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Easton's Bible Dictionary (R)


          Thunder. (1.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7). (2.) A
          country which traded with Tyre (Ezek. 27:22).

          Thunder of the Lord, one of the princes who returned from the
          Exile (Neh. 7:7); called also Reelaiah (Ezra 2:2).

          (Ex. 1:11). (See [516]RAMESES.)

          Or Rab’bath, great. (1.) “Rabbath of the children of Ammon,” the
          chief city of the Ammonites, among the eastern hills, some 20
          miles east of the Jordan, on the southern of the two streams
          which united with the Jabbok. Here the bedstead of Og was
          preserved (Deut. 3:11), perhaps as a trophy of some victory
          gained by the Ammonites over the king of Bashan. After David had
          subdued all their allies in a great war, he sent Joab with a
          strong force to take their city. For two years it held out
          against its assailants. It was while his army was engaged in
          this protracted siege that David was guilty of that deed of
          shame which left a blot on his character and cast a gloom over
          the rest of his life. At length, having taken the “royal city”
          (or the “city of waters,” 2 Sam. 12:27, i.e., the lower city on
          the river, as distinguished from the citadel), Joab sent for
          David to direct the final assault (11:1; 12:26-31). The city was
          given up to plunder, and the people were ruthlessly put to
          death, and “thus did he with all the cities of the children of
          Ammon.” The destruction of Rabbath was the last of David’s
          conquests. His kingdom now reached its farthest limits (2 Sam.
          8:1-15; 1 Chr. 18:1-15). The capture of this city is referred to
          by Amos (1:14), Jeremiah (49:2, 3), and Ezekiel (21:20; 25:5).

          (2.) A city in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:60), possibly
          the ruin Rubba, six miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.

          My master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors
          of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes
          applied to Christ (Matt. 23:7, 8; Mark 9:5 (R.V.); John 1:38,
          49; 3:2; 6:25, etc.); also to John (3:26).

          (id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, A.V.,
          “Lord,” R.V., “Rabboni;” John 20:16). It was the most honourable
          of all the titles.

          Assyrian Rab-mugi, “chief physician,” “who was attached to the
          king (Jer. 39:3, 13), the title of one of Sennacherib’s officers
          sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem (2
          Kings 18:17-19:13; Isa. 36:12-37:13) demanding the surrender of
          the city. He was accompanied by a “great army;” but his mission
          was unsuccessful.

          Chief of the Heads, one of the three officers whom Sennacherib
          sent from Lachish with a threatening message to Jerusalem (2
          Kings 18:17; Jer. 39:3, 13).

          Chief of the princes, the name given to the chief cup-bearer or
          the vizier of the Assyrian court; one of Sennacherib’s
          messengers to Hezekiah. See the speech he delivered, in the
          Hebrew language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood
          near the wall on the north side of the city (2 Kings 18:17-37).
          He and the other envoys returned to their master and reported
          that Hezekiah and his people were obdurate, and would not

          Vain, empty, worthless, only found in Matt. 5:22. The Jews used
          it as a word of contempt. It is derived from a root meaning “to

          =Rahab, a name found in the genealogy of our Lord (Matt. 1:5).

          Traffic, a town in the tribe of Judah, to which David sent
          presents from the spoils of his enemies (1 Sam. 30:29).

          Ewe, “the daughter”, “the somewhat petulant, peevish, and
          self-willed though beautiful younger daughter” of Laban, and one
          of Jacob’s wives (Gen. 29:6, 28). He served Laban fourteen years
          for her, so deep was Jacob’s affection for her. She was the
          mother of Joseph (Gen. 30:22-24). Afterwards, on Jacob’s
          departure from Mesopotamia, she took with her her father’s
          teraphim (31:34, 35). As they journeyed on from Bethel, Rachel
          died in giving birth to Benjamin (35:18, 19), and was buried “in
          the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. And Jacob set a pillar
          upon her grave”. Her sepulchre is still regarded with great
          veneration by the Jews. Its traditional site is about half a
          mile from Jerusalem.

          This name is used poetically by Jeremiah (31:15-17) to denote
          God’s people mourning under their calamities. This passage is
          also quoted by Matthew as fulfilled in the lamentation at
          Bethlehem on account of the slaughter of the infants there at
          the command of Herod (Matt. 2:17, 18).

          Friend of God, (Num. 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Ex. 2:18, the
          father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro

          Insolence; pride, a poetical name applied to Egypt in Ps. 87:4;
          89:10; Isa. 51:9, as “the proud one.”

          Rahab, (Heb. Rahab; i.e., “broad,” “large”). When the Hebrews
          were encamped at Shittim, in the “Arabah” or Jordan valley
          opposite Jericho, ready to cross the river, Joshua, as a final
          preparation, sent out two spies to “spy the land.” After five
          days they returned, having swum across the river, which at this
          season, the month Abib, overflowed its banks from the melting of
          the snow on Lebanon. The spies reported how it had fared with
          them (Josh. 2:1-7). They had been exposed to danger in Jericho,
          and had been saved by the fidelity of Rahab the harlot, to whose
          house they had gone for protection. When the city of Jericho
          fell (6:17-25), Rahab and her whole family were preserved
          according to the promise of the spies, and were incorporated
          among the Jewish people. She afterwards became the wife of
          Salmon, a prince of the tribe of Judah (Ruth 4:21; 1 Chr. 2:11;
          Matt. 1:5). “Rahab’s being asked to bring out the spies to the
          soldiers (Josh. 2:3) sent for them, is in strict keeping with
          Eastern manners, which would not permit any man to enter a
          woman’s house without her permission. The fact of her covering
          the spies with bundles of flax which lay on her house-roof (2:6)
          is an undesigned coincidence’ which strictly corroborates the
          narrative. It was the time of the barley harvest, and flax and
          barley are ripe at the same time in the Jordan valley, so that
          the bundles of flax stalks might have been expected to be drying
          just then” (Geikie’s Hours, etc., ii., 390).

          Merciful, one of the descendants of Caleb, the son of Hezron (1
          Chr. 2:44).

          There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of
          different seasons, (1.) Yoreh (Hos. 6:3), or moreh (Joel 2:23),
          denoting the former or the early rain. (2.) Melqosh, the “latter
          rain” (Prov. 16:15). (3.) Geshem, the winter rain, “the rains.”
          The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Gen. 7:12; Ezra 10:9;
          Cant. 2:11. The “early” or “former” rains commence in autumn in
          the latter part of October or beginning of November (Deut.
          11:14; Joel 2:23; comp. Jer. 3:3), and continue to fall heavily
          for two months. Then the heavy “winter rains” fall from the
          middle of December to March. There is no prolonged fair weather
          in Palestine between October and March. The “latter” or spring
          rains fall in March and April, and serve to swell the grain then
          coming to maturity (Deut. 11:14; Hos. 6:3). After this there is
          ordinarily no rain, the sky being bright and cloudless till
          October or November.

          Rain is referred to symbolically in Deut. 32:2; Ps. 72:6; Isa.
          44:3, 4; Hos. 10:12.

          Caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun
          shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the
          divine faithfulness (Gen. 9:12-17). It existed indeed before,
          but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others,
          however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it
          “appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of
          heaven.” It is argued by those holding this opinion that the
          atmosphere was differently constituted before the Flood. It is
          referred to three other times in Scripture (Ezek. 1:27, 28; Rev.
          4:1-3; 10:1).

          Dried grapes; mentioned 1 Sam. 25:18; 30:12; 2 Sam. 16:1; 1 Chr.

          Shore-town, a “fenced city” of the tribe of Naphtali (Josh.
          19:35). The old name of Tiberias, according to the Rabbins.

          A place upon the shore, a town belonging to Dan (Josh. 19:46).
          It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the
          sea-shore, near the mouth of the river Aujeh, i.e., “yellow
          water.” (See [517]KANAH.)

          Exalted. (1.) The son of Hezron, and one of the ancestors of the
          royal line (Ruth 4:19). The margin of 1 Chr. 2:9, also Matt.
          1:3, 4 and Luke 3:33, have “Aram.”

          (2.) One of the sons of Jerahmeel (1 Chr. 2:25, 27).

          (3.) A person mentioned in Job 32:2 as founder of a clan to
          which Elihu belonged. The same as Aram of Gen. 22:21.

          (Matt. 2:18), the Greek form of Ramah. (1.) A city first
          mentioned in Josh. 18:25, near Gibeah of Benjamin. It was
          fortified by Baasha, king of Israel (1 Kings 15:17-22; 2 Chr.
          16:1-6). Asa, king of Judah, employed Benhadad the Syrian king
          to drive Baasha from this city (1 Kings 15:18, 20). Isaiah
          (10:29) refers to it, and also Jeremiah, who was once a prisoner
          there among the other captives of Jerusalem when it was taken by
          Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 39:8-12; 40:1). Rachel, whose tomb lies
          close to Bethlehem, is represented as weeping in Ramah (Jer.
          31:15) for her slaughtered children. This prophecy is
          illustrated and fulfilled in the re-awakening of Rachel’s grief
          at the slaughter of the infants in Bethlehem (Matt. 2:18). It is
          identified with the modern village of er-Ram, between Gibeon and
          Beeroth, about 5 miles due north of Jerusalem. (See

          (2.) A town identified with Rameh, on the border of Asher, about
          13 miles south-east of Tyre, “on a solitary hill in the midst of
          a basin of green fields” (Josh. 19:29).

          (3.) One of the “fenced cities” of Naphtali (Josh. 19:36), on a
          mountain slope, about seven and a half miles west-south-west of
          Safed, and 15 miles west of the north end of the Sea of Galilee,
          the present large and well-built village of Rameh.

          (4.) The same as Ramathaim-zophim (q.v.), a town of Mount
          Ephraim (1 Sam. 1:1, 19).

          (5.) The same as Ramoth-gilead (q.v.), 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Chr.

          The two heights of the Zophites or of the watchers (only in 1
          Sam. 1:1), “in the land of Zuph” (9:5). Ramathaim is another
          name for Ramah (4).

          One of the Levitical families descended from Kohath, that of
          Zuph or Zophai (1 Chr. 6:26, 35), had a district assigned to
          them in Ephraim, which from this circumstance was called “the
          land of Zuph,” and hence the name of the town, “Zophim.” It was
          the birth-place of Samuel and the seat of his authority (1 Sam.
          2:11; 7:17). It is frequently mentioned in the history of that
          prophet and of David (15:34; 16:13; 19:18-23). Here Samuel died
          and was buried (25:1).

          This town has been identified with the modern Neby Samwil (“the
          prophet Samuel”), about 4 or 5 miles north-west of Jerusalem.
          But there is no certainty as to its precise locality. Some have
          supposed that it may be identical with Arimathea of the New
          Testament. (See [519]MIZPAH).

          The designation given to Shimei, the manager of David’s vineyard
          (1 Chr. 27:27).

          Elevation of Lehi, or the jawbone height; i.e., the Ramah of
          Lehi (Judg. 15:15-17). The phrase “in the jaw,” ver. 19,
          Authorized Version, is in the margin, also in the Revised
          Version, “in Lehi.” Here Samson slew a thousand Philistines with
          a jawbone.

          The height of Mizpeh or of the watch-tower (Josh. 13:26), a
          place mentioned as one of the limits of Gad. There were two
          Mizpehs on the east of the Jordan. This was the Mizpeh where
          Jacob and Laban made a covenant, “Mizpeh of Gilead,” called also
          Galeed and Jegar-sahadutha. It has been identified with the
          modern es-Salt, where the roads from Jericho and from Shechem to
          Damascus unite, about 25 miles east of the Jordan and 13 south
          of the Jabbok.

   Ramath of the south
          (Heb. Ramath-negeb). The Heb. negeb is the general designation
          for south or south-west of Judah. This was one of the towns of
          Simeon (Josh. 19:8). It is the same as “south Ramoth” (1 Sam.
          30:27; R.V., “Ramoth of the south”). Its site is doubtful. Some
          have thought it another name for Baalath-beer.

          “the land of” (Gen. 47:11), was probably “the land of Goshen”
          (q.v.) 45:10. After the Hebrews had built Rameses, one of the
          “treasure cities,” it came to be known as the “land” in which
          that city was built.

          The city bearing this name (Ex. 12:37) was probably identical
          with Zoan, which Rameses II. (“son of the sun”) rebuilt. It
          became his special residence, and ranked next in importance and
          magnificance to Thebes. Huge masses of bricks, made of Nile mud,
          sun-dried, some of them mixed with stubble, possibly moulded by
          Jewish hands, still mark the site of Rameses. This was the
          general rendezvous of the Israelites before they began their
          march out of Egypt. Called also Raamses (Ex. 1:11).

          Heights. A Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1 Sam.
          30:27; 1 Chr. 6:73), the same as Jarmuth (Josh. 21:29) and
          Remeth (q.v.), 19:21.

          Heights of Gilead, a city of refuge on the east of Jordan;
          called “Ramoth in Gilead” (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8; 21:38). Here
          Ahab, who joined Jehoshaphat in an endeavour to rescue it from
          the hands of the king of Syria, was mortally wounded (1 Kings
          22:1-36). A similar attempt was afterwards made by Ahaziah and
          Joram, when the latter was wounded (2 Kings 8:28). In this city
          Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, was anointed by one of the sons of
          the prophets (9:1, 4).

          It has with probability been identified with Reimun, on the
          northern slope of the Jabbok, about 5 miles west of Jerash or
          Gerasa, one of the cities of Decapolis. Others identify it with
          Gerosh, about 25 miles north-east of es-Salt, with which also
          many have identified it. (See [520]RAMATH-MIZPEH.)

          (1.) Lev. 11:35. Probably a cooking furnace for two or more
          pots, as the Hebrew word here is in the dual number; or perhaps
          a fire-place fitted to receive a pair of ovens.

          (2.) 2 Kings 11:8. A Hebrew word is here used different from the
          preceding, meaning “ranks of soldiers.” The Levites were
          appointed to guard the king’s person within the temple (2 Chr.
          23:7), while the soldiers were his guard in the court, and in
          going from the temple to the palace. The soldiers are here
          commanded to slay any one who should break through the “ranks”
          (as rendered in the R.V.) to come near the king. In 2 Kings
          11:15 the expression, “Have her forth without the ranges,” is in
          the Revised Version, “Have her forth between the ranks;” i.e.,
          Jehoiada orders that Athaliah should be kept surrounded by his
          own guards, and at the same time conveyed beyond the precincts
          of the temple.

          The price or payment made for our redemption, as when it is said
          that the Son of man “gave his life a ransom for many” (Matt.
          20:28; comp. Acts 20:28; Rom. 3:23, 24; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal.
          3:13; 4:4, 5: Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:6; Titus 2:14; 1
          Pet. 1:18, 19. In all these passages the same idea is
          expressed). This word is derived from the Fr. rancon; Lat.
          redemptio. The debt is represented not as cancelled but as fully
          paid. The slave or captive is not liberated by a mere gratuitous
          favour, but a ransom price has been paid, in consideration of
          which he is set free. The original owner receives back his
          alienated and lost possession because he has bought it back
          “with a price.” This price or ransom (Gr. lutron) is always said
          to be Christ, his blood, his death. He secures our redemption by
          the payment of a ransom. (See [521]REDEMPTION.)

          Tall. (1.) A Benjamite, the son of Binea (1 Chr. 8:2, 37), a
          descendant of Saul. (2.) Margin of 1 Chr. 20:4, 6, where “giant”
          is given in the text.

          Healed, a Benjamite, whose son Palti was one of the twelve spies
          (Num. 13:9).

          Heb. orebh, from a root meaning “to be black” (comp. Cant.
          5:11); first mentioned as “sent forth” by Noah from the ark
          (Gen. 8:7). “Every raven after his kind” was forbidden as food
          (Lev. 11:15; Deut. 14:14). Ravens feed mostly on carrion, and
          hence their food is procured with difficulty (Job 38:41; Ps.
          147:9). When they attack kids or lambs or weak animals, it is
          said that they first pick out the eyes of their victims (Prov.
          30:17). When Elijah was concealed by the brook Cherith, God
          commanded the ravens to bring him “bread and flesh in the
          morning, and bread and flesh in the evening” (1 Kings 17:3-6).
          (See [522]ELIJAH.)

          There are eight species of ravens in Palestine, and they are
          everywhere very numerous in that land.

          The Nazarites were forbidden to make use of the razor (Num. 6:5;
          Judg. 13:5). At their consecration the Levites were shaved all
          over with a razor (Num. 8:7; comp. Ps. 52:2; Ezek. 5:1).

          Fourth, one of the Midianite chiefs slain by the Israelites in
          the wilderness (Num. 31:8; Josh. 13:21).

          A noose, the daughter of Bethuel, and the wife of Isaac (Gen.
          22:23; 24:67). The circumstances under which Abraham’s “steward”
          found her at the “city of Nahor,” in Padan-aram, are narrated in
          Gen. 24-27. “She can hardly be regarded as an amiable woman.
          When we first see her she is ready to leave her father’s house
          for ever at an hour’s notice; and her future life showed not
          only a full share of her brother Laban’s duplicity, but the
          grave fault of partiality in her relations to her children, and
          a strong will, which soon controlled the gentler nature of her
          husband.” The time and circumstances of her death are not
          recorded, but it is said that she was buried in the cave of
          Machpelah (Gen. 49:31).

          Horseman, or chariot. (1.) One of Ishbosheth’s “captains of
          bands” or leaders of predatory troops (2 Sam. 4:2).

          (2.) The father of Jehonadab, who was the father of the
          Rechabites (2 Kings 10:15, 23; Jer. 35:6-19).

          The descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They
          belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel
          into Palestine, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite
          wife (Judg. 1:16), and Jael was the wife of “Heber the Kenite”
          (4:17). Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites (1 Sam. 15:6).
          The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted
          settled habits of life (30:29); but Jehonadab forbade his
          descendants to drink wine or to live in cities. They were
          commanded to lead always a nomad life. They adhered to the law
          laid down by Jonadab, and were noted for their fidelity to the
          old-established custom of their family in the days of Jeremiah
          (35); and this feature of their character is referred to by the
          prophet for the purpose of giving point to his own exhortation.
          They are referred to in Neh. 3:14 and 1 Chr. 2:55. Dr. Wolff
          (1839) found in Arabia, near Mecca, a tribe claiming to be
          descendants of Jehonadab; and recently a Bedouin tribe has been
          found near the Dead Sea who also profess to be descendants of
          the same Kenite chief.

          A change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a
          change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.

          (1.) In Col. 1:21, 22, the word there used refers to a change
          wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be
          an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full
          confidence and love. In 2 Cor. 5:20 the apostle beseeches the
          Corinthians to be “reconciled to God”, i.e., to lay aside their

          (2.) Rom. 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition
          toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans
          5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received “the
          reconciliation” (R.V.), i.e., he has conferred on us the token
          of his friendship. So also 2 Cor. 5:18, 19 speaks of a
          reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the
          removal of his merited wrath. In Eph. 2:16 it is clear that the
          apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love
          and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God’s forfeited
          favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that
          he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward
          sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of
          Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This
          reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon
          and save us. (See [523]ATONEMENT.)

          (Heb. mazkir, i.e., “the mentioner,” “rememberancer”), the
          office first held by Jehoshaphat in the court of David (2 Sam.
          8:16), also in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:3). The next
          recorder mentioned is Joah, in the reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings
          18:18, 37; Isa. 36:3, 22). In the reign of Josiah another of the
          name of Joah filled this office (2 Chr. 34:8). The “recorder”
          was the chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. He brought all
          weighty matters under the notice of the king, “such as
          complaints, petitions, and wishes of subjects or foreigners. He
          also drew up papers for the king’s guidance, and prepared drafts
          of the royal will for the scribes. All treaties came under his
          oversight; and he had the care of the national archives or
          records, to which, as royal historiographer, like the same state
          officer in Assyria and Egypt, he added the current annals of the

          Heb. goel; i.e., one charged with the duty of restoring the
          rights of another and avenging his wrongs (Lev. 25:48, 49; Num.
          5:8; Ruth 4:1; Job 19:25; Ps. 19:14; 78:35, etc.). This title is
          peculiarly applied to Christ. He redeems us from all evil by the
          payment of a ransom (q.v.). (See [524]REDEMPTION.)

          The purchase back of something that had been lost, by the
          payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is apolutrosis,
          a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the
          idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption by a lutron
          (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45). There are instances in the LXX.
          Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron in man’s
          relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num. 35:31, 32;
          Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of man’s relation
          to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).

          There are many passages in the New Testament which represent
          Christ’s sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the
          result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (comp. Acts
          20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14;
          1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev.
          5:9). The idea running through all these texts, however various
          their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption. The
          debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully
          paid. Christ’s blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is
          the “ransom” by which the deliverance of his people from the
          servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured. It
          is the plain doctrine of Scripture that “Christ saves us neither
          by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his
          example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any
          subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical,
          but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for
          sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law,
          thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his
          perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners” (Hodge’s Systematic

   Red Sea
          The sea so called extends along the west coast of Arabia for
          about 1,400 miles, and separates Asia from Africa. It is
          connected with the Indian Ocean, of which it is an arm, by the
          Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. At a point (Ras Mohammed) about 200
          miles from its nothern extremity it is divided into two arms,
          that on the east called the AElanitic Gulf, now the Bahr
          el-Akabah, about 100 miles long by 15 broad, and that on the
          west the Gulf of Suez, about 150 miles long by about 20 broad.
          This branch is now connected with the Mediterranean by the Suez
          Canal. Between these two arms lies the Sinaitic Peninsula.

          The Hebrew name generally given to this sea is Yam Suph. This
          word suph means a woolly kind of sea-weed, which the sea casts
          up in great abundance on its shores. In these passages, Ex.
          10:19; 13:18; 15:4, 22; 23:31; Num. 14:25, etc., the Hebrew name
          is always translated “Red Sea,” which was the name given to it
          by the Greeks. The origin of this name (Red Sea) is uncertain.
          Some think it is derived from the red colour of the mountains on
          the western shore; others from the red coral found in the sea,
          or the red appearance sometimes given to the water by certain
          zoophytes floating in it. In the New Testament (Acts 7:36; Heb.
          11:29) this name is given to the Gulf of Suez.

          This sea was also called by the Hebrews Yam-mitstraim, i.e.,
          “the Egyptian sea” (Isa. 11:15), and simply Ha-yam, “the sea”
          (Ex. 14:2, 9, 16, 21, 28; Josh. 24:6, 7; Isa. 10:26, etc.).

          The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the
          passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the
          Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture
          (Ex. 14, 15; Num. 33:8; Deut. 11:4; Josh. 2:10; Judg. 11:16; 2
          Sam. 22:16; Neh. 9:9-11; Ps. 66:6; Isa. 10:26; Acts 7:36, etc.).

   Red Sea, Passage of
          The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea
          is given in Ex. 14:22-31. There has been great diversity of
          opinion as to the precise place where this occurred. The
          difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter
          is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf
          of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must
          have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles
          farther north than it does at present. Some have argued that the
          crossing took place opposite the Wady Tawarik, where the sea is
          at present some 7 miles broad. But the opinion that seems to be
          best supported is that which points to the neighbourhood of
          Suez. This position perfectly satisfies all the conditions of
          the stupendous miracle as recorded in the sacred narrative. (See

          (1.) “Paper reeds” (Isa. 19:7; R.V., “reeds”). Heb. aroth,
          properly green herbage growing in marshy places.

          (2.) Heb. kaneh (1 Kings 14:15; Job 40:21; Isa. 19:6), whence
          the Gr. kanna, a “cane,” a generic name for a reed of any kind.

          The reed of Egypt and Palestine is the Arundo donax, which grows
          to the height of 12 feet, its stalk jointed like the bamboo,
          “with a magnificent panicle of blossom at the top, and so
          slender and yielding that it will lie perfectly flat under a
          gust of wind, and immediately resume its upright position.” It
          is used to illustrate weakness (2 Kings 18:21; Ezek. 29:6), also
          fickleness or instability (Matt. 11:7; comp. Eph. 4:14).

          A “bruised reed” (Isa. 42:3; Matt. 12:20) is an emblem of a
          believer weak in grace. A reed was put into our Lord’s hands in
          derision (Matt. 27:29); and “they took the reed and smote him on
          the head” (30). The “reed” on which they put the sponge filled
          with vinegar (Matt. 27:48) was, according to John (19:29), a
          hyssop stalk, which must have been of some length, or perhaps a
          bunch of hyssop twigs fastened to a rod with the sponge. (See

          The process of refining metals is referred to by way of
          illustrations in Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:29; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, 3.

   Refuge, Cities of
          Were six in number (Num. 35). 1. On the west of Jordan were (1)
          Kadesh, in Naphtali; (2) Shechem, in Mount Ephraim; (3) Hebron,
          in Judah. 2. On the east of Jordan were, (1) Golan, in Bashan;
          (2) Ramoth-Gilead, in Gad; and (3) Bezer, in Reuben. (See under
          each of these names.)

          Friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled
          Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zech. 7:2) to make
          inquiries at the temple.

          Only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
          means a “new birth.” The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
          is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
          produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
          equivalent to the “restitution of all things” (Acts 3:21). In
          Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
          a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
          creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
          3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
          dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).

          This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
          with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).

          As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting of
          a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation of
          spiritual life to those who are by nature “dead in trespasses
          and sins.”

          The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
          Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;

          Enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of
          Moses (1 Chr. 23:17; 24:21).

          Street; broad place. (1.) The father of Hadadezer, king of Tobah
          (2 Sam. 8:3, 12).

          (2.) Neh. 10:11.

          (3.) The same, probably, as Beth-rehob (2 Sam. 10:6, 8; Judg.
          18:28), a place in the north of Palestine (Num. 13:21). It is
          now supposed to be represented by the castle of Hunin,
          south-west of Dan, on the road from Hamath into Coele-Syria.

          (4.) A town of Asher (Josh. 19:28), to the east of Zidon.

          (5.) Another town of Asher (Josh. 19:30), kept possession of by
          the Canaanites (Judg. 1:31).

          He enlarges the people, the successor of Solomon on the throne,
          and apparently his only son. He was the son of Naamah “the
          Ammonitess,” some well-known Ammonitish princess (1 Kings 14:21;
          2 Chr. 12:13). He was forty-one years old when he ascended the
          throne, and he reigned seventeen years (B.C. 975-958). Although
          he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the throne,
          yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of
          the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been
          subjected during Solomon’s reign was very oppressive, and
          therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the
          king an alleviation of their burdens. He went to meet them at
          Shechem, and heard their demands for relief (1 Kings 12:4).
          After three days, having consulted with a younger generation of
          courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of following the
          advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily (6-15). “The
          king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the
          Lord” (comp. 11:31). This brought matters speedily to a crisis.
          The terrible cry was heard (comp. 2 Sam. 20:1):

          “What portion have we in David? Neither have we inheritance in
          the son of Jesse: To your tents, O Israel: Now see to thine own
          house, David” (1 Kings 12:16).

          And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam was
          appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late (18). The
          tribe of Judah, Rehoboam’s own tribe, alone remained faithful to
          him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two
          tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its
          capital; while the northern ten tribes formed themselves into a
          separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam as their king. Rehoboam
          tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against
          them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah (21-24; 2
          Chr. 11:1-4) from fulfilling his purpose. (See [527]JEROBOAM.)

          In the fifth year of Rehoboam’s reign, Shishak (q.v.), one of
          the kings of Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no
          doubt, by Jeroboam his son-in-law, made war against him.
          Jerusalem submitted to the invader, who plundered the temple and
          virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of
          Egypt (1 Kings 14:25, 26; 2 Chr. 12:5-9). A remarkable memorial
          of this invasion has been discovered at Karnac, in Upper Egypt,
          in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there.
          These sculptures represent the king, Shishak, holding in his
          hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the names of
          the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had
          fortified (2 Chr. 11:5-12).

          The kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam, sank more and more in
          moral and spiritual decay. “There was war between Rehoboam and
          Jeroboam all their days.” At length, in the fifty-eighth year of
          his age, Rehoboam “slept with his fathers, and was buried with
          his fathers in the city of David” (1 Kings 14:31). He was
          succeeded by his son Abijah. (See [528]EGYPT.)

          Broad places. (1.) A well in Gerar dug by Isaac (Gen. 26:22),
          supposed to be in Wady er-Ruheibeh, about 20 miles south of

          (2.) An ancient city on the Euphrates (Gen. 36:37; 1 Chr. 1:48),
          “Rehoboth by the river.”

          (3.) Named among the cities of Asshur (Gen. 10:11). Probably,
          however, the words “rehoboth’ir” are to be translated as in the
          Vulgate and the margin of A.V., “the streets of the city,” or
          rather “the public square of the city”, i.e., of Nineveh.

          Merciful. (1.) One of “the children of the province” who
          returned from the Captivity (Ezra 2:2); the same as “Nehum”
          (Neh. 7:7).

          (2.) The “chancellor” of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up
          against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24) and prevent the rebuilding of the
          walls and the temple of Jerusalem.

          (3.) A Levite (Neh. 3:17).

          (4.) Neh. 10:25.

          (5.) A priest (Neh. 12:3).

          Friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David (1
          Kings 1:8) when Adonijah rebelled.

          The kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections;
          used metaphorically for “heart.” The “reins” and the “heart” are
          often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral
          constitution of man (Ps. 7:9; 16:7; 26:2; 139:13; Jer. 17:10,

          Embroidered; variegated. (1.) One of the five Midianite kings
          whom the Israelites destroyed (Num. 31:8).

          (2.) One of the sons of Hebron (1 Chr. 2:43, 44).

          (3.) A town of Benjamin (Josh. 18:27).

          Adorned by the Lord, the father of Pekah, who conspired
          successfully against Pekahiah (2 Kings 15:25, 27, 30, 32, 37;
          Isa. 7:1, 4, 5, 9; 8:6).

          Another form of Ramah (q.v.) or Ramoth (1 Chr. 6:73; Josh.
          19:21), and probably also of Jarmuth (Josh. 21:29).

          (Josh. 19:13), rendered correctly in the Revised Version,
          “Rimmon, which stretcheth unto Neah,” a landmark of Zebulun;
          called also Rimmon (1 Chr. 6:77).

          (Acts 7:43; R.V., “Rephan”). In Amos 5:26 the Heb. Chiun (q.v.)
          is rendered by the LXX. “Rephan,” and this name is adopted by
          Luke in his narrative of the Acts. These names represent the
          star-god Saturn or Moloch.

          (Isa. 3:24), probably a rope, as rendered in the LXX. and
          Vulgate and Revised Version, or as some prefer interpreting the
          phrase, “girdle and robe are torn [i.e., are a rent’] by the
          hand of violence.”

          There are three Greek words used in the New Testament to denote
          repentance. (1.) The verb metamelomai is used of a change of
          mind, such as to produce regret or even remorse on account of
          sin, but not necessarily a change of heart. This word is used
          with reference to the repentance of Judas (Matt. 27:3).

          (2.) Metanoeo, meaning to change one’s mind and purpose, as the
          result of after knowledge. This verb, with (3) the cognate noun
          metanoia, is used of true repentance, a change of mind and
          purpose and life, to which remission of sin is promised.

          Evangelical repentance consists of (1) a true sense of one’s own
          guilt and sinfulness; (2) an apprehension of God’s mercy in
          Christ; (3) an actual hatred of sin (Ps. 119:128; Job 42:5, 6; 2
          Cor. 7:10) and turning from it to God; and (4) a persistent
          endeavour after a holy life in a walking with God in the way of
          his commandments.

          The true penitent is conscious of guilt (Ps. 51:4, 9), of
          pollution (51:5, 7, 10), and of helplessness (51:11; 109:21,
          22). Thus he apprehends himself to be just what God has always
          seen him to be and declares him to be. But repentance
          comprehends not only such a sense of sin, but also an
          apprehension of mercy, without which there can be no true
          repentance (Ps. 51:1; 130:4).

          Healed of God, one of Shemaiah’s sons. He and his brethren, on
          account of their “strength for service,” formed one of the
          divisions of the temple porters (1 Chr. 26:7, 8).

          Lofty men; giants, (Gen. 14:5; 2 Sam. 21:16, 18, marg. A.V.,
          Rapha, marg. R.V., Raphah; Deut. 3:13, R.V.; A.V., “giants”).
          The aborigines of Palestine, afterwards conquered and
          dispossessed by the Canaanite tribes, are classed under this
          general title. They were known to the Moabites as Emim, i.e.,
          “fearful”, (Deut. 2:11), and to the Ammonites as Zamzummim. Some
          of them found refuge among the Philistines, and were still
          existing in the days of David. We know nothing of their origin.
          They were not necessarily connected with the “giants” (R.V.,
          “Nephilim”) of Gen. 6:4. (See [529]GIANTS.)

   Rephaim, Valley of
          (Josh. 15:8; 18:16, R.V.). When David became king over all
          Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their
          uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron,
          compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in “the
          hold” at Adullam (2 Sam. 5:17-22), and the Philistines took up
          their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and
          south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communication between
          Bethlehem and Jerusalem was intercepted. While David and his
          army were encamped here, there occurred that incident narrated
          in 2 Sam. 23:15-17. Having obtained divine direction, David led
          his army against the Philistines, and gained a complete victory
          over them. The scene of this victory was afterwards called
          Baalperazim (q.v.).

          A second time, however, the Philistines rallied their forces in
          this valley (2 Sam. 5:22). Again warned by a divine oracle,
          David led his army to Gibeon, and attacked the Philistines from
          the south, inflicting on them another severe defeat, and chasing
          them with great slaughter to Gezer (q.v.). There David kept in
          check these enemies of Israel. This valley is now called

          Supports, one of the stations of the Israelites, situated in the
          Wady Feiran, near its junction with the Wady esh-Sheikh. Here no
          water could be found for the people to drink, and in their
          impatience they were ready to stone Moses, as if he were the
          cause of their distress. At the command of God Moses smote “the
          rock in Horeb,” and a copious stream flowed forth, enough for
          all the people. After this the Amalekites attacked the
          Israelites while they were here encamped, but they were utterly
          defeated (Ex. 17:1, 8-16). They were the “first of the nations”
          to make war against Israel (Num. 24:20).

          Leaving Rephidim, the Israelites advanced into the wilderness of
          Sinai (Ex. 19:1, 2; Num. 33:14, 15), marching probably through
          the two passes of the Wady Solaf and the Wady esh-Sheikh, which
          converge at the entrance to the plain er-Rahah, the “desert of
          Sinai,” which is two miles long and about half a mile broad.
          (See [530]SINAI; [531]MERIBAH.)

          That which is rejected on account of its own worthlessness (Jer.
          6:30; Heb. 6:8; Gr. adokimos, “rejected”). This word is also
          used with reference to persons cast away or rejected because
          they have failed to make use of opportunities offered them (1
          Cor. 9:27; 2 Cor. 13:5-7).

          (Josh. 6:9), the troops in the rear of an army on the march, the
          rear-guard. This word is a corruption of the French
          arriere-garde. During the wilderness march the tribe of Dan
          formed the rear-guard (Num. 10:25; comp. 1 Sam. 29:2; Isa.
          52:12; 58:8).

          Head of the stream; bridle, one of Nimrod’s cities (Gen. 10:12),
          “between Nineveh and Calah.” It has been supposed that the four
          cities named in this verse were afterwards combined into one
          under the name of Nineveh (q.v.). Resen was on the east side of
          the Tigris. It is probably identified with the mound of ruins
          called Karamless.

          (1.) Gr. katapausis, equivalent to the Hebrew word noah (Heb.

          (2.) Gr. anapausis, “rest from weariness” (Matt. 11:28).

          (3.) Gr. anesis, “relaxation” (2 Thess. 1:7).

          (4.) Gr. sabbatismos, a Sabbath rest, a rest from all work (Heb.
          4:9; R.V., “sabbath”), a rest like that of God when he had
          finished the work of creation.

   Resurrection of Christ
          One of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel. If Christ
          be not risen, our faith is vain (1 Cor. 15:14). The whole of the
          New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact. On
          the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ’s
          resurrection from the prediction in Ps. 16 (Acts 2:24-28). In
          his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his
          resurrection (Matt. 20:19; Mark 9:9; 14:28; Luke 18:33; John

          The evangelists give circumstantial accounts of the facts
          connected with that event, and the apostles, also, in their
          public teaching largely insist upon it. Ten different
          appearances of our risen Lord are recorded in the New Testament.
          They may be arranged as follows:

          (1.) To Mary Magdalene at the sepulchre alone. This is recorded
          at length only by John (20:11-18), and alluded to by Mark

          (2.) To certain women, “the other Mary,” Salome, Joanna, and
          others, as they returned from the sepulchre. Matthew (28:1-10)
          alone gives an account of this. (Comp. Mark 16:1-8, and Luke

          (3.) To Simon Peter alone on the day of the resurrection. (See
          Luke 24:34; 1 Cor. 15:5.)

          (4.) To the two disciples on the way to Emmaus on the day of the
          resurrection, recorded fully only by Luke (24:13-35. Comp. Mark
          16:12, 13).

          (5.) To the ten disciples (Thomas being absent) and others “with
          them,” at Jerusalem on the evening of the resurrection day. One
          of the evangelists gives an account of this appearance, John

          (6.) To the disciples again (Thomas being present) at Jerusalem
          (Mark 16:14-18; Luke 24:33-40; John 20:26-28. See also 1 Cor.

          (7.) To the disciples when fishing at the Sea of Galilee. Of
          this appearance also John (21:1-23) alone gives an account.

          (8.) To the eleven, and above 500 brethren at once, at an
          appointed place in Galilee (1 Cor. 15:6; comp. Matt. 28:16-20).

          (9.) To James, but under what circumstances we are not informed
          (1 Cor. 15:7).

          (10.) To the apostles immediately before the ascension. They
          accompanied him from Jerusalem to Mount Olivet, and there they
          saw him ascend “till a cloud received him out of their sight”
          (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-52; Acts 1:4-10).

          It is worthy of note that it is distinctly related that on most
          of these occasions our Lord afforded his disciples the amplest
          opportunity of testing the fact of his resurrection. He
          conversed with them face to face. They touched him (Matt. 28:9;
          Luke 24:39; John 20:27), and he ate bread with them (Luke 24:42,
          43; John 21:12, 13).

          (11.) In addition to the above, mention might be made of
          Christ’s manifestation of himself to Paul at Damascus, who
          speaks of it as an appearance of the risen Saviour (Acts 9:3-9,
          17; 1 Cor. 15:8; 9:1).

          It is implied in the words of Luke (Acts 1:3) that there may
          have been other appearances of which we have no record.

          The resurrection is spoken of as the act (1) of God the Father
          (Ps. 16:10; Acts 2:24; 3:15; Rom. 8:11; Eph. 1:20; Col. 2:12;
          Heb. 13:20); (2) of Christ himself (John 2:19; 10:18); and (3)
          of the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 3:18).

          The resurrection is a public testimony of Christ’s release from
          his undertaking as surety, and an evidence of the Father’s
          acceptance of his work of redemption. It is a victory over death
          and the grave for all his followers.

          The importance of Christ’s resurrection will be seen when we
          consider that if he rose the gospel is true, and if he rose not
          it is false. His resurrection from the dead makes it manifest
          that his sacrifice was accepted. Our justification was secured
          by his obedience to the death, and therefore he was raised from
          the dead (Rom. 4:25). His resurrection is a proof that he made a
          full atonement for our sins, that his sacrifice was accepted as
          a satisfaction to divine justice, and his blood a ransom for
          sinners. It is also a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection
          of all believers (Rom. 8:11; 1 Cor. 6:14; 15:47-49; Phil. 3:21;
          1 John 3:2). As he lives, they shall live also.

          It proved him to be the Son of God, inasmuch as it authenticated
          all his claims (John 2:19; 10:17). “If Christ did not rise, the
          whole scheme of redemption is a failure, and all the predictions
          and anticipations of its glorious results for time and for
          eternity, for men and for angels of every rank and order, are
          proved to be chimeras. But now is Christ risen from the dead,
          and become the first-fruits of them that slept.’ Therefore the
          Bible is true from Genesis to Revelation. The kingdom of
          darkness has been overthrown, Satan has fallen as lightning from
          heaven, and the triumph of truth over error, of good over evil,
          of happiness over misery is for ever secured.” Hodge.

          With reference to the report which the Roman soldiers were
          bribed (Matt. 28:12-14) to circulate concerning Christ’s
          resurrection, “his disciples came by night and stole him away
          while we slept,” Matthew Henry in his “Commentary,” under John
          20:1-10, fittingly remarks, “The grave-clothes in which Christ
          had been buried were found in very good order, which serves for
          an evidence that his body was not stolen away while men slept.’
          Robbers of tombs have been known to take away the clothes’ and
          leave the body; but none ever took away the body’ and left the
          clothes, especially when they were fine linen’ and new (Mark
          15:46). Any one would rather choose to carry a dead body in its
          clothes than naked. Or if they that were supposed to have stolen
          it would have left the grave-clothes behind, yet it cannot be
          supposed they would find leisure to fold up the linen.'”

   Resurrection of the dead
          Will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan. 12:2;
          John 5:28, 29; Rom. 2:6-16; 2 Thess. 1:6-10). The qualities of
          the resurrection body will be different from those of the body
          laid in the grave (1 Cor. 15:53, 54; Phil. 3:21); but its
          identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the
          same body (1 Cor. 15:42-44) which rises again.

          As to the nature of the resurrection body, (1) it will be
          spiritual (1 Cor. 15:44), i.e., a body adapted to the use of the
          soul in its glorified state, and to all the conditions of the
          heavenly state; (2) glorious, incorruptible, and powerful (54);
          (3) like unto the glorified body of Christ (Phil. 3:21); and (4)
          immortal (Rev. 21:4).

          Christ’s resurrection secures and illustrates that of his
          people. “(1.) Because his resurrection seals and consummates his
          redemptive power; and the redemption of our persons involves the
          redemption of our bodies (Rom. 8:23). (2.) Because of our
          federal and vital union with Christ (1 Cor. 15:21, 22; 1 Thess.
          4:14). (3.) Because of his Spirit which dwells in us making our
          bodies his members (1 Cor. 6:15; Rom. 8:11). (4.) Because Christ
          by covenant is Lord both of the living and the dead (Rom. 14:9).
          This same federal and vital union of the Christian with Christ
          likewise causes the resurrection of the believer to be similar
          to as well as consequent upon that of Christ (1 Cor. 15:49;
          Phil. 3:21; 1 John 3:2).” Hodge’s Outlines of Theology.

          Behold a son!, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:32).
          His sinful conduct, referred to in Gen. 35:22, brought down upon
          him his dying father’s malediction (48:4). He showed kindness to
          Joseph, and was the means of saving his life when his other
          brothers would have put him to death (37:21, 22). It was he also
          who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was
          unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt. After Jacob and
          his family went down into Egypt (46:8) no further mention is
          made of Reuben beyond what is recorded in ch. 49:3, 4.

   Reuben, Tribe of
          At the Exodus numbered 46,500 male adults, from twenty years old
          and upwards (Num. 1:20, 21), and at the close of the wilderness
          wanderings they numbered only 43,730 (26:7). This tribe united
          with that of Gad in asking permission to settle in the “land of
          Gilead,” “on the other side of Jordan” (32:1-5). The lot
          assigned to Reuben was the smallest of the lots given to the
          trans-Jordanic tribes. It extended from the Arnon, in the south
          along the coast of the Dead Sea to its northern end, where the
          Jordan flows into it (Josh. 13:15-21, 23). It thus embraced the
          original kingdom of Sihon. Reuben is “to the eastern tribes what
          Simeon is to the western. Unstable as water,’ he vanishes away
          into a mere Arabian tribe. His men are few;’ it is all he can do
          to live and not die.’ We hear of nothing beyond the
          multiplication of their cattle in the land of Gilead, their
          spoils of camels fifty thousand, and of asses two thousand’ (1
          Chr. 5:9, 10, 20, 21). In the great struggles of the nation he
          never took part. The complaint against him in the song of
          Deborah is the summary of his whole history. By the streams of
          Reuben,’ i.e., by the fresh streams which descend from the
          eastern hills into the Jordan and the Dead Sea, on whose banks
          the Bedouin chiefs met then as now to debate, in the streams’ of
          Reuben great were the desires'”, i.e., resolutions which were
          never carried out, the people idly resting among their flocks as
          if it were a time of peace (Judg. 5:15, 16). Stanley’s Sinai and

          All the three tribes on the east of Jordan at length fell into
          complete apostasy, and the time of retribution came. God
          “stirred up the spirit of Pul, king of Assyria, and the spirit
          of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria,” to carry them away, the
          first of the tribes, into captivity (1 Chr. 5:25, 26).

          Friend of God. (1.) A son of Esau and Bashemath (Gen. 36:4, 10;
          1 Chr. 1:35). (2.) “The priest of Midian,” Moses’ father-in-law
          (Ex. 2:18)=Raguel (Num. 10:29). If he be identified with Jethro
          (q.v.), then this may be regarded as his proper name, and Jether
          or Jethro (i.e., “excellency”) as his official title. (3.) Num.
          2:14, called also Deuel (1:14; 7:42).

          An uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been
          previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen. God has been
          pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to
          make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and
          plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been
          committed to writing. (See WORD OF [532]GOD.) The Scriptures are
          not merely the “record” of revelation; they are the revelation
          itself in a written form, in order to the accurate presevation
          and propagation of the truth.

          Revelation and inspiration differ. Revelation is the
          supernatural communication of truth to the mind; inspiration
          (q.v.) secures to the teacher or writer infallibility in
          communicating that truth to others. It renders its subject the
          spokesman or prophet of God in such a sense that everything he
          asserts to be true, whether fact or doctrine or moral principle,
          is true, infallibly true.

   Revelation, Book of
          =The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book
          of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was
          undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the
          book itself (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8), and there is every reason to
          conclude that the “John” here mentioned was the apostle. In a
          manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called “John the
          divine,” but no reason can be assigned for this appellation.

          The date of the writing of this book has generally been fixed at
          A.D. 96, in the reign of Domitian. There are some, however, who
          contend for an earlier date, A.D. 68 or 69, in the reign of
          Nero. Those who are in favour of the later date appeal to the
          testimony of the Christian father Irenaeus, who received
          information relative to this book from those who had seen John
          face to face. He says that the Apocalypse “was seen no long time

          As to the relation between this book and the Gospel of John, it
          has been well observed that “the leading ideas of both are the
          same. The one gives us in a magnificent vision, the other in a
          great historic drama, the supreme conflict between good and evil
          and its issue. In both Jesus Christ is the central figure, whose
          victory through defeat is the issue of the conflict. In both the
          Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the
          warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language
          saturated with the Old Testament. The difference of date will go
          a long way toward explaining the difference of style.” Plummer’s
          Gospel of St. John, Introd.

   Revelation of Christ
          The second advent of Christ. Three different Greek words are
          used by the apostles to express this, (1) apokalupsis (1 Cor.
          1;7; 2 Thess. 1:7; 1 Pet. 1:7, 13); (2) parousia (Matt. 24:3,
          27; 1 Thess. 2:19; James 5:7, 8); (3) epiphaneia (1 Tim. 6:14; 2
          Tim. 1:10; 4:1-8; Titus 2:13). There existed among Christians a
          wide expectation, founded on Matt. 24:29, 30, 34, of the speedy
          return of Christ. (See [533]MILLENNIUM.)

          Solid; a stone, (2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12), a fortress near
          Haran, probably on the west of the Euphrates, conquered by

          Firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an
          invasion of the kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 15:37; 16:5-9; Isa.
          7:1-8). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus,
          and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending
          his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in
          battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into
          captivity, B.C. 732 (2 Kings 16:9).

          Prince, son of Eliadah. Abandoning the service of Hadadezer, the
          king of Zobah, on the occasion of his being defeated by David,
          he became the “captain over a band” of marauders, and took
          Damascus, and became king of Syria (1 Kings 11:23-25; 2 Sam.
          8:3-8). For centuries after this the Syrians were the foes of
          Israel. He “became an adversary to Israel all the days of

          Breach, a town in the south of Italy, on the Strait of Messina,
          at which Paul touched on his way to Rome (Acts 28:13). It is now
          called Rheggio.

          Affection, son of Zorobabel, mentioned in the genealogy of our
          Lord (Luke 3:27).

          A rose, the damsel in the house of Mary, the mother of John
          Mark. She came to hearken when Peter knocked at the door of the
          gate (Acts 12:12-15).

          A rose, an island to the south of the western extremity of Asia
          Minor, between Coos and Patara, about 46 miles long and 18 miles
          broad. Here the apostle probably landed on his way from Greece
          to Syria (Acts 21:1), on returning from his third missionary

          Fruitful, an ancient town on the northern frontier of Palestine,
          35 miles north-east of Baalbec, and 10 or 12 south of Lake Homs,
          on the eastern bank of the Orontes, in a wide and fertile plain.
          Here Nebuchadnezzar had his head-quarters in his campaign
          against Jerusalem, and here also Necho fixed his camp after he
          had routed Josiah’s army at Megiddo (2 Kings 23:29-35; 25:6, 20,
          21; Jer. 39:5; 52:10). It was on the great caravan road from
          Palestine to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. It is described (Num.
          34:11) as “on the eastern side of Ain.” A place still called el
          Ain, i.e., “the fountain”, is found in such a position about 10
          miles distant. (See [534]JERUSALEM.)

          (Heb. hodah). The oldest and, strictly speaking, the only
          example of a riddle was that propounded by Samson (Judg.
          14:12-18). The parabolic prophecy in Ezek. 17:2-18 is there
          called a “riddle.” It was rather, however, an allegory. The word
          “darkly” in 1 Cor. 13:12 is the rendering of the Greek enigma;
          marg., “in a riddle.”

          See [535]JUSTIFICATION.

          Pomegranate. (1.) A man of Beeroth (2 Sam. 4:2), one of the four
          Gibeonite cities. (See Josh. 9:17.)

          (2.) A Syrian idol, mentioned only in 2 Kings 5:18.

          (3.) One of the “uttermost cities” of Judah, afterwards given to
          Simeon (Josh. 15:21, 32; 19:7; 1 Chr. 4:32). In Josh. 15:32 Ain
          and Rimmon are mentioned separately, but in 19:7 and 1 Chr. 4:32
          (comp. Neh. 11:29) the two words are probably to be combined, as
          forming together the name of one place, Ain-Rimmon=the spring of
          the pomegranate. It has been identified with Um er-Rumamin,
          about 13 miles south-west of Hebron.

          (4.) “Rock of,” to which the Benjamites fled (Judg. 20:45, 47;
          21:13), and where they maintained themselves for four months
          after the fearful battle at Gibeah, in which they were almost
          exterminated, 600 only surviving out of about 27,000. It is the
          present village of Rummon, “on the very edge of the hill
          country, with a precipitous descent toward the Jordan valley,”
          supposed to be the site of Ai.

          A pomegranate breach, or Rimmon of the breach, one of the
          stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:19, 20).

          Used as an ornament to decorate the fingers, arms, wrists, and
          also the ears and the nose. Rings were used as a signet (Gen.
          38:18). They were given as a token of investment with authority
          (Gen. 41:42; Esther 3:8-10; 8:2), and of favour and dignity
          (Luke 15:22). They were generally worn by rich men (James 2:2).
          They are mentioned by Isiah (3:21) among the adornments of
          Hebrew women.

          A crusher, Gomer’s second son (Gen. 10:3), supposed to have been
          the ancestor of the Paphlagonians.

          Heap of ruins; dew, a station of the Israelites in the
          wilderness (Num. 33:21, 22).

          Wild broom, a station in the wilderness (Num. 33:18, 19), the
          “broom valley,” or “valley of broombushes,” the place apparently
          of the original encampment of Israel, near Kadesh.

          (1.) Heb. aphik, properly the channel or ravine that holds water
          (2 Sam. 22:16), translated “brook,” “river,” “stream,” but not
          necessarily a perennial stream (Ezek. 6:3; 31:12; 32:6; 34:13).

          (2.) Heb. nahal, in winter a “torrent,” in summer a “wady” or
          valley (Gen. 32:23; Deut. 2:24; 3:16; Isa. 30:28; Lam. 2:18;
          Ezek. 47:9).

          These winter torrents sometimes come down with great suddenness
          and with desolating force. A distinguished traveller thus
          describes his experience in this matter:, “I was encamped in
          Wady Feiran, near the base of Jebel Serbal, when a tremendous
          thunderstorm burst upon us. After little more than an hour’s
          rain, the water rose so rapidly in the previously dry wady that
          I had to run for my life, and with great difficulty succeeded in
          saving my tent and goods; my boots, which I had not time to pick
          up, were washed away. In less than two hours a dry desert wady
          upwards of 300 yards broad was turned into a foaming torrent
          from 8 to 10 feet deep, roaring and tearing down and bearing
          everything upon it, tangled masses of tamarisks, hundreds of
          beautiful palmtrees, scores of sheep and goats, camels and
          donkeys, and even men, women, and children, for a whole
          encampment of Arabs was washed away a few miles above me. The
          storm commenced at five in the evening; at half-past nine the
          waters were rapidly subsiding, and it was evident that the flood
          had spent its force.” (Comp. Matt. 7:27; Luke 6:49.)

          (3.) Nahar, a “river” continuous and full, a perennial stream,
          as the Jordan, the Euphrates (Gen. 2:10; 15:18; Deut. 1:7; Ps.
          66:6; Ezek. 10:15).

          (4.) Tel’alah, a conduit, or water-course (1 Kings 18:32; 2
          Kings 18:17; 20:20; Job 38:25; Ezek. 31:4).

          (5.) Peleg, properly “waters divided”, i.e., streams divided,
          throughout the land (Ps. 1:3); “the rivers [i.e., divisions’] of
          waters” (Job 20:17; 29:6; Prov. 5:16).

          (6.) Ye’or, i.e., “great river”, probably from an Egyptian word
          (Aur), commonly applied to the Nile (Gen. 41:1-3), but also to
          other rivers (Job 28:10; Isa. 33:21).

          (7.) Yubhal, “a river” (Jer. 17:8), a full flowing stream.

          (8.) Ubhal, “a river” (Dan. 8:2).

   River of Egypt
          (1.) Heb. nahar mitsraim, denotes in Gen. 15:18 the Nile, or its
          eastern branch (2 Chr. 9:26). (2.) In Num. 34:5 (R.V., “brook of
          Egypt”) the Hebrew word is nahal, denoting a stream flowing
          rapidly in winter, or in the rainy season. This is a desert
          stream on the borders of Egypt. It is now called the Wady
          el-Arish. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is
          about midway between this wady and Gaza. (See Num. 34:5; Josh.
          15:4, 47; 1 Kings 8:65; 2 Kings 24:7; Isa. 27:12; Ezek. 47:19.
          In all these passages the R.V. has “brook” and the A.V.

   River of Gad
          Probably the Arno (2 Sam. 24:5).

   River of God
          (Ps. 65:9), as opposed to earthly streams, denoting that the
          divine resources are inexhaustible, or the sum of all
          fertilizing streams that water the earth (Gen. 2:10).

   Rivers of Babylon
          (Ps. 137:1), i.e., of the whole country of Babylonia, e.g., the
          Tigris, Euphrates, Chalonas, the Ulai, and the numerous canals.

   Rivers of Damascus
          The Abana and Pharpar (2 Kings 5:12).

   Rivers of Judah
          (Joel 3:18), the watercourses of Judea.

          Coal; hot stone, the daughter of Aiah, and one of Saul’s
          concubines. She was the mother of Armoni and Mephibosheth (2
          Sam. 3:7; 21:8, 10, 11).

          It happened that a grievous famine, which lasted for three
          years, fell upon the land during the earlier half of David’s
          reign at Jerusalem. This calamity was sent “for Saul and for his
          bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites.” David inquired of
          the Gibeonites what satisfaction they demanded, and was answered
          that nothing would compensate for the wrong Saul had done to
          them but the death of seven of Saul’s sons. David accordingly
          delivered up to them the two sons of Rizpah and five of the sons
          of Merab (q.v.), Saul’s eldest daughter, whom she bore to
          Adriel. These the Gibeonites put to death, and hung up their
          bodies before the Lord at the sanctuary at Gibeah. Rizpah
          thereupon took her place on the rock of Gibeah (q.v.), and for
          five months watched the suspended bodies of her children, to
          prevent them from being devoured by the beasts and birds of
          prey, till they were at length taken down and buried by David.

          Her marriage to Abner was the occasion of a quarrel between him
          and Ishbosheth, which led to Abner’s going over to the side of
          David (2 Sam. 3:17-21).

          (1 Sam. 27:10; R.V., “raid”), an inroad, an incursion. This word
          is never used in Scripture in the sense of a way or path.

          Practised by the Ishmaelites (Gen. 16:12), the Chaldeans and
          Sabeans (Job 1:15, 17), and the men of Shechem (Judg. 9:25. See
          also 1 Sam. 27:6-10; 30; Hos. 4:2; 6:9). Robbers infested Judea
          in our Lord’s time (Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36, 37;
          21:38; 2 Cor. 11:26). The words of the Authorized Version,
          “counted it not robbery to be equal,” etc. (Phil. 2:6, 7), are
          better rendered in the Revised Version, “counted it not a prize
          to be on an equality,” etc., i.e., “did not look upon equality
          with God as a prize which must not slip from his grasp” = “did
          not cling with avidity to the prerogatives of his divine
          majesty; did not ambitiously display his equality with God.”

          “Robbers of churches” should be rendered, as in the Revised
          Version, “of temples.” In the temple at Ephesus there was a
          great treasure-chamber, and as all that was laid up there was
          under the guardianship of the goddess Diana, to steal from such
          a place would be sacrilege (Acts 19:37).

          (Heb. tsur), employed as a symbol of God in the Old Testament (1
          Sam. 2:2; 2 Sam. 22:3; Isa. 17:10; Ps. 28:1; 31:2, 3; 89:26;
          95:1); also in the New Testament (Matt. 16:18; Rom. 9:33; 1 Cor.
          10:4). In Dan. 2:45 the Chaldaic form of the Hebrew word is
          translated “mountain.” It ought to be translated “rock,” as in
          Hab. 1:12 in the Revised Version. The “rock” from which the
          stone is cut there signifies the divine origin of Christ. (See

          (Heb. tsebi), properly the gazelle (Arab. ghazal), permitted for
          food (Deut. 14:5; comp. Deut. 12:15, 22; 15:22; 1 Kings 4:23),
          noted for its swiftness and beauty and grace of form (2 Sam.
          2:18; 1 Chr. 12:8; Cant. 2:9; 7:3; 8:14).

          The gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is found in great numbers in
          Palestine. “Among the gray hills of Galilee it is still the roe
          upon the mountains of Bether,’ and I have seen a little troop of
          gazelles feeding on the Mount of Olives close to Jerusalem
          itself” (Tristram).

          The Hebrew word (ayyalah) in Prov. 5: 19 thus rendered (R.V.,
          “doe”), is properly the “wild she-goat,” the mountain goat, the
          ibex. (See 1 Sam. 24:2; Ps. 104:18; Job 39:1.)

          Fullers, a town of Gilead, the residence of Barzillai the
          Gileadite (2 Sam. 17:27; 19:31), probably near to Mahanaim.

          The common form of ancient books. The Hebrew word rendered
          “roll” or “volume” is meghillah, found in Ezra 6:2; Ps. 40:7;
          Jer. 36:2, 6, 23, 28, 29; Ezek. 2:9; 3:1-3; Zech. 5:1, 2.
          “Rolls” (Chald. pl. of sephar, corresponding to Heb. sepher) in
          Ezra 6:1 is rendered in the Revised Version “archives.” In the
          New Testament the word “volume” (Heb. 10:7; R.V., “roll”) occurs
          as the rendering of the Greek kephalis, meaning the head or top
          of the stick or cylinder on which the manuscript was rolled, and
          hence the manuscript itself. (See [537]BOOK.)

          Elevation of help, one of the sons of Heman, “the king’s seer in
          the words of God, to lift up the horn.” He was head of the
          “four-and-twentieth” course of singers (1 Chr. 25:4, 31).

   Romans, Epistle to the
          This epistle was probably written at Corinth. Phoebe (Rom. 16:1)
          of Cenchrea conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth
          entertained the apostle at the time of his writing it (16:23; 1
          Cor. 1:14), and Erastus was chamberlain of the city, i.e., of
          Corinth (2 Tim. 4:20).

          The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the
          epistle, but it was obviously written when the apostle was about
          to “go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints”, i.e., at the
          close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding
          his last visit to that city (Rom. 15:25; comp. Acts 19:21; 20:2,
          3, 16; 1 Cor. 16:1-4), early in A.D. 58.

          It is highly probable that Christianity was planted in Rome by
          some of those who had been at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost
          (Acts 2:10). At this time the Jews were very numerous in Rome,
          and their synagogues were probably resorted to by Romans also,
          who in this way became acquainted with the great facts regarding
          Jesus as these were reported among the Jews. Thus a church
          composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. Many of
          the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome.
          There are evidences that Christians were then in Rome in
          considerable numbers, and had probably more than one place of
          meeting (Rom. 16:14, 15).

          The object of the apostle in writing to this church was to
          explain to them the great doctrines of the gospel. His epistle
          was a “word in season.” Himself deeply impressed with a sense of
          the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear
          and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its
          relation both to Jew and Gentile. This epistle is peculiar in
          this, that it is a systematic exposition of the gospel of
          universal application. The subject is here treated
          argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews.
          In the Epistle to the Galatians, the same subject is discussed,
          but there the apostle pleads his own authority, because the
          church in Galatia had been founded by him.

          After the introduction (1:1-15), the apostle presents in it
          divers aspects and relations the doctrine of justification by
          faith (1:16-11:36) on the ground of the imputed righteousness of
          Christ. He shows that salvation is all of grace, and only of
          grace. This main section of his letter is followed by various
          practical exhortations (12:1-15:13), which are followed by a
          conclusion containing personal explanations and salutations,
          which contain the names of twenty-four Christians at Rome, a
          benediction, and a doxology (Rom. 15:14-ch. 16).

          The most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It
          is said to have been founded B.C. 753. When the New Testament
          was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of
          the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of
          which the half were slaves, and including representatives of
          nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its
          wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the
capital had then reached its greatest prosperity.

On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem “strangers from
Rome,” who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings of
that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church
there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he
remained for two years (Acts 28:30, 31) “in his own hired
house.” While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians,
to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably
also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions
Luke and Aristarchus (Acts 27:2), Timothy (Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:1),
Tychicus (Eph. 6: 21), Epaphroditus (Phil. 4:18), and John Mark
(Col. 4:10). (See [538]PAUL.)

Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called “catacombs,”
which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the
inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some
three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of
persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand
inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an
interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down
to the time of Constantine.

Many varieties of the rose proper are indigenous to Syria. The
famed rose of Damascus is white, but there are also red and
yellow roses. In Cant. 2:1 and Isa. 35:1 the Hebrew word
habatstseleth (found only in these passages), rendered “rose”
(R.V. marg., “autumn crocus”), is supposed by some to mean the
oleander, by others the sweet-scented narcissus (a native of
Palestine), the tulip, or the daisy; but nothing definite can be
affirmed regarding it.

The “rose of Sharon” is probably the cistus or rock-rose,
several species of which abound in Palestine. “Mount Carmel
especially abounds in the cistus, which in April covers some of
the barer parts of the mountain with a glow not inferior to that
of the Scottish heather.” (See [539]MYRRH [2].)

(Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1) is rendered “chief” in the Authorized
Version. It is left untranslated as a proper name in the Revised
Version. Some have supposed that the Russians are here meant, as
one of the three Scythian tribes of whom Magog was the prince.
They invaded the land of Judah in the days of Josiah. Herodotus,
the Greek historian, says: “For twenty-eight years the Scythians
ruled over Asia, and things were turned upside down by their
violence and contempt.” (See [540]BETHSHEAN.)

Found only in Authorized Version, margin, Ezek. 27:17, Heb.
tsori, uniformly rendered elsewhere “balm” (q.v.), as here in
the text. The Vulgate has resinam, rendered “rosin” in the Douay
Version. As used, however, by Jerome, the Lat. resina denotes
some odoriferous gum or oil.

(Heb. peninim), only in plural (Lam. 4:7). The ruby was one of
the stones in the high priest’s breastplate (Ex. 28:17). A
comparison is made between the value of wisdom and rubies (Job
28:18; Prov. 3:15; 8:11). The price of a virtuous woman is said
to be “far above rubies” (Prov. 31:10). The exact meaning of the
Hebrew word is uncertain. Some render it “red coral;” others,
“pearl” or “mother-of-pearl.”

Rudder bands
Ancient ships had two great broad-bladed oars for rudders.
These, when not in use, were lifted out of the water and bound
or tied up. When required for use, these bands were unloosed and
the rudders allowed to drop into the water (Acts 27:40).

A garden herb (Ruta graveolens) which the Pharisees were careful
to tithe (Luke 11:42), neglecting weightier matters. It is
omitted in the parallel passage of Matt. 23:23. There are
several species growing wild in Palestine. It is used for
medicinal and culinary purposes. It has a powerful scent, and is
a stimulant. (See [541]MINT.)

Red, the son of Simon the Cyrenian (Mark 15:21), whom the Roman
soldiers compelled to carry the cross on which our Lord was
crucified. Probably it is the same person who is again mentioned
in Rom. 16:13 as a disciple at Rome, whose mother also was a
Christian held in esteem by the apostle. Mark mentions him along
with his brother Alexander as persons well known to his readers
(Mark 15:21).

Having obtained mercy, a symbolical name given to the daughter
of Hosea (2:1).

Elevation, probably the same as Arumah (Judg. 9:41; 2 Kings
23:36), near Shechem. Others identify it with Tell Rumeh, in
Galilee, about 6 miles north of Nazareth.

The papyrus (Job 8:11). (See [542]BULRUSH.) The expression
“branch and rush” in Isa. 9:14; 19:15 means “utterly.”

A friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father,
Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of
Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law,
who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which
Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to
whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed,
the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the
maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of “the
gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good
Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of
transferring property from one person to another, the working of
the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families;
but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love,
the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen
race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3)
and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the
ancestress of David, and so of great David’s greater Son'” (Ruth

Ruth The Book of
Was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms
one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible.

The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one
hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David. It gives
(1) an account of Naomi’s going to Moab with her husband,
Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her
daughter-in-law; (2) the marriage of Boaz and Ruth; and (3) the
birth of Obed, of whom David sprang.

The author of this book was probably Samuel, according to Jewish

“Brief as this book is, and simple as is its story, it is
remarkably rich in examples of faith, patience, industry, and
kindness, nor less so in indications of the care which God takes
of those who put their trust in him.”

=Rie, (Heb. kussemeth), found in Ex. 9:32; Isa. 28:25, in all of
which the margins of the Authorized and of the Revised Versions
have “spelt.” This Hebrew word also occurs in Ezek. 4:9, where
the Authorized Version has “fitches’ (q.v.) and the Revised
Version “spelt.” This, there can be no doubt, was the Triticum
spelta, a species of hard, rough-grained wheat.