Easton's Bible Dictionary (Q)
The Israelites were twice relieved in their privation by a
miraculous supply of quails, (1) in the wilderness of Sin (Ex.
16:13), and (2) again at Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.), Num. 11:31.
God “rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as
the sand of the sea” (Ps. 78:27). The words in Num. 11:31,
according to the Authorized Version, appear to denote that the
quails lay one above another to the thickness of two cubits
above the ground. The Revised Version, however, reads, “about
two cubits above the face of the earth”, i.e., the quails flew
at this height, and were easily killed or caught by the hand.
Being thus secured in vast numbers by the people, they “spread
them all abroad” (11:32) in order to salt and dry them.
These birds (the Coturnix vulgaris of naturalists) are found in
countless numbers on the shores of the Mediterranean, and their
annual migration is an event causing great excitement.
A mountain some 1,200 feet high, about 7 miles north-west of
Jericho, the traditional scene of our Lord’s temptation (Matt.
(1.) The “Royal Quarries” (not found in Scripture) is the name
given to the vast caverns stretching far underneath the northern
hill, Bezetha, on which Jerusalem is built. Out of these mammoth
caverns stones, a hard lime-stone, have been quarried in ancient
times for the buildings in the city, and for the temples of
Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod. Huge blocks of stone are still
found in these caves bearing the marks of pick and chisel. The
general appearance of the whole suggests to the explorer the
idea that the Phoenician quarrymen have just suspended their
work. The supposition that the polished blocks of stone for
Solomon’s temple were sent by Hiram from Lebanon or Tyre is not
supported by any evidence (comp. 1 Kings 5:8). Hiram sent masons
and stone-squarers to Jerusalem to assist Solomon’s workmen in
their great undertaking, but did not send stones to Jerusalem,
where, indeed, they were not needed, as these royal quarries
(2.) The “quarries” (Heb. pesilim) by Gilgal (Judg. 3:19), from
which Ehud turned back for the purpose of carrying out his
design to put Eglon king of Moab to death, were probably the
“graven images” (as the word is rendered by the LXX. and the
Vulgate and in the marg. A.V. and R.V.), or the idol temples the
Moabites had erected at Gilgal, where the children of Israel
first encamped after crossing the Jordan. The Hebrew word is
rendered “graven images” in Deut. 7:25, and is not elsewhere
Fourth, a Corinthian Christian who sent by Paul his salutations
to friends at Rome (Rom. 16:23).
A band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the
custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch
of the night (Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken
against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in
turn stationed at the door (12:6), and to two the apostle was
chained according to Roman custom.
No explicit mention of queens is made till we read of the “queen
of Sheba.” The wives of the kings of Israel are not so
designated. In Ps. 45:9, the Hebrew for “queen” is not malkah,
one actually ruling like the Queen of Sheba, but shegal, which
simply means the king’s wife. In 1 Kings 11:19, Pharaoh’s wife
is called “the queen,” but the Hebrew word so rendered (g’birah)
is simply a title of honour, denoting a royal lady, used
sometimes for “queen-mother” (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chron. 15:16). In
Cant. 6:8, 9, the king’s wives are styled “queens” (Heb.
In the New Testament we read of the “queen of the south”, i.e.,
Southern Arabia, Sheba (Matt. 12:42; Luke 11:31) and the “queen
of the Ethiopians” (Acts 8:27), Candace.
Queen of heaven
(Jer. 7:18; 44:17, 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as
the receptive power in nature.
Found only in Acts 27:17, the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On
the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to
sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of
these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca,
and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.
The sheath for arrows. The Hebrew word (aspah) thus commonly
rendered is found in Job 39:23; Ps. 127:5; Isa. 22:6; 49:2; Jer.
5:16; Lam. 3:13. In Gen. 27:3 this word is the rendering of the
Hebrew teli, which is supposed rather to mean a suspended
weapon, literally “that which hangs from one”, i.e., is
suspended from the shoulder or girdle.
From the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are
not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament
was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into
chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When
Luke (20:37) refers to Ex. 3:6, he quotes from “Moses at the
bush”, i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the
bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam. 21:1-6, in the words,
“in the days of Abiathar;” and Paul (Rom. 11:2) refers to 1
Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, “in Elias”, i.e., in the portion
of the history regarding Elias.
In general, the New Testament writers quote from the Septuagint
(q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then in common
use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these quotations
are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g., the
quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or the
Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances.
Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety
instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the
quotations (in over eighty instances).
Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew text
(Matt. 4:15, 16; John 19:37; 1 Cor. 15:54). Besides the
quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions,
more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New
Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as
well as historical facts recorded in the Old.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct quotations
from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear and certain
case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).
Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there are
in Paul’s writings three quotations from certain Greek poets,
Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations are
memorials of his early classical education.