy
          Ghost. This “feeding” on Christ, however, takes place not in the
          Lord’s Supper alone, but whenever faith in him is exercised.

          This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is to
          be observed “till he come” again.

          Not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea’s first daughter, a
          type of Jehovah’s temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6;

(Heb. goral, a “pebble”), a small stone used in casting lots
(Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the
Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God,
and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33),
and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was
used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral
tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh.
7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20, 21),
the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service
(1 Chr. 24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the
feast of Atonement (Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was “numbered with
the eleven” (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.

This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh. 15:1;
Ps. 125:3; Isa. 17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God (Ps.
16:5; Dan. 12:13).

Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and nephew
of Abraham (Gen. 11:27). On the death of his father, he was left
in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose death he
accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan (12:5), thence into
Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1). After this he
separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There his
righteous soul was “vexed” from day to day (2 Pet. 2:7), and he
had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the
separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued
by Abraham (Gen. 14). At length, when the judgment of God
descended on the guilty cities of the plain (Gen. 19:1-20), Lot
was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city
his wife “looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of
salt.” There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of
the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot,
i.e., Lot’s wife. It is “a tall, isolated needle of rock, which
really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a
child upon her shoulder.” From the words of warning in Luke
17:32, “Remember Lot’s wife,” it would seem as if she had gone
back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of
her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which
fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a
time in the saline incrustations. She became “a pillar of salt”,
i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See [362]SALT.)

Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then,
fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the
neighbouring mountains (Gen. 19:30). Lot has recently been
connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments
Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the
Edomite tribe Lotan.

Coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:20, 29).

This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its
use by our Lord in his interview with “Simon, the son of Jonas,”
after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says,
“Lovest thou me?” he uses the Greek word agapas; and when Simon
answers, he uses the Greek word philo, i.e., “I love.” This is
the usage in the first and second questions put by our Lord; but
in the third our Lord uses Simon’s word. The distinction between
these two Greek words is thus fitly described by Trench:,
“Agapan has more of judgment and deliberate choice; philein has
more of attachment and peculiar personal affection. Thus the
Lovest thou’ (Gr. agapas) on the lips of the Lord seems to Peter
at this moment too cold a word, as though his Lord were keeping
him at a distance, or at least not inviting him to draw near, as
in the passionate yearning of his heart he desired now to do.
Therefore he puts by the word and substitutes his own stronger I
love’ (Gr. philo) in its room. A second time he does the same.
And now he has conquered; for when the Lord demands a third time
whether he loves him, he does it in the word which alone will
satisfy Peter (Lovest thou,’ Gr. phileis), which alone claims
from him that personal attachment and affection with which
indeed he knows that his heart is full.”

In 1 Cor. 13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as
the word “charity” there is rendered in the Revised Version.

The inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an
African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their
territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the
Mizraite Lehabim.

A friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome;
Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14).

Brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa.
14:12) to denote his glory.

Of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and
Paul’s kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his
birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of
Cyrene, in North Africa.

From the Lat. lucrum, “gain.” 1 Tim. 3:3, “not given to filthy
lucre.” Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the
expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.

(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor
of the Lydians probably.

(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen.
10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of
Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19;
comp. Jer. 46:9).

Probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11).
They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as
mercenaries of the king of Egypt.

Made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim
(Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5).

The evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his
conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke
1:2), he was not an “eye-witness and minister of the word from
the beginning.” It is probable that he was a physician in Troas,
and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He
accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his
imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release
in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul’s
third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who
probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a
period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul’s
constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18).
He again disappears from view during Paul’s imprisonment at
Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out
for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and
where he remains with him till the close of his first
imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the
“beloved physician” is in 2 Tim. 4:11.

There are many passages in Paul’s epistles, as well as in the
writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his
medical knowledge.

Luke, Gospel according to
Was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an
eye-witness of our Lord’s ministry, but to have gone to the best
sources of information within his reach, and to have written an
orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the
first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each
other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance
of the Holy Spirit.

Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar
to himself, yet all the three have much in common. Luke’s Gospel
has been called “the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and
hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;”
“the Gospel of the saintly life;” “the Gospel for the Greeks;
the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive
Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the
gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good
Physician and the Saviour of mankind;” the “Gospel of the
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;” “the Gospel of
womanhood;” “the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the
publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;” “the Gospel of
tolerance.” The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar
(Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in
the motto, “Who went about doing good, and healing all that were
oppressed of the devil” (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke
wrote for the “Hellenic world.” This Gospel is indeed “rich and

“Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with
Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common
with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many
instances all three use identical language.” (See [363]MATTHEW;
[364]MARK; [365]GOSPELS.)

There are seventeen of our Lord’s parables peculiar to this
Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records
seven of our Lord’s miracles which are omitted by Matthew and
Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels
are related to each other after the following scheme. If the
contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when
compared this result is obtained:

Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42
peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41

That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew,
and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same
things in very similar language.

Luke’s style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew
and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He uses a few
Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20), but no Syriac
or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature
of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, “he is
intoxicated”, Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.

This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old

The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been
written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is
generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written,
therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at
Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others
have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul’s
imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can
be attained.

It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if
not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are common
to both; e.g., compare:

Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6. Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4. Luke 6:36;
with 2 Cor. 1:3. Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19. Luke 9:56; with 2
Cor. 10:8. Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27. Luke 11:41; with Titus
1:15. Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess. 1:11. Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18.
Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor. 11:23-29. Luke 24:46; with Acts
17:3. Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.

Probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease
were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In
Matt. 4:24 “lunatics” are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15
the name “lunatic” is applied to one who is declared to have
been possessed. (See [366]DAEMONIAC.)

Sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away
from God (Rom. 1:21). “Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in
the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all
moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity.” In Mark
4:19 “lusts” are objects of desire.

A nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal
Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on
the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had
a prophetic vision. (See [367]BETHEL.)

(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26)
by “a man who came forth out of the city of Luz.” It is
identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.

An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and
the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief
towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The “speech of Lycaonia”
(Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or
perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with
Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it
(Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).

A wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the
island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh.
It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts
21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2)
and Myra (27:5).

A town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New
Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter’s miracle in
healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of
Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old
Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the
Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of
Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint
of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.

(1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia
Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen.
10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and
on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.

(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a “seller of purple,” who dwelt in
Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte.
The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips
of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who
embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of
considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul
and his companions. (See [368]THYATIRA.)

Tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of
Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.

Lysias, Claudius
The chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in
Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at
Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior
officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military
correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by
purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See

A town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among
a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had
been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also
he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and
superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he
was the “chief speaker,” and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter,
probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance;
and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul
earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true
source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence
of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned
Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for
Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the
disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited
this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23).
Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no
doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul’s
persecution and his courage in Lystra.