Easton's Bible Dictionary (T)
A sandy place, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, on the
south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of
Megiddo. Its king was conquered by Joshua (12:21). It was
assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath (17:11-18;
21:25). It is mentioned in the song of Deborah (Judg. 5:19). It
is identified with the small modern village of Ta’annuk.
Approach to Shiloh, a place on the border of Ephraim (Josh.
16:6), probably the modern T’ana, a ruin 7 miles south-east of
Shechem, on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain.
Impressions; rings, “the children of,” returned from the
Captivity (Ezra 2:43).
Famous, a town in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 7:22), to the
south of Bethshean, near the Jordan.
Goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and
Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isa.
A Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt
to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7).
Burning, a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the “fire of
the Lord” consumed the murmuring Israelites (Num. 11:3; Deut.
9:22). It was also called Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.).
Playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nahum 2:7, where alone it
occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the
(1.) A house or dwelling-place (Job 5:24; 18:6, etc.).
(2.) A portable shrine (comp. Acts 19:24) containing the image
of Moloch (Amos 5:26; marg. and R.V., “Siccuth”).
(3.) The human body (2 Cor. 5:1, 4); a tent, as opposed to a
(4.) The sacred tent (Heb. mishkan, “the dwelling-place”); the
movable tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God,
according to the “pattern” which God himself showed to him on
the mount (Ex. 25:9; Heb. 8:5). It is called “the tabernacle of
the congregation,” rather “of meeting”, i.e., where God promised
to meet with Israel (Ex. 29:42); the “tabernacle of the
testimony” (Ex. 38:21; Num. 1:50), which does not, however,
designate the whole structure, but only the enclosure which
contained the “ark of the testimony” (Ex. 25:16, 22; Num. 9:15);
the “tabernacle of witness” (Num. 17:8); the “house of the Lord”
(Deut. 23:18); the “temple of the Lord” (Josh. 6:24); a
“sanctuary” (Ex. 25:8).
A particular account of the materials which the people provided
for the erection and of the building itself is recorded in Ex.
25-40. The execution of the plan mysteriously given to Moses was
intrusted to Bezaleel and Aholiab, who were specially endowed
with wisdom and artistic skill, probably gained in Egypt, for
this purpose (Ex. 35:30-35). The people provided materials for
the tabernacle so abundantly that Moses was under the necessity
of restraining them (36:6). These stores, from which they so
liberally contributed for this purpose, must have consisted in a
great part of the gifts which the Egyptians so readily bestowed
on them on the eve of the Exodus (12:35, 36).
The tabernacle was a rectangular enclosure, in length about 45
feet (i.e., reckoning a cubit at 18 inches) and in breadth and
height about 15. Its two sides and its western end were made of
boards of acacia wood, placed on end, resting in sockets of
brass, the eastern end being left open (Ex. 26:22). This
framework was covered with four coverings, the first of linen,
in which figures of the symbolic cherubim were wrought with
needlework in blue and purple and scarlet threads, and probably
also with threads of gold (Ex. 26:1-6; 36:8-13). Above this was
a second covering of twelve curtains of black goats’-hair cloth,
reaching down on the outside almost to the ground (Ex. 26:7-11).
The third covering was of rams’ skins dyed red, and the fourth
was of badgers’ skins (Heb. tahash, i.e., the dugong, a species
of seal), Ex. 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19; 39:34.
Internally it was divided by a veil into two chambers, the
exterior of which was called the holy place, also “the
sanctuary” (Heb. 9:2) and the “first tabernacle” (6); and the
interior, the holy of holies, “the holy place,” “the Holiest,”
the “second tabernacle” (Ex. 28:29; Heb. 9:3, 7). The veil
separating these two chambers was a double curtain of the finest
workmanship, which was never passed except by the high priest
once a year, on the great Day of Atonement. The holy place was
separated from the outer court which enclosed the tabernacle by
a curtain, which hung over the six pillars which stood at the
east end of the tabernacle, and by which it was entered.
The order as well as the typical character of the services of
the tabernacle are recorded in Heb. 9; 10:19-22.
The holy of holies, a cube of 10 cubits, contained the “ark of
the testimony”, i.e., the oblong chest containing the two tables
of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded.
The holy place was the western and larger chamber of the
tabernacle. Here were placed the table for the shewbread, the
golden candlestick, and the golden altar of incense.
Round about the tabernacle was a court, enclosed by curtains
hung upon sixty pillars (Ex. 27:9-18). This court was 150 feet
long and 75 feet broad. Within it were placed the altar of burnt
offering, which measured 7 1/2 feet in length and breadth and 4
1/2 feet high, with horns at the four corners, and the laver of
brass (Ex. 30:18), which stood between the altar and the
The whole tabernacle was completed in seven months. On the first
day of the first month of the second year after the Exodus, it
was formally set up, and the cloud of the divine presence
descended on it (Ex. 39:22-43; 40:1-38). It cost 29 talents 730
shekels of gold, 100 talents 1,775 shekels of silver, 70 talents
2,400 shekels of brass (Ex. 38:24-31).
The tabernacle was so constructed that it could easily be taken
down and conveyed from place to place during the wanderings in
the wilderness. The first encampment of the Israelites after
crossing the Jordan was at Gilgal, and there the tabernacle
remained for seven years (Josh. 4:19). It was afterwards removed
to Shiloh (Josh. 18:1), where it remained during the time of the
Judges, till the days of Eli, when the ark, having been carried
out into the camp when the Israelites were at war with the
Philistines, was taken by the enemy (1 Sam. 4), and was never
afterwards restored to its place in the tabernacle. The old
tabernacle erected by Moses in the wilderness was transferred to
Nob (1 Sam. 21:1), and after the destruction of that city by
Saul (22:9; 1 Chr. 16:39, 40), to Gibeon. It is mentioned for
the last time in 1 Chr. 21:29. A new tabernacle was erected by
David at Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:17; 1 Chr. 16:1), and the ark was
brought from Perez-uzzah and deposited in it (2 Sam. 6:8-17; 2
The word thus rendered (ohel) in Ex. 33:7 denotes simply a tent,
probably Moses’ own tent, for the tabernacle was not yet
Tabernacles, Feast of
The third of the great annual festivals of the Jews (Lev.
23:33-43). It is also called the “feast of ingathering” (Ex.
23:16; Deut. 16:13). It was celebrated immediately after the
harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for
eight days (Lev. 23:33-43). During that period the people left
their homes and lived in booths formed of the branches of trees.
The sacrifices offered at this time are mentioned in Num.
29:13-38. It was at the time of this feast that Solomon’s temple
was dedicated (1 Kings 8:2). Mention is made of it after the
return from the Captivity. This feast was designed (1) to be a
memorial of the wilderness wanderings, when the people dwelt in
booths (Lev. 23:43), and (2) to be a harvest thanksgiving (Neh.
8:9-18). The Jews, at a later time, introduced two appendages to
the original festival, viz., (1) that of drawing water from the
Pool of Siloam, and pouring it upon the altar (John 7:2, 37), as
a memorial of the water from the rock in Horeb; and (2) of
lighting the lamps at night, a memorial of the pillar of fire by
night during their wanderings.
“The feast of Tabernacles, the harvest festival of the Jewish
Church, was the most popular and important festival after the
Captivity. At Jerusalem it was a gala day. It was to the autumn
pilgrims, who arrived on the 14th (of the month Tisri, the feast
beginning on the 15th) day, like entrance into a silvan city.
Roofs and courtyards, streets and squares, roads and gardens,
were green with boughs of citron and myrtle, palm and willow.
The booths recalled the pilgrimage through the wilderness. The
ingathering of fruits prophesied of the spiritual harvest.”,
Valling’s Jesus Christ, p. 133.
(in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was
distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was
sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over
the dead body, and said, “Tabitha, arise.” And she opened her
eyes and sat up; and Peter “gave her his hand, and raised her
up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive”
(Mark 7:4) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the
Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of
raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the
Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table.
That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather
spread out on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed
in the middle of this skin. (See ABRAHAM’S BOSOM;
Probably a string of beads worn round the neck (Ex. 35:22; Num.
31:50). In Isa. 3:20 the Hebrew word means a perfume-box, as it
is rendered in the Revised Version.
A height. (1.) Now Jebel et-Tur, a cone-like prominent mountain,
11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee. It is about 1,843 feet
high. The view from the summit of it is said to be singularly
extensive and grand. This is alluded to in Ps. 89:12; Jer.
46:18. It was here that Barak encamped before the battle with
Sisera (q.v.) Judg. 4:6-14. There is an old tradition, which,
however, is unfounded, that it was the scene of the
transfiguration of our Lord. (See HERMON.) “The prominence
and isolation of Tabor, standing, as it does, on the border-land
between the northern and southern tribes, between the mountains
and the central plain, made it a place of note in all ages, and
evidently led the psalmist to associate it with Hermon, the one
emblematic of the south, the other of the north.” There are some
who still hold that this was the scene of the transfiguration
(2.) A town of Zebulum (1 Chr. 6:77).
(3.) The “plain of Tabor” (1 Sam. 10:3) should be, as in the
Revised Version, “the oak of Tabor.” This was probably the
Allon-bachuth of Gen. 35:8.
(Heb. toph), a timbrel (q.v.) or tambourine, generally played by
women (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 10:5; 18:6). In Job 17:6 the word
(Heb. topheth) “tabret” should be, as in the Revised Version,
“an open abhorring” (marg., “one in whose face they spit;” lit.,
“a spitting in the face”).
Good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings
Hooks or clasps by which the tabernacle curtains were connected
(Ex. 26:6, 11, 33; 35:11).
=Hach’monite, a name given to Jashobeam (2 Sam. 23:8; comp. 1
(Isa. 33:23), the ropes attached to the mast of a ship. In Acts
27:19 this word means generally the furniture of the ship or the
“gear” (27:17), all that could be removed from the ship.
Palm, a city built by Solomon “in the wilderness” (2 Chr. 8:4).
In 1 Kings 9:18, where the word occurs in the Authorized
Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read “Tamar,”
which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine and
toward the wilderness (comp. Ezek. 47:19; 48:28). In 2 Chr. 8:14
Tadmor is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah. It is
called Palmyra by the Greeks and Romans. It stood in the great
Syrian wilderness, 176 miles from Damascus and 130 from the
Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast commercial traffic
with Western Asia. It was also an important military station.
(See SOLOMON.) “Remains of ancient temples and palaces,
surrounded by splendid colonnades of white marble, many of which
are yet standing, and thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered
over a large extent of space, attest the ancient magnificence of
this city of palms, surpassing that of the renowned cities of
Greece and Rome.”
=Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called “Daphne” by the Greeks, now Tell
Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on the Tanitic branch of
the Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from Jerusalem
fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and
settled there for a time (Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 44:1; 46:14). A
platform of brick-work, which there is every reason to believe
was the pavement at the entry of Pharaoh’s palace, has been
discovered at this place. “Here,” says the discoverer, Mr.
Petrie, “the ceremony described by Jeremiah [43:8-10;
“brick-kiln”, i.e., pavement of brick] took place before the
chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here
Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion” (R.V., “brickwork”).
The wife of Pharaoh, who gave her sister in marriage to Hadad
the Edomite (1 Kings 11:19, 20).
The land of the newly inhabited, (2 Sam. 24:6). It is
conjectured that, instead of this word, the reading should be,
“the Hittites of Kadesh,” the Hittite capital, on the Orontes.
It was apparently some region east of the Jordan and north of
(1.) Heb. tokhen, “a task,” as weighed and measured out = tally,
i.e., the number told off; the full number (Ex. 5:18; see 1 Sam.
18:27; 1 Chr. 9:28). In Ezek. 45:11 rendered “measure.”
(2.) Heb. hegeh, “a thought;” “meditation” (Ps. 90:9); meaning
properly “as a whisper of sadness,” which is soon over, or “as a
thought.” The LXX. and Vulgate render it “spider;” the
Authorized Version and Revised Version, “as a tale” that is
told. In Job 37:2 this word is rendered “sound;” Revised Version
margin, “muttering;” and in Ezek. 2:10, “mourning.”
Of silver contained 3,000 shekels (Ex. 38:25, 26), and was equal
to 94 3/7 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent, however, as in the
LXX., was only 82 1/4 lbs. It was in the form of a circular
mass, as the Hebrew name kikkar denotes. A talent of gold was
double the weight of a talent of silver (2 Sam. 12:30). Parable
of the talents (Matt. 18:24; 25:15).
(Mark 5:41), a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, “Little
maid, arise.” Peter, who was present when the miracle was
wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told
them to Mark.
Abounding in furrows. (1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were
slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14;
(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put
Amnon to death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was
one of David’s wives, and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).
Oppressed. (1.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:17; Neh. 11:19).
(2.) One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem
(Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45); probably the same as (1).
Palm. (1.) A place mentioned by Ezekiel (47:19; 48:28), on the
southeastern border of Palestine. Some suppose this was “Tadmor”
(2.) The daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er, she
was married (Gen. 38:6). After her husband’s death, she was
married to Onan, his brother (8), and on his death, Judah
promised to her that his third son, Shelah, would become her
husband. This promise was not fulfilled, and hence Tamar’s
revenge and Judah’s great guilt (38:12-30).
(3.) A daughter of David (2 Sam. 13:1-32; 1 Chr. 3:9), whom
Amnon shamefully outraged and afterwards “hated exceedingly,”
thereby illustrating the law of human nature noticed even by the
heathen, “Proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris”,
i.e., “It is the property of human nature to hate one whom you
(4.) A daughter of Absalom (2 Sam. 14:27).
Heb. eshel (Gen. 21:33; 1 Sam. 22:6; 31:13, in the R.V.; but in
A.V., “grove,” “tree”); Arab. asal. Seven species of this tree
are found in Palestine. It is a “very graceful tree, with long
feathery branches and tufts closely clad with the minutest of
leaves, and surmounted in spring with spikes of beautiful pink
blosoms, which seem to envelop the whole tree in one gauzy sheet
of colour” (Tristram’s Nat. Hist.).
A corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the Adonis of the
Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In the Chaldean
calendar there was a month set apart in honour of this god, the
month of June to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At
this festival, which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud
lamentations, bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat “weeping
for Tammuz” (Ezek. 8:14).
The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the months of
the Hebrew calendar.
Consolation, a Netophathite; one of the captains who supported
Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8).
(Ezek. 30:14, marg.). See ZOAN.
Apple-region. (1.) A town in the valley or lowland of Judah;
formerly a royal city of the Canaanites (Josh. 12:17; 15:34). It
is now called Tuffuh, about 12 miles west of Jerusalem.
(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:8). The “land” of
Tappuah fell to Manasseh, but the “city” to Ephraim (17:8).
(3.) En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the
springs near Yassuf (Josh. 17:7).
Stopping; station, an encampment of the Hebrews in the
wilderness (Num. 33:27, 28).
The bearded darnel, mentioned only in Matt. 13:25-30. It is the
Lolium temulentum, a species of rye-grass, the seeds of which
are a strong soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance
to wheat till the ear appears, and only then the difference is
discovered. It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine.
(1 Sam. 17:6, A.V., after the LXX. and Vulg.), a kind of small
shield. The margin has “gorget,” a piece of armour for the
throat. The Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew
word (kidon) by “javelin.” The same Hebrew word is used in Josh.
8:18 (A.V., “spear;” R.V., “javelin”); Job 39:23 (A.V.,
“shield;” R.V., “javelin”); 41:29 (A.V., “spear;” R.V.,
A Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning “the sea coast.” (1.) One of
the “sons” of Javan (Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7).
(2.) The name of a place which first comes into notice in the
days of Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has
given rise to not a little discussion. Some think there was a
Tarshish in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that “ships of
Tarshish” sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26;
22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21). Some, again, argue that Carthage was the
place so named. There can be little doubt, however, that this is
the name of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths
of the Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs,
and meaning “the great wady” or water-course). It was founded by
a Carthaginian colony, and was the farthest western harbour of
Tyrian sailors. It was to this port Jonah’s ship was about to
sail from Joppa. It has well been styled “the Peru of Tyrian
adventure;” it abounded in gold and silver mines.
It appears that this name also is used without reference to any
locality. “Ships of Tarshish” is an expression sometimes
denoting simply ships intended for a long voyage (Isa. 23:1,
14), ships of a large size (sea-going ships), whatever might be
the port to which they sailed. Solomon’s ships were so styled (1
Kings 10:22; 22:49).
The chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth
and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay,
excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as
“no mean city.” It was the native place of the Apostle Paul
(Acts 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about
12 miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been
founded by Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. It is now a filthy,
ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous. (See PAUL.)
Prince of darkness, one of the gods of the Arvites, who
colonized part of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by
Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:31).
An Assyrian word, meaning “the commander-in-chief.” (1.) One of
Sennacherib’s messengers to Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:17). (2.) One
of Sargon’s generals (Isa. 20:1).
Gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., “satrap;” modern
“pasha”) “on this side the river”, i.e., of the whole tract on
the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title pehah is given to
governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (5:14)
and to Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1). It is sometimes translated
“captain” (1 Kings 20:24; Dan. 3:2, 3), sometimes also “deputy”
(Esther 8:9; 9:3). With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of
the temple (Ezra 5:6); but at the command of Darius, he assisted
the Jews (6:1-13).
Taverns, The three
A place on the great “Appian Way,” about 11 miles from Rome,
designed for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates.
Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman
Christians (Acts 28:15). The “Tres Tabernae was the first mansio
or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the
last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into
the Via Appia, that from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and
that from Antium; so necessarily here would be a halting-place,
which took its name from the three shops there, the general
store, the blacksmith’s, and the refreshment-house…Tres
Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly
means three shops” (Forbes’s Footsteps of St. Paul, p. 20).
First mentioned in the command (Ex. 30:11-16) that every Jew
from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of “half a
shekel for an offering to the Lord.” This enactment was
faithfully observed for many generations (2 Chr. 24:6; Matt.
Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they
began, as Samuel had warned them (1 Sam. 8:10-18), to pay taxes
for civil purposes (1 Kings 4:7; 9:15; 12:4). Such taxes, in
increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes
that ruled over them.
In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful
rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13, 14).
Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers
(Matt. 17:25); the annual tax (phoros) on property (Luke 20:22;
23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, “tribute,” Matt. 17:25; 22:17; Mark
12:14); and the temple-tax (“tribute money” = two drachmas =
half shekel, Matt. 17:24-27; comp. Ex. 30:13). (See
(Luke 2:2; R.V., “enrolment”), “when Cyrenius was governor of
Syria,” is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of
them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment
was the occasion of Joseph and Mary’s going up to Bethlehem. It
has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of
Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord’s birth and some
years afterwards. This decree for the taxing referred to the
whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone. (See CENSUS.)
(Esther 2:16), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the
cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the
tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, “rain.”
(an old name for the lime-tree, the tilia), Isa. 6:13, the
terebinth, or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus of
botanists. The Hebrew word here used (elah) is rendered oak
(q.v.) in Gen. 35:4; Judg. 6:11, 19; Isa. 1:29, etc. In Isa.
61:3 it is rendered in the plural “trees;” Hos. 4:13, “elm”
(R.V., “terebinth”). Hos. 4:13, “elm” (R.V., “terebinth”). In 1
Sam. 17:2, 19 it is taken as a proper name, “Elah” (R.V. marg.,
“The terebinth of Mamre, or its lineal successor, remained from
the days of Abraham till the fourth century of the Christian
era, and on its site Constantine erected a Christian church, the
ruins of which still remain.”
This tree “is seldom seen in clumps or groves, never in forests,
but stands isolated and weird-like in some bare ravine or on a
hill-side where nothing else towers above the low brushwood”
Weighed (Dan. 5:27).
Pitching of tents; fastening down, a town of Judah, about 12
miles south of Jerusalem, and visible from the city. From this
place Joab procured a “wise woman,” who pretended to be in great
affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. Her
address to the king was in the form of an apologue, similar to
that of Nathan (2 Sam. 12:1-6). The object of Joab was, by the
intervention of this woman, to induce David to bring back
Absalom to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 14:2, 4, 9).
This was also the birth-place of the prophet Amos (1:1).
It is now the village of Teku’a, on the top of a hill among
ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem
Hill of corn, a place on the river Chebar, the residence of
Ezekiel (Ezek. 3:15). The site is unknown.
Young lambs, a place at which Saul gathered his army to fight
against Amalek (1 Sam. 15:4); probably the same as Telem (2).
Or Thelasar, (Isa. 37:12; 2 Kings 19:12), a province in the
south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia. Some have
identified it with Tel Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30
miles from Sinjar.
Oppression. (1.) A porter of the temple in the time of Ezra
(2.) A town in the southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:24);
probably the same as Telaim.
Hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive
Jews returned to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61).
Hill of salt, a place in Babylon from which the Jews returned
South; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe
so called (Gen. 25:15; 1 Chr. 1:30; Job 6:19; Isa. 21:14; Jer.
25:23) which settled at a place to which he gave his name, some
250 miles south-east of Edom, on the route between Damascus and
Mecca, in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula, toward the
Syrian desert; the modern Teyma’.
Id. (1.) A grandson of Esau, one of the “dukes of Edom” (Gen.
36:11, 15, 42).
(2.) A place in Southern Idumea, the land of “the sons of the
east,” frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted
for the wisdom of its inhabitants (Amos 1:12; Obad. 1:8; Jer.
49:7; Ezek. 25:13). It was divided from the hills of Paran by
the low plain of Arabah (Hab. 3:3).
A man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job’s three
friends (Job 2:11; 22:1).
One of the sons of Ashur, the father of Tekoa (1 Chr. 4:6).
First used of the tabernacle, which is called “the temple of the
Lord” (1 Sam. 1:9). In the New Testament the word is used
figuratively of Christ’s human body (John 2:19, 21). Believers
are called “the temple of God” (1 Cor. 3:16, 17). The Church is
designated “an holy temple in the Lord” (Eph. 2:21). Heaven is
also called a temple (Rev. 7:5). We read also of the heathen
“temple of the great goddess Diana” (Acts 19:27).
This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house
erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It
is called “the temple” (1 Kings 6:17); “the temple [R.V.,
‘house’] of the Lord” (2 Kings 11:10); “thy holy temple” (Ps.
79:1); “the house of the Lord” (2 Chr. 23:5, 12); “the house of
the God of Jacob” (Isa. 2:3); “the house of my glory” (60:7); an
“house of prayer” (56:7; Matt. 21:13); “an house of sacrifice”
(2 Chr. 7:12); “the house of their sanctuary” (2 Chr. 36:17);
“the mountain of the Lord’s house” (Isa. 2:2); “our holy and our
beautiful house” (64:11); “the holy mount” (27:13); “the palace
for the Lord God” (1 Chr. 29:1); “the tabernacle of witness” (2
Chr. 24:6); “Zion” (Ps. 74:2; 84:7). Christ calls it “my
Father’s house” (John 2:16).
The temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon
had stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great
became king of Judea. The building had suffered considerably
from natural decay as well as from the assaults of hostile
armies, and Herod, desirous of gaining the favour of the Jews,
proposed to rebuild it. This offer was accepted, and the work
was begun (B.C. 18), and carried out at great labour and
expense, and on a scale of surpassing splendour. The main part
of the building was completed in ten years, but the erection of
the outer courts and the embellishment of the whole were carried
on during the entire period of our Lord’s life on earth (John
2:16, 19-21), and the temple was completed only A.D. 65. But it
was not long permitted to exist. Within forty years after our
Lord’s crucifixion, his prediction of its overthrow was
accomplished (Luke 19: 41-44). The Roman legions took the city
of Jerusalem by storm, and notwithstanding the strenuous efforts
Titus made to preserve the temple, his soldiers set fire to it
in several places, and it was utterly destroyed (A.D. 70), and
was never rebuilt.
Several remains of Herod’s stately temple have by recent
explorations been brought to light. It had two courts, one
intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer
court, called “the court of the Gentiles,” intended for the use
of strangers of all nations. These two courts were separated by
a low wall, as Josephus states, some 4 1/2 feet high, with
thirteen openings. Along the top of this dividing wall, at
regular intervals, were placed pillars bearing in Greek an
inscription to the effect that no stranger was, on the pain of
death, to pass from the court of the Gentiles into that of the
Jews. At the entrance to a graveyard at the north-western angle
of the Haram wall, a stone was discovered by M. Ganneau in 1871,
built into the wall, bearing the following inscription in Greek
capitals: “No stranger is to enter within the partition wall and
enclosure around the sanctuary. Whoever is caught will be
responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue.”
There can be no doubt that the stone thus discovered was one of
those originally placed on the boundary wall which separated the
Jews from the Gentiles, of which Josephus speaks.
It is of importance to notice that the word rendered “sanctuary”
in the inscription was used in a specific sense of the inner
court, the court of the Israelites, and is the word rendered
“temple” in John 2:15 and Acts 21:28, 29. When Paul speaks of
the middle wall of partition (Eph. 2:14), he probably makes
allusion to this dividing wall. Within this partition wall stood
the temple proper, consisting of, (1) the court of the women, 8
feet higher than the outer court; (2) 10 feet higher than this
court was the court of Israel; (3) the court of the priests,
again 3 feet higher; and lastly (4) the temple floor, 8 feet
above that; thus in all 29 feet above the level of the outer
The summit of Mount Moriah, on which the temple stood, is now
occupied by the Haram esh-Sherif, i.e., “the sacred enclosure.”
This enclosure is about 1,500 feet from north to south, with a
breadth of about 1,000 feet, covering in all a space of about 35
acres. About the centre of the enclosure is a raised platform,
16 feet above the surrounding space, and paved with large stone
slabs, on which stands the Mohammedan mosque called Kubbet
es-Sahkra i.e., the “Dome of the Rock,” or the Mosque of Omar.
This mosque covers the site of Solomon’s temple. In the centre
of the dome there is a bare, projecting rock, the highest part
of Moriah (q.v.), measuring 60 feet by 40, standing 6 feet above
the floor of the mosque, called the sahkra, i.e., “rock.” Over
this rock the altar of burnt-offerings stood. It was the
threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The exact position on
this “sacred enclosure” which the temple occupied has not been
yet definitely ascertained. Some affirm that Herod’s temple
covered the site of Solomon’s temple and palace, and in addition
enclosed a square of 300 feet at the south-western angle. The
temple courts thus are supposed to have occupied the southern
portion of the “enclosure,” forming in all a square of more than
900 feet. It is argued by others that Herod’s temple occupied a
square of 600 feet at the south-west of the “enclosure.”
Before his death David had “with all his might” provided
materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on
the summit of Mount Moriah (1 Chr. 22:14; 29:4; 2 Chr. 3:1), on
the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up
Isaac (Gen. 22:1-14). In the beginning of his reign Solomon set
about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly
cherished by his father, and prepared additional materials for
the building. From subterranean quarries at Jerusalem he
obtained huge blocks of stone for the foundations and walls of
the temple. These stones were prepared for their places in the
building under the eye of Tyrian master-builders. He also
entered into a compact with Hiram II., king of Tyre, for the
supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly
timber from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great
rafts by the sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem (1
Kings 5). As the hill on which the temple was to be built did
not afford sufficient level space, a huge wall of solid masonry
of great height, in some places more than 200 feet high, was
raised across the south of the hill, and a similar wall on the
eastern side, and in the spaces between were erected many arches
and pillars, thus raising up the general surface to the required
level. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for
the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which
water was conveyed by channels from the “pools” near Bethlehem.
One of these cisterns, the “great sea,” was capable of
containing three millions of gallons. The overflow was led off
by a conduit to the Kidron.
In all these preparatory undertakings a space of about three
years was occupied; and now the process of the erection of the
great building began, under the direction of skilled Phoenician
builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign, 480
years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6; 2 Chr. 3). Many thousands of
labourers and skilled artisans were employed in the work. Stones
prepared in the quarries underneath the city (1 Kings 5:17, 18)
of huge dimension (see QUARRIES) were gradually placed on
the massive walls, and closely fitted together without any
mortar between, till the whole structure was completed. No sound
of hammer or axe or any tool of iron was heard as the structure
arose (6:7). “Like some tall palm the noiseless fabric sprang.”
The building was 60 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and 30 cubits
high. The engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in their
explorations around the temple area, discovered what is believed
to have been the “chief corner stone” of the temple, “the most
interesting stone in the world.” It lies at the bottom of the
south-eastern angle, and is 3 feet 8 inches high by 14 feet
long. It rests on the solid rock at a depth of 79 feet 3 inches
below the present surface. (See PINNACLE.) In examining the
walls the engineers were “struck with admiration at the vastness
of the blocks and the general excellence of the workmanship.”
At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his reign,
seven and a half years after it had been begun, the temple was
completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. For
thirteen years there it stood, on the summit of Moriah, silent
and unused. The reasons for this strange delay in its
consecration are unknown. At the close of these thirteen years
preparations for the dedication of the temple were made on a
scale of the greatest magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought
from the tent in which David had deposited it to the place
prepared for it in the temple, and the glory-cloud, the symbol
of the divine presence, filled the house. Then Solomon ascended
a platform which had been erected for him, in the sight of all
the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured out his
heart to God in prayer (1 Kings 8; 2 Chr. 6, 7). The feast of
dedication, which lasted seven days, followed by the feast of
tabernacles, marked a new era in the history of Israel. On the
eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the
vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes
filled with joy and gladness, “Had Solomon done no other service
beyond the building of the temple, he would still have
influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest
days. It was to them a perpetual reminder and visible symbol of
God’s presence and protection, a strong bulwark of all the
sacred traditions of the law, a witness to duty, an impulse to
historic study, an inspiration of sacred song.”
The temple consisted of, (1.) The oracle or most holy place (1
Kings 6:19; 8:6), called also the “inner house” (6:27), and the
“holiest of all” (Heb. 9:3). It was 20 cubits in length,
breadth, and height. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar
(1 Kings 6:16), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold
(6:20, 21, 30). There was a two-leaved door between it and the
holy place overlaid with gold (2 Chr. 4:22); also a veil of blue
purple and crimson and fine linen (2 Chr. 3:14; comp. Ex.
26:33). It had no windows (1 Kings 8:12). It was indeed the
dwelling-place of God. (2.) The holy place (q.v.), 1 Kings
8:8-10, called also the “greater house” (2 Chr. 3:5) and the
“temple” (1 Kings 6:17). (3.) The porch or entrance before the
temple on the east (1 Kings 6:3; 2 Chr. 3:4; 29:7). In the porch
stood the two pillars Jachin and Boaz (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings
11:14; 23:3). (4.) The chambers, which were built about the
temple on the southern, western, and northern sides (1 Kings
6:5-10). These formed a part of the building.
Round about the building were, (1.) The court of the priests (2
Chr. 4:9), called the “inner court” (1 Kings 6:36). It contained
the altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the brazen sea
(4:2-5, 10), and ten lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). (2.) The great
court, which surrounded the whole temple (2 Chr. 4:9). Here the
people assembled to worship God (Jer. 19:14; 26:2).
This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during
the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25, 26; (2) 2 Kings
14:14; (3) 2 Kings 16:8, 17, 18; (4) 2 Kings 18:15, 16. At last
it was pillaged and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:13;
2 Chr. 36:7). He burned the temple, and carried all its
treasures with him to Babylon (2 Kings 25:9-17; 2 Chr. 36:19;
Isa. 64:11). These sacred vessels were at length, at the close
of the Captivity, restored to the Jews by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11).
Temple, the Second
After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the
high priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to
reorganize the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims,
forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed
the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks
of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their
proceeding by a strong religious impulse, and therefore one of
their first cares was to restore their ancient worship by
rebuilding the temple. On the invitation of Zerubbabel, the
governor, who showed them a remarkable example of liberality by
contributing personally 1,000 golden darics (probably about
$6,000), besides other gifts, the people with great enthusiasm
poured their gifts into the sacred treasury (Ezra 2). First they
erected and dedicated the altar of Jehovah on the exact spot
where it had formerly stood, and they then cleared away the
charred heaps of debris which occupied the site of the old
temple; and in the second month of the second year (B.C. 535),
amid great public excitement and rejoicing (Ps. 116; 117; 118),
the foundations of the second temple were laid. A wide interest
was felt in this great movement, although it was regarded with
mingled feelings by the spectators (Hag. 2:3; Zech. 4:10). The
Samaritans made proposals for a co-operation in the work.
Zerubbabel and Jeshua and the elders, however, declined all such
cooperation: Judah must build the temple without help.
Immediately evil reports were spread regarding the Jews. The
Samaritans sought to “frustrate their purpose” (Ezra 4:5), and
sent messengers to Ecbatana and Susa, with the result that the
work was suspended. Seven years after this Cyrus died
ingloriously, having killed himself in Syria when on his way
back from Egypt to the east, and was succeeded by his son
Cambyses (B.C. 529-522), on whose death the “false Smerdis,” an
imposter, occupied the throne for some seven or eight months,
and then Darius Hystaspes became king (B.C. 522). In the second
year of this monarch the work of rebuilding the temple was
resumed and carried forward to its completion (Ezra 5: 6-17;
6:1-15), under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and
admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready
for consecration in the spring of B.C. 516, twenty years after
the return from captivity.
This second temple had not the ark, the Urim and Thummim, the
holy oil, the sacred fire, the tables of stone, the pot of
manna, and Aaron’s rod. As in the tabernacle, there was in it
only one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread,
and the incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the
vessels of gold that had belonged to Solomon’s temple that had
been carried to Babylon but restored by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11).
This second temple also differed from the first in that, while
in the latter there were numerous “trees planted in the courts
of the Lord,” there were none in the former. The second temple
also had for the first time a space, being a part of the outer
court, provided for proselytes who were worshippers of Jehovah,
although not subject to the laws of Judaism.
The temple, when completed, was consecrated amid great
rejoicings on the part of all the people (Ezra 6:16), although
there were not wanting outward evidences that the Jews were no
longer an independent people, but were subject to a foreign
Hag. 2:9 is rightly rendered in the Revised Version, “The latter
glory of this house shall be greater than the former,” instead
of, “The glory of this latter house,” etc., in the Authorized
Version. The temple, during the different periods of its
existence, is regarded as but one house, the one only house of
God (comp. 2:3). The glory here predicted is spiritual glory and
not material splendour. “Christ himself, present bodily in the
temple on Mount Zion during his life on earth, present
spiritually in the Church now, present in the holy city, the
heavenly Jerusalem, of which he is the temple, calling forth
spiritual worship and devotion is the glory here predicted”
(1.) Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God “tempted [Gen. 22:
1; R.V., did prove’] Abraham;” and afflictions are said to
tempt, i.e., to try, men (James 1:2, 12; comp. Deut. 8:2),
putting their faith and patience to the test. (2.) Ordinarily,
however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and
hence Satan is called “the tempter” (Matt. 4:3). Our Lord was in
this way tempted in the wilderness. That temptation was not
internal, but by a real, active, subtle being. It was not
self-sought. It was submitted to as an act of obedience on his
part. “Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore him
a certain violence is implied in the words” (Matt. 4:1-11).
The scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed to
have been the mountain of Quarantania (q.v.), “a high and
precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain
west of Jordan, near Jericho.”
Temptation is common to all (Dan. 12:10; Zech. 13:9; Ps. 66:10;
Luke 22:31, 40; Heb. 11:17; James 1:12; 1 Pet. 1:7; 4:12). We
read of the temptation of Joseph (Gen. 39), of David (2 Sam. 24;
1 Chr. 21), of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:31), of Daniel (Dan. 6), etc.
So long as we are in this world we are exposed to temptations,
and need ever to be on our watch against them.
(1.) Heb. ohel (Gen. 9:21, 27). This word is used also of a
dwelling or habitation (1 Kings 8:66; Isa. 16:5; Jer. 4:20), and
of the temple (Ezek. 41:1). When used of the tabernacle, as in 1
Kings 1:39, it denotes the covering of goat’s hair which was
placed over the mishcan.
(2.) Heb. mishcan (Cant. 1:8), used also of a dwelling (Job
18:21; Ps. 87:2), the grave (Isa. 22:16; comp. 14:18), the
temple (Ps. 46:4; 84:2; 132:5), and of the tabernacle (Ex. 25:9;
26:1; 40:9; Num. 1:50, 53; 10:11). When distinguished from
‘ohel, it denotes the twelve interior curtains which lay upon
the framework of the tabernacle (q.v.).
(3.) Heb. kubbah (Num. 25:8), a dome-like tent devoted to the
impure worship of Baal-peor.
(4.) Heb. succah (2 Sam. 11:11), a tent or booth made of green
boughs or branches (see Gen. 33:17; Lev. 23:34, 42; Ps. 18:11;
Jonah 4:5; Isa. 4:6; Neh. 8:15-17, where the word is variously
Jubal was “the father of such as dwell in tents” (Gen. 4:20).
The patriarchs were “dwellers in tents” (Gen. 9:21, 27; 12:8;
13:12; 26:17); and during their wilderness wanderings all Israel
dwelt in tents (Ex. 16:16; Deut. 33:18; Josh. 7:24). Tents have
always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life (1 Sam. 17:54;
2 Kings 7:7; Ps. 120:5; Cant. 1:5). Paul the apostle’s
occupation was that of a tent-maker (Acts 18:3); i.e., perhaps a
maker of tent cloth.
I.e., the tenth part of an ephah (as in the R.V.), equal to an
omer or six pints. The recovered leper, to complete his
purification, was required to bring a trespass, a sin, and a
burnt offering, and to present a meal offering, a tenth deal or
an omer of flour for each, with oil to make it into bread or
cakes (Lev. 14:10, 21; comp. Ex. 16:36; 29:40).
The wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with
his family from his native mountains in the north to the plains
of Mesopotamia. He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham,
and one daughter, Sarah. He settled in “Ur of the Chaldees,”
where his son Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Nahor
settled at Haran, a place on the way to Ur. Terah afterwards
migrated with Abraham (probably his youngest son) and Lot (his
grandson), together with their families, from Ur, intending to
go with them to Canaan; but he tarried at Haran, where he spent
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of two hundred
and five years (Gen. 11:24-32; Josh. 24:2). What a wonderful
part the descendants of this Chaldean shepherd have played in
the history of the world!
Givers of prosperity, idols in human shape, large or small,
analogous to the images of ancestors which were revered by the
Romans. In order to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize
David, Michal his wife prepared one of the household teraphim,
putting on it the goat’s-hair cap worn by sleepers and invalids,
and laid it in a bed, covering it with a mantle. She pointed it
out to the soldiers, and alleged that David was confined to his
bed by a sudden illness (1 Sam. 19:13-16). Thus she gained time
for David’s escape. It seems strange to read of teraphim, images
of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes, being in the
house of David. Probably they had been stealthily brought by
Michal from her father’s house. “Perhaps,” says Bishop
Wordsworth, “Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil
spirit, had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to
witchcraft); and God overruled evil for good, and made his very
teraphim (by the hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument
for David’s escape.”, Deane’s David, p. 32. Josiah attempted to
suppress this form of idolatry (2 Kings 23:24). The ephod and
teraphim are mentioned together in Hos. 3:4. It has been
supposed by some (Cheyne’s Hosea) that the “ephod” here
mentioned, and also in Judg. 8:24-27, was not the part of the
sacerdotal dress so called (Ex. 28:6-14), but an image of
Jehovah overlaid with gold or silver (comp. Judg. 17, 18; 1 Sam.
21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7, 8), and is thus associated with the
teraphim. (See THUMMIM.)
(R.V. marg. of Deut. 11:30, etc.), the Pistacia terebinthus of
botanists; a tree very common in the south and east of
Palestine. (See OAK.)
Severe, a eunuch or chamberlain in the palace of Ahasuerus, who
conspired with another to murder him. The plot was detected by
Mordecai, and the conspirators were put to death (Esther 2:21;
The third, a Roman Christian whom Paul employed as his
amanuensis in writing his epistle to the Romans (16:22).
A modification of “Tertius;” a Roman advocate, whom the Jews
employed to state their case against Paul in the presence of
Felix (Acts 24:1-9). The charges he adduced against the apostle
were, “First, that he created disturbances among the Romans
throughout the empire, an offence against the Roman government
(crimen majestatis). Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the
sect of the Nazarenes; disturbed the Jews in the exercise of
their religion, guaranteed by the state; introduced new gods, a
thing prohibited by the Romans. And thirdly, that he attempted
to profane the temple, a crime which the Jews were permitted to
Occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Heb. 9:15, etc.) as
the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times
rendered “covenant” in the Authorized Version, and always so in
the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by
testamentum, whence the names “Old” and “New Testament,” by
which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is
divided. (See BIBLE.)
(1.) Witness or evidence (2 Thess. 1:10).
(2.) The Scriptures, as the revelation of God’s will (2 Kings
11:12; Ps. 19:7; 119:88; Isa. 8:16, 20).
(3.) The altar raised by the Gadites and Reubenites (Josh.
Testimony, Tabernacle of
The tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained
“the testimony”, i.e., the “two tables” (Ex. 38:21). The ark in
which these tables were deposited was called the “ark of the
testimony” (40:3), and also simply the “testimony” (27:21;
Strictly the ruler over the fourth part of a province; but the
word denotes a ruler of a province generally (Matt. 14:1; Luke
3:1, 19; 9:7; Acts 13:1). Herod and Phasael, the sons of
Antipater, were the first tetrarchs in Palestine. Herod the
tetrarch had the title of king (Matt. 14:9).
Breast, the name of one of the apostles (Mark 3:18), called
“Lebbaeus” in Matt. 10:3, and in Luke 6:16, “Judas the brother
of James;” while John (14:22), probably referring to the same
person, speaks of “Judas, not Iscariot.” These different names
all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author
of the epistle.
A badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham’s brother (Gen. 22:24).
(1 Kings 10:22; 22:48). See TARSHISH.
Only mentioned in Acts 19:29, 31. The ruins of this theatre at
Ephesus still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent
structure, capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was
the largest structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres,
as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews.
Brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the
road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army
against this place, because of its participation in the
conspiracy of the men of Shechem; but as he drew near to the
strong tower to which its inhabitants had fled for safety, and
was about to set fire to it, a woman cast a fragment of
millstone at him, and “all to brake his skull” i.e., “altogether
brake,” etc. His armourbearer thereupon “thrust him through, and
he died” (Judg. 9:50-55).
Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in 2
Sam. 12:6. If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be
sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay (Ex. 22:1-4). A
night-thief might be smitten till he died, and there would be no
blood-guiltiness for him (22:2). A man-stealer was to be put to
death (21:16). All theft is forbidden (Ex. 20:15; 21:16; Lev.
19:11; Deut. 5:19; 24:7; Ps. 50:18; Zech. 5:3; Matt. 19:18; Rom.
13:9; Eph. 4:28; 1 Pet. 4:15).
A word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under
the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all
things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the
people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public
and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the
medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly,
not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah’s own subjects, ruled
directly by him (comp. 1 Sam. 8:6-9).
Lover of God, a Christian, probably a Roman, to whom Luke
dedicated both his Gospel (Luke 1:3) and the Acts of the
Apostles (1:1). Nothing beyond this is known of him. From the
fact that Luke applies to him the title “most excellent”, the
same title Paul uses in addressing Felix (Acts 23:26; 24:3) and
Festus (26:25), it has been concluded that Theophilus was a
person of rank, perhaps a Roman officer.
Thessalonians, Epistles to the
The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all
Paul’s epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth,
where he abode a “long time” (Acts 18:11, 18), early in the
period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52.
The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus
from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the
state of the church there (Acts 18:1-5; 1 Thess. 3:6). While, on
the whole, the report of Timothy was encouraging, it also showed
that divers errors and misunderstandings regarding the tenor of
Paul’s teaching had crept in amongst them. He addresses them in
this letter with the view of correcting these errors, and
especially for the purpose of exhorting them to purity of life,
reminding them that their sanctification was the great end
desired by God regarding them.
The subscription erroneously states that this epistle was
written from Athens.
The second epistle to the Thessalonians was probably also
written from Corinth, and not many months after the first.
The occasion of the writing of this epistle was the arrival of
tidings that the tenor of the first epistle had been
misunderstood, especially with reference to the second advent of
Christ. The Thessalonians had embraced the idea that Paul had
taught that “the day of Christ was at hand”, that Christ’s
coming was just about to happen. This error is corrected
(2:1-12), and the apostle prophetically announces what first
must take place. “The apostasy” was first to arise. Various
explanations of this expression have been given, but that which
is most satisfactory refers it to the Church of Rome.
A large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the
capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was
ruled by a praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of
Cassander, who built the city. She was so called by her father,
Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his
gaining a victory over the Thessalians. On his second missionary
journey, Paul preached in the synagogue here, the chief
synagogue of the Jews in that part of Macedonia, and laid the
foundations of a church (Acts 17:1-4; 1 Thes. 1:9). The violence
of the Jews drove him from the city, when he fled to Berea (Acts
17:5-10). The “rulers of the city” before whom the Jews “drew
Jason,” with whom Paul and Silas lodged, are in the original
called politarchai, an unusual word, which was found, however,
inscribed on an arch in Thessalonica. This discovery confirms
the accuracy of the historian. Paul visited the church here on a
subsequent occasion (20:1-3). This city long retained its
importance. It is the most important town of European Turkey,
under the name of Saloniki, with a mixed population of about
Thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the
council at Jerusalem (Acts 5:36). He headed an insurrection
against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of
(Hab. 2:6) is correctly rendered in the Revised Version
“pledges.” The Chaldean power is here represented as a rapacious
usurer, accumulating the wealth that belonged to others.
Thieves, The two
(Luke 23:32, 39-43), robbers, rather brigands, probably
followers of Barabbas. Our Lord’s cross was placed between those
of the “malefactors,” to add to the ignominy of his position.
According to tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the
penitent thief hanging on the right, and Gestas of the
impenitent on the left.
(1.) Heb. hoah (2 Kings 14:9; Job 31:40). In Job 41:2 the Hebrew
word is rendered “thorn,” but in the Revised Version “hook.” It
is also rendered “thorn” in 2 Chr. 33:11; Prov. 26:9; Cant. 2:2;
“brambles” in Isa. 34:13. It is supposed to be a variety of the
wild plum-tree, but by some it is regarded as the common
thistle, of which there are many varieties in Palestine.
(2.) Heb. dardar, meaning “a plant growing luxuriantly” (Gen.
3:18; Hos. 10:8); Gr. tribolos, “a triple point” (Matt. 7:16;
Heb. 6:8, “brier,” R.V. “thistle”). This was probably the
star-thistle, called by botanists Centaurea calcitropa, or
“caltrops,” a weed common in corn-fields. (See THORNS.)
Twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, etc.). He was
also called Didymus (John 11:16; 20:24), which is the Greek
equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is
recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, 16; 14:4, 5; 20:24,
25, 26-29). From the circumstance that in the lists of the
apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the
son of Alphaeus (Mark 3:18), and that these two are always
followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been
supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were
(1.) Heb. hedek (Prov. 15:19), rendered “brier” in Micah 7:4.
Some thorny plant, of the Solanum family, suitable for hedges.
This is probably the so-called “apple of Sodom,” which grows
very abundantly in the Jordan valley. “It is a shrubby plant,
from 3 to 5 feet high, with very branching stems, thickly clad
with spines, like those of the English brier, with leaves very
large and woolly on the under side, and thorny on the midriff.”
(2.) Heb. kotz (Gen. 3:18; Hos. 10:8), rendered akantha by the
LXX. In the New Testament this word akantha is also rendered
“thorns” (Matt. 7:16; 13:7; Heb. 6:8). The word seems to denote
any thorny or prickly plant (Jer. 12:13). It has been identified
with the Ononis spinosa by some.
(3.) Heb. na’atzutz (Isa. 7:19; 55:13). This word has been
interpreted as denoting the Zizyphus spina Christi, or the
jujube-tree. It is supposed by some that the crown of thorns
placed in wanton cruelty by the Roman soldiers on our Saviour’s
brow before his crucifixion was plaited of branches of this
tree. It overruns a great part of the Jordan valley. It is
sometimes called the lotus-tree. “The thorns are long and sharp
and recurved, and often create a festering wound.” It often
grows to a great size. (See CROWN OF THORNS.)
(4.) Heb. atad (Ps. 58:9) is rendered in the LXX. and Vulgate by
Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common
all over Palestine. From its resemblance to the box it is
frequently called the box-thorn.
Thorn in the flesh
(2 Cor. 12:7-10). Many interpretations have been given of this
passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes
suggestions to impiety.
(2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the
expression as denoting temptation to unbelief.
(3.) Others suppose the expression refers to “a pain in the ear
or head,” epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe
physical infirmity, which was a hindrance to the apostle in his
work (comp. 1 Cor. 2:3; 2 Cor. 10:10; 11:30; Gal. 4:13, 14;
6:17). With a great amount of probability, it has been alleged
that his malady was defect of sight, consequent on the dazzling
light which shone around him at his conversion, acute opthalmia.
This would account for the statements in Gal. 4:14; 2 Cor.
10:10; also Acts 23:5, and for his generally making use of the
help of an amanuensis (comp. Rom. 16:22, etc.).
(4.) Another view which has been maintained is that this “thorn”
consisted in an infirmity of temper, to which he occasionally
gave way, and which interfered with his success (comp. Acts
15:39; 23:2-5). If we consider the fact, “which the experience
of God’s saints in all ages has conclusively established, of the
difficulty of subduing an infirmity of temper, as well as the
pain, remorse, and humiliation such an infirmity is wont to
cause to those who groan under it, we may be inclined to believe
that not the least probable hypothesis concerning the thorn’ or
stake’ in the flesh is that the loving heart of the apostle
bewailed as his sorest trial the misfortune that, by impatience
in word, he had often wounded those for whom he would willingly
have given his life” (Lias’s Second Cor., Introd.).
(Micah 5:2), another name for “families” or “clans” (see Num.
1:16; 10:4; Josh. 22:14, 21). Several “thousands” or “families”
made up a “tribe.”
(1.) Heb. miphtan, probably a projecting beam at a higher point
than the threshold proper (1 Sam. 5:4, 5; Ezek. 9:3; 10:4, 18;
46:2; 47:1); also rendered “door” and “door-post.”
(2.) Asuppim, pl. (Neh. 12:25), rendered correctly “storehouses”
in the Revised Version. In 1 Chr. 26:15, 17 the Authorized
Version retains the word as a proper name, while in the Revised
Version it is translated “storehouses.”
(Heb. kiss’e), a royal chair or seat of dignity (Deut. 17:18; 2
Sam. 7:13; Ps. 45:6); an elevated seat with a canopy and
hangings, which cover it. It denotes the seat of the high priest
in 1 Sam. 1:9; 4:13, and of a provincial governor in Neh. 3:7
and Ps. 122:5. The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1
Perfection (LXX., “truth;” Vulg., “veritas”), Ex. 28:30; Deut.
33:8; Judg. 1:1; 20:18; 1 Sam. 14:3, 18; 23:9; 2 Sam. 21:1. What
the “Urim and Thummim” were cannot be determined with any
certainty. All we certainly know is that they were a certain
divinely-given means by which God imparted, through the high
priest, direction and counsel to Israel when these were needed.
The method by which this was done can be only a matter of mere
conjecture. They were apparently material objects, quite
distinct from the breastplate, but something added to it after
all the stones had been set in it, something in addition to the
breastplate and its jewels. They may have been, as some suppose,
two small images, like the teraphim (comp. Judg. 17:5; 18:14,
17, 20; Hos. 3:4), which were kept in the bag of the
breastplate, by which, in some unknown way, the high priest
could give forth his divinely imparted decision when consulted.
They were probably lost at the destruction of the temple by
Nebuchadnezzar. They were never seen after the return from
Often referred to in Scripture (Job 40:9; Ps. 77:18; 104:7).
James and John were called by our Lord “sons of thunder” (Mark
3:17). In Job 39:19, instead of “thunder,” as in the Authorized
Version, the Revised Version translates (ra’amah) by “quivering
main” (marg., “shaking”). Thunder accompanied the giving of the
law at Sinai (Ex. 19:16). It was regarded as the voice of God
(Job 37:2; Ps. 18:13; 81:7; comp. John 12:29). In answer to
Samuel’s prayer (1 Sam. 12:17, 18), God sent thunder, and “all
the people greatly feared,” for at such a season (the
wheat-harvest) thunder and rain were almost unknown in
A city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its
modern name is Ak-hissar, i.e., “white castle.” Here was one of
the seven churches (Rev. 1:11; 2:18-28). Lydia, the seller of
purple, or rather of cloth dyed with this colour, was from this
city (Acts 16:14). It was and still is famous for its dyeing.
Among the ruins, inscriptions have been found relating to the
guild of dyers in that city in ancient times.
Mentioned only in Rev. 18:12 among the articles which would
cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus,
citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of
botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the
cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived
from the Greek word thuein, “to sacrifice,” and it was so called
because it was burnt in sacrifices, on account of its fragrance.
The wood of this tree was reckoned very valuable, and was used
for making articles of furniture by the Greeks and Romans. Like
the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of
A city, the modern Tubarich, on the western shore of the Sea of
Tiberias. It is said to have been founded by Herod Antipas (A.D.
16), on the site of the ruins of an older city called Rakkath,
and to have been thus named by him after the Emperor Tiberius.
It is mentioned only three times in the history of our Lord
(John 6:1, 23; 21:1).
In 1837 about one-half of the inhabitants perished by an
earthquake. The population of the city is now about six
thousand, nearly the one-half being Jews. “We do not read that
our Lord ever entered this city. The reason of this is probably
to be found in the fact that it was practically a heathen city,
though standing upon Jewish soil. Herod, its founder, had
brought together the arts of Greece, the idolatry of Rome, and
the gross lewdness of Asia. There were in it a theatre for the
performance of comedies, a forum, a stadium, a palace roofed
with gold in imitation of those in Italy, statues of the Roman
gods, and busts of the deified emperors. He who was not sent but
to the lost sheep of the house of Israel might well hold himself
aloof from such scenes as these” (Manning’s Those Holy Fields).
After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), Tiberias became one of
the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine. It was for more
than three hundred years their metropolis. From about A.D. 150
the Sanhedrin settled here, and established rabbinical schools,
which rose to great celebrity. Here the Jerusalem (or
Palestinian) Talmud was compiled about the beginning of the
fifth century. To this same rabbinical school also we are
indebted for the Masora, a “body of traditions which transmitted
the readings of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and
preserved, by means of the vowel-system, the pronunciation of
the Hebrew.” In its original form, and in all manuscripts, the
Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a
spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert
between the consonants. This is supplied by the Masora, and
hence these vowels are called the “Masoretic vowel-points.”
Tiberias, Sea of
Called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the
Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth.
John (21:1) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake.
His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote
after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the
taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become
an important city, having been spared by the Romans, and made
the capital of the province when Jerusalem was destroyed. It
thus naturally gave its name to the lake.
I.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only
mentioned in Luke 3:1. He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he
succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14. He was noted for his vicious
and infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the
Baptist entered on his public ministry, and under him also our
Lord taught and suffered. He died A.D. 37. He is frequently
referred to simply as “Caesar” (Matt. 22:17, 21; Mark 12:14, 16,
17; Luke 20:22, 24, 25; 23:2; John 19:12, 15).
Building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position,
whom a considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For
the period of four years he contended for the throne with Omri
(1 Kings 16:21, 22), who at length gained the mastery, and
became sole monarch of Israel.
(in the LXX. called “Thorgal”), styled the “king of nations”
(Gen. 14:1-9). Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch’s brick (see
facing page 139). Goyyim, translated “nations,” is the country
called Gutium, east of Tigris and north of Elam.
(not mentioned in Scripture) was the most famous of the monarchs
of the first Assyrian empire (about B.C. 1110). After his death,
for two hundred years the empire fell into decay. The history of
David and Solomon falls within this period. He was succeeded by
his son, Shalmaneser II.
Or Tilgath-Pil-neser, the Assyrian throne-name of Pul (q.v.). He
appears in the Assyrian records as gaining, in the fifth year of
his reign (about B.C. 741), a victory over Azariah (= Uzziah in
2 Chr. 26:1), king of Judah, whose achievements are described in
2 Chr. 26:6-15. He is first mentioned in Scripture, however, as
gaining a victory over Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin of
Damascus, who were confederates. He put Rezin to death, and
punished Pekah by taking a considerable portion of his kingdom,
and carrying off (B.C. 734) a vast number of its inhabitants
into captivity (2 Kings 15:29; 16:5-9; 1 Chr. 5:6, 26), the
Reubenites, the Gadites, and half the tribe of Manasseh whom he
settled in Gozan. In the Assyrian annals it is further related
that, before he returned from Syria, he held a court at
Damascus, and received submission and tribute from the
neighbouring kings, among whom were Pekah of Samaria and
“Yahu-khazi [i.e., Ahaz], king of Judah” (comp. 2 Kings
He was the founder of what is called “the second Assyrian
empire,” an empire meant to embrace the whole world, the centre
of which should be Nineveh. He died B.C. 728, and was succeeded
by a general of his army, Ulula, who assumed the name
Defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46).
(Heb. toph), a small drum or tambourine; a tabret (q.v.). The
antiquity of this musical instrument appears from the scriptural
allusions to it (Gen. 31:27; Ex. 15:20; Judg. 11:34, etc.) (See
A portion. (1.) A town of Judah (Josh. 15:10). The Philistines
took possession of it in the days of Ahaz (2 Chr. 28:18). It was
about 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It has been identified with
Timnatha of Dan (Josh. 19:43), and also with Timnath (Judg.
(2.) A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:57)= Tibna near
(3.) A “duke” or sheik of Edom (Gen. 36:40).
Gen. 38:12, 14. (1.) Heb. Timnathah, which is appropriately
rendered in the Revised Version, Timnah, a town in Judah.
(2.) The town where Samson sojourned, probably identical with
“Timnah” (1) (Judg. 14:1-18).
Portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried (Judg. 2:9). It was
“in the mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash,”
10 miles south-west of Shechem. The same as the following.
Remaining portion, the city of Joshua in the hill country of
Ephraim, the same as Timnath-heres (Josh. 19:50; 24:30). “Of all
sites I have seen,” says Lieut. Col. Conder, “none is so
striking as that of Joshua’s home, surrounded as it is with deep
valleys and wild, rugged hills.” Opposite the town is a hill, on
the northern side of which there are many excavated sepulchres.
Among these is the supposed tomb of Joshua, which is said to be
“the most striking monument in the country.” It is a “square
chamber with five excavations in three of its sides, the central
one forming a passage leading into a second chamber beyond. A
great number of lamp-niches cover the walls of the porch,
upwards of two hundred, arranged in vertical rows. A single
cavity with a niche for a lamp has been thought to be the
resting-place of the warrior-chief of Israel.” The modern Kefr
Haris, 10 miles south-west of Shechem.
A man of Timnah. Samson’s father-in-law is so styled (Judg.
Honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem (Acts 6:5).
Nothing further is known of him.
The Greek form of the name of Timothy (Acts 16:1, etc.; the R.V.
Honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul’s companion in many
of his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother,
Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety (2 Tim. 1:5). We
know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek (Acts 16:1).
He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul’s second
visit to Lystra (16:2), where he probably resided, and where it
seems he was converted during Paul’s first visit to that place
(1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:11). The apostle having formed a high
opinion of his “own son in the faith,” arranged that he should
become his companion (Acts 16:3), and took and circumcised him,
so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the
office of an evangelist (1 Tim. 4:14), and went with Paul in his
journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and
Philippi and Berea (Acts 17:14). Thence he followed Paul to
Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to
Thessalonica (17:15; 1 Thess. 3:2). We next find him at Corinth
(1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) with Paul. He passes now out of
sight for a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle
at Ephesus (Acts 19:22), whence he is sent on a mission into
Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia (20:4),
where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a
prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him (Phil. 1:1), where it
appears he also suffered imprisonment (Heb. 13:23). During the
apostle’s second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to
rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain
things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments (2
Tim. 4:13). According to tradition, after the apostle’s death he
settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a
Timothy, First Epistle to
Paul in this epistle speaks of himself as having left Ephesus
for Macedonia (1:3), and hence not Laodicea, as mentioned in the
subscription; but probably Philippi, or some other city in that
region, was the place where this epistle was written. During the
interval between his first and second imprisonments he probably
visited the scenes of his former labours in Greece and Asia, and
then found his way into Macedonia, whence he wrote this letter
to Timothy, whom he had left behind in Ephesus.
It was probably written about A.D. 66 or 67.
The epistle consists mainly, (1) of counsels to Timothy
regarding the worship and organization of the Church, and the
responsibilities resting on its several members; and (2) of
exhortation to faithfulness in maintaining the truth amid
Timothy, Second Epistle to
Was probably written a year or so after the first, and from
Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent
to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy
to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (comp.
Phil. 2:22). He was anticipating that “the time of his departure
was at hand” (2 Tim. 4:6), and he exhorts his “son Timothy” to
all diligence and steadfastness, and to patience under
persecution (1:6-15), and to a faithful discharge of all the
duties of his office (4:1-5), with all the solemnity of one who
was about to appear before the Judge of quick and dead.
Heb. bedil (Num. 31:22; Ezek. 22:18, 20), a metal well known in
ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of
Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British
Isles. In Ezek. 27:12 it is said to have been brought from
Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with
commodities from other places. In Isa. 1:25 the word so rendered
is generally understood of lead, the alloy with which the silver
had become mixed (ver. 22). The fire of the Babylonish Captivity
would be the means of purging out the idolatrous alloy that had
corrupted the people.
(Isa. 3:18), anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still
used by women in Syria and the East.
Passing over; ford, one of the boundaries of Solomon’s dominions
(1 Kings 4:24), probably “Thapsacus, a great and wealthy town on
the western bank of the Euphrates,” about 100 miles north-east
of Tadmor. All the land traffic between the east and the west
passed through it. Menahem undertook an expedition against this
city, and “smote Tiphsah and all that were therein” (2 Kings
15:16). This expedition implied a march of some 300 miles from
Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400 if by way of Aleppo;
and its success showed the strength of the Israelite kingdom,
for it was practically a defiance to Assyria. Conder, however,
identifies this place with Khurbet Tafsah, some 6 miles west of
The youngest of the sons of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5).
“To tire” the head is to adorn it (2 Kings 9:30). As a noun the
word is derived from “tiara,” and is the rendering of the Heb.
p’er, a “turban” or an ornament for the head (Ezek. 24:17; R.V.,
“headtire;” 24:23). In Isa. 3:18 the word saharonim is rendered
“round tires like the moon,” and in Judg. 8:21, 26 “ornaments,”
but in both cases “crescents” in the Revised Version.
The last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty.
He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the
throne about B.C. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia
(2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9), which with Egypt now formed one
nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him.
The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under
Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who
afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning
A word probably of Persian origin, meaning “severity,” denoting
a high civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called
(Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:65, 70). Nehemiah is called by this name in
Neh. 8:9; 10:1, and the “governor” (pehah) in 5:18. Probably,
therefore, tirshatha=pehah=the modern pasha.
Pleasantness. (1.) An old royal city of the Canaanites, which
was destroyed by Joshua (Josh. 12:24). Jeroboam chose it for his
residence, and he removed to it from Shechem, which at first he
made the capital of his kingdom. It remained the chief residence
of the kings of Israel till Omri took Samaria (1 Kings 14:17;
15:21; 16:6, 8, etc.). Here Zimri perished amid the flames of
the palace to which in his despair he had set fire (1 Kings
16:18), and here Menahem smote Shallum (2 Kings 15:14, 16).
Solomon refers to its beauty (Cant. 6:4). It has been identified
with the modern mud hamlet Teiasir, 11 miles north of Shechem.
Others, however, would identify it with Telluza, a village about
6 miles east of Samaria.
(2.) The youngest of Zelophehad’s five daughters (Num. 26:33;
Elijah the prophet was thus named (1 Kings 17:1; 21:17, 28,
etc.). In 1 Kings 17:1 the word rendered “inhabitants” is in the
original the same as that rendered “Tishbite,” hence that verse
may be read as in the LXX., “Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in
Gilead.” Some interpret this word as meaning “stranger,” and
read the verse, “Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in
Gilead.” This designation is probably given to the prophet as
denoting that his birthplace was Tishbi, a place in Upper
Galilee (mentioned in the apocryphal book of Tobit), from which
for some reason he migrated into Gilead. Josephus, the Jewish
historian (Ant. 8:13, 2), however, supposes that Tishbi was some
place in the land of Gilead. It has been identified by some with
el-Ishtib, a some place 22 miles due south of the Sea of
Galilee, among the mountains of Gilead.
The first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the
ecclesiastical year. See ETHANIM (1 Kings 8:2). Called in
the Assyrian inscriptions Tasaritu, i.e. “beginning.”
A tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart
for special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was
recognized as a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid
tithes to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:20; Heb. 7:6); and Jacob vowed
unto the Lord and said, “Of all that thou shalt give me I will
surely give the tenth unto thee.”
The first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Lev.
27:30-32. Subsequent legislation regulated the destination of
the tithes (Num. 18:21-24, 26-28; Deut. 12:5, 6, 11, 17; 14:22,
23). The paying of the tithes was an important part of the
Jewish religious worship. In the days of Hezekiah one of the
first results of the reformation of religion was the eagerness
with which the people brought in their tithes (2 Chr. 31:5, 6).
The neglect of this duty was sternly rebuked by the prophets
(Amos 4:4; Mal. 3:8-10). It cannot be affirmed that the Old
Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church,
nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is
incorporated in the gospel (1 Cor. 9:13, 14); and if, as is the
case, the motive that ought to prompt to liberality in the cause
of religion and of the service of God be greater now than in Old
Testament times, then Christians outght to go beyond the ancient
Hebrew in consecrating both themselves and their substance to
Every Jew was required by the Levitical law to pay three tithes
of his property (1) one tithe for the Levites; (2) one for the
use of the temple and the great feasts; and (3) one for the poor
of the land.
A point, (Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17), the minute point or stroke
added to some letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them
from others which they resemble; hence, the very least point.
Honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and
accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1-3; Acts
15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the
Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been
chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly
refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the
cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later
period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by
Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of
the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent
forward (2 Cor. 8:6; 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was
in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from
Corinth (7:6-15). After this his name is not mentioned till
after Paul’s first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the
organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left
him for this purpose (Titus 1:5). The last notice of him is in 2
Tim. 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second
imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on
some important missionary errand. We have no record of his
death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.
Titus, Epistle to
Was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to
Timothy, with which it has many affinities. “Both letters were
addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their
respective churches during his absence. Both letters are
principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be
sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the
church; and the ingredients of this description are in both
letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise
cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in
particular against the same misdirection of their cares and
studies. This affinity obtains not only in the subject of the
letters, which from the similarity of situation in the persons
to whom they were addressed might be expected to be somewhat
alike, but extends in a great variety of instances to the
phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with
the same salutation, and passes on to the business of his letter
by the same transition (comp. 1 Tim. 1:2, 3 with Titus 1:4, 5; 1
Tim. 1:4 with Titus 1:13, 14; 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12 with Titus 2:7,
15).”, Paley’s Horae Paulinae.
The date of its composition may be concluded from the
circumstance that it was written after Paul’s visit to Crete
(Titus 1:5). That visit could not be the one referred to in Acts
27:7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and
where he continued a prisoner for two years. We may warrantably
suppose that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia
and took Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus “to set
in order the things that were wanting.” Thence he went to
Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia,
where he wrote First Timothy, and thence to Nicopolis in Epirus,
from which place he wrote to Titus, about A.D. 66 or 67.
In the subscription to the epistle it is said to have been
written from “Nicopolis of Macedonia,” but no such place is
known. The subscriptions to the epistles are of no authority, as
they are not authentic.
Good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to
instruct the people of Judah in the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
Pleasing to Jehovah, the “servant,” the “Ammonite,” who joined
with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the
Exile (Neh. 2:10). He was a man of great influence, which he
exerted in opposition to the Jews, and “sent letters” to
Nehemiah “to put him in fear” (Neh. 6:17-19). “Eliashib the
priest” prepared for him during Nehemiah’s absence “a chamber in
the courts of the house of God,” which on his return grieved
Nehemiah sore, and therefore he “cast forth all the household
stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber” (13:7, 8).
Id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the
people (2 Chr. 17:8).
Tob, The land of
A district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of
the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren
(Judg. 11:3, 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea,
between Syria and the land of Ammon (2 Sam. 10:6, 8). Its modern
name is Taiyibeh.
Measured, a town of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:32).
(1.) A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. 10:3).
(2.) A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of
Tyre (Ezek. 27:14; 38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian
race; descendants of (1).
One of Samuel’s ancestors (1 Sam. 1:1).
A king of Hamath, who sent “Joram his son unto King David to
salute him,” when he “heard that David had smitten all the host
of Hadadezer” (2 Sam. 8:9, 10). Called Tou (1 Chr. 18:9, 10).
A scarlet worm. (1.) Eldest son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13).
(2.) A judge of the tribe of Issachar who “judged” Israel
twenty-three years (Judg. 10:1, 2), when he died, and was buried
in Shamir. He was succeeded by Jair.
Productive, a town of Simeon, in the south of Judah (1 Chr.
Descendants of Tola (Num. 26:23; 1 Chr. 7:1, 2).
One of the branches of the king of Persia’s revenues (Ezra 4:13;
7:24), probably a tax levied from those who used the bridges and
fords and highways.
Of the Hebrews were generally excavated in the solid rock, or
were natural caves. Mention is made of such tombs in Judg. 8:32;
2 Sam. 2:32; 2 Kings 9:28; 23:30. They were sometimes made in
gardens (2 Kings 21:26; 23:16; Matt. 27:60). They are found in
great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the land.
They were sometimes whitewashed (Matt. 23:27, 29). The body of
Jesus was laid in Joseph’s new rock-hewn tomb, in a garden near
to Calvary. All evidence is in favour of the opinion that this
tomb was somewhere near the Damascus gate, and outside the city,
and cannot be identified with the so-called “holy sepulchre.”
The mouth of such rocky tombs was usually closed by a large
stone (Heb. golal), which could only be removed by the united
efforts of several men (Matt. 28:2; comp. John 11:39). (See
Tongues, Confusion of
At Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their
division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to
prevent their dispersion; but God “confounded their language”
(Gen. 11:1-8), and they were scattered over the whole earth.
Till this time “the whole earth was of one language and of one
speech.” (See SHINAR.)
Tongues, Gift of
Granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment of a
promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). What this
gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some
have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence
of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold
gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all
nations. But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9) clearly show that the
various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really
hear themselves addressed in their own special language with
which they were naturally acquainted (comp. Joel 2:28, 29).
Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Cor.
12:10-14:30, “divers kinds of tongues” and the “interpretation
of tongues.” This “gift” was a different manifestation of the
Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it resembled it in many
particulars. Tongues were to be “a sign to them that believe
One of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment
was to be inflicted (Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21).
“Gnashing of teeth” =rage, despair (Matt. 8:12; Acts 7:54);
“cleanness of teeth” =famine (Amos 4:6); “children’s teeth set
on edge” =children suffering for the sins of their fathers
Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or
“green” stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was
the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high
priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Ex. 28:17).
It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
Lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai (Deut. 1:1), now
identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the
=Topheth, from Heb. toph “a drum,” because the cries of children
here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the
noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning “to
burn,” and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular
part in the valley of Hinnom. “Fire being the most destructive
of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize
the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are
not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the
precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the
destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa. 30:33…Tophet
properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the
east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of
Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer Ayub, where it
joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side
especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of
beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be
either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that
fire that was never quenched.” Thus Tophet came to represent the
place of punishment. (See HINNOM.)
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of
Gethsemane, Judas, “having received a band of men and officers
from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with
lanterns and torches and weapons” (John 18:1-3). Although it was
the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron “there
fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and
projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into
which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a
garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary
for a searcher to throw light around.” Lange’s Commentary.
(Nahum 2:3, “torches,” Revised Version, “steel,” probably should
be “scythes” for war-chariots.)
Gr. basanos (Matt. 4:24), the “touch-stone” of justice; hence
inquisition by torture, and then any disease which racks and
tortures the limbs.
(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals (Lev. 11:29).
Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by
“land crocodile.” The word, however, more probably denotes a
lizard, called by the modern Arabs dhabb.
(Judg. 16:9). See FLAX.
Tower of the furnaces
(Neh. 3:11; 12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the
second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its
contiguity to the “bakers’ street” (Jer. 37:21).
Of Babel (Gen. 11:4), Edar (Gen. 35:21), Penuel (Judg. 8:9, 17),
Shechem (9:46), David (Cant. 4:4), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezek.
29:10), Hananeel (Zech. 14:10), Siloam (Luke 13:4). There were
several towers in Jerusalem (2 Chr. 26:9; Ps. 48:12). They were
erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard (Isa.
5:2; Matt. 21:33) and towers for defence.
A rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek
name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the
five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It
was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.
Any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from
generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, 9, 13, Col. 2:8, this
word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2
Thess. 2:15; 3:6, it is used in a good sense. Peter (1 Pet.
1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of
the “strangers scattered” whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10;
Matt. 15:2-6; Gal. 1:14).
(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word “ecstasy” is derived) denotes
the state of one who is “out of himself.” Such were the trances
of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17, ecstasies, “a
preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the
reception of the vision”, (comp. 2 Cor. 12:1-4). In Mark 5:42
and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered “astonishment,”
“amazement” (comp. Mark 16:8; Acts 3:10).
Of our Lord on a “high mountain apart,” is described by each of
the three evangelists (Matt. 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36).
The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was
informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these
evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a
mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the
circumstances of the incident is exact. John seems to allude to
it also (John 1:14). Forty years after the event Peter
distinctly makes mention of it (2 Pet. 1:16-18). In describing
the sanctification of believers, Paul also seems to allude to
this majestic and glorious appearance of our Lord on the “holy
mount” (Rom. 12:2; 2 Cor. 3:18).
The place of the transfiguration was probably Mount Hermon
(q.v.), and not Mount Tabor, as is commonly supposed.
Store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians (Ex.
1:11). (See PITHOM.) Towns in which the treasures of the
kings of Judah were kept were so designated (1 Chr. 27:25).
The houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure
and valuable articles of any kind (Ezra 5:17; 7:20; Neh. 10:38;
(Matt. 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that
there was a separate building so called. The name was given to
the thirteen brazen chests, called “trumpets,” from the form of
the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers
were put. These stood in the outer “court of the women.” “Nine
chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the
sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices;
four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple
decoration, and burnt-offerings” (Lightfoot’s Hor. Heb.).
Tree of life
Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9; 3:22).
Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some
secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the
lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in
himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is
emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to
the tree of life (Prov. 3:18). The “tree of life” spoken of in
the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the
joys of the celestial paradise.
Tree of the knowledge of good and evil
Stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of
life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the
fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine
injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and
became the heritage of Adam’s posterity. (See ADAM.)
(Heb. asham, “debt”), the law concerning, given in Lev.
5:14-6:7; also in Num. 5:5-8. The idea of sin as a “debt”
pervades this legislation. The asham, which was always a ram,
was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See
A collection of families descending from one ancestor. The
“twelve tribes” of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of
families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the
word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred
to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7). (See
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF; JUDAH, KINGDOM OF.)
Trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2
Cor. 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 “tribulation and anguish” are the penal
sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, 29,
the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the
destruction of Jerusalem.
A tax imposed by a king on his subjects (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings
4:6; Rom. 13:6). In Matt. 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple
rate (the “didrachma,” the “half-shekel,” as rendered by the
R.V.) which was required to be paid for the support of the
temple by every Jew above twenty years of age (Ex. 30:12; 2
Kings 12:4; 2 Chr. 24:6, 9). It was not a civil but a religious
In Matt. 22:17, Mark 12:14, Luke 20:22, the word may be
interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans
imposed on the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately
regarded as denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power
on the people of Israel. The “tribute money” shown to our Lord
(Matt. 22:19) was the denarius, bearing Caesar’s superscription.
It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans. (See
A word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine
of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons.
This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by
Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used
by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The
propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is
one, and that there is but one God (Deut. 6:4; 1 Kings 8:60;
Isa. 44:6; Mark 12:29, 32; John 10:30). 2. That the Father is a
distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona,
suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy
Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person
distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy
Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
A city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor,
named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from
it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second
missionary journey, saw the vision of a “man of Macedonia,” who
appeared to him, saying, “Come over, and help us” (Acts
16:8-11). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on
one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there (2
Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13). The ruins of Troas extend over many
miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak
trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old
A town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul “tarried”
when on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary
journey (Acts 20:15).
A foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part
of his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4; 21:29). He was with
Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had
brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which
resulted in Paul’s imprisonment. (See TEMPLE, HEROD’S.) In
writing to Timothy, the apostle says, “Trophimus have I left at
Miletum sick” (2 Tim. 4:20). This must refer to some event not
noticed in the Acts.
Were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers
materials. Some were made of silver (Num. 10:2), and were used
only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and
in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams’ horns
(Josh. 6:8). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald
the arrival of special seasons (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; 1 Chr. 15:24;
2 Chr. 29:27; Ps. 81:3; 98:6).
“Trumpets” are among the symbols used in the Book of Revelation
(Rev. 1:10; 8:2). (See HORN.)
Trumpets, Feast of
Was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first
month of the civil year. It received its name from the
circumstances that the trumpets usually blown at the
commencement of each month were on that occasion blown with
unusual solemnity (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 10:10; 29:1-6). It was
one of the seven days of holy convocation. The special design of
this feast, which is described in these verses, is not known.
Used in various senses in Scripture. In Prov. 12:17, 19, it
denotes that which is opposed to falsehood. In Isa. 59:14, 15,
Jer. 7:28, it means fidelity or truthfulness. The doctrine of
Christ is called “the truth of the gospel” (Gal. 2:5), “the
truth” (2 Tim. 3:7; 4:4). Our Lord says of himself, “I am the
way, and the truth” (John 14:6).
Tryphena and Tryphosa
Two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his
epistle to the Romans (16:12).
(1.) The fifth son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2).
(2.) A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It is
mentioned by Isaiah (66:19), along with Javan, and by Ezekiel
(27:13), along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also
among the confederates of Gog (Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1), and with
Meshech among the nations which were to be destroyed (32:26).
This nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian
Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper
Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of
the Black Sea.
The son of Lamech and Zillah, “an instructor of every artificer
in brass and iron” (Gen. 4:22; R.V., “the forger of every
cutting instrument of brass and iron”).
Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in
Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her
purification (Luke 2:24). The pigeon and the turtle-dove were
the only birds permitted to be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 1:14;
5:7; 14:22; 15:14, 29, etc.). The Latin name of this bird,
turtur, is derived from its note, and is a repetition of the
Hebrew name tor. Three species are found in Palestine, (1) the
turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T.
risorius), and (3) the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis). But it is
to the first of these species which the various passages of
Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird (Jer. 8:7; Cant. 2:11,
12). “Search the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at
the end of March, and not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in
the second week of April, and clouds of doves are feeding on the
clovers of the plain. They overspread the whole face of the
land.” “Immediately on its arrival it pours forth from every
garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy yet soothing ditty
unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from its
plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring
forth his heart’s sorrow to God, compares himself to a
turtle-dove” (Ps. 74:19).
Chance, an Asiatic Christian, a “faithful minister in the Lord”
(Eph. 6:21, 22), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part
of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). He is
alluded to also in Col. 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Tim. 4:12 as
having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus,
probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the
Occurs only once in Scripture (1 Cor. 10:11, A.V. marg.). The
Greek word tupos is rendered “print” (John 20:25), “figure”
(Acts 7:43; Rom. 5:14), “fashion” (Acts 7:44), “manner” (Acts
23:25), “form” (Rom. 6:17), “example” or “ensample” (1 Cor.
10:6, 11; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12).
It properly means a “model” or “pattern” or “mould” into which
clay or wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact
shape of the mould. The word “type” is generally used to denote
a resemblance between something present and something future,
which is called the “antitype.”
Prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose “school” at Ephesus Paul
disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to
him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that
his “school” was a private synagogue.
A rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles,
in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon
was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more
illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was
gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. “Tyrian merchants were the
first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and
they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring
islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of
Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in
Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at
Gadeira (Cadiz)” (Driver’s Isaiah). In the time of David a
friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the
Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings (2 Sam.
5:11; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3).
Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the
mainland, called “Old Tyre,” and the city, built on a small,
rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a
place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was
assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and
by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently
without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander
the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to
maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian
era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In A.D.
1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate
ruin ever since.
“The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account of
the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture
proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that
Both Tyre and Sidon “were crowded with glass-shops, dyeing and
weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the
least important class were those who were celebrated for the
engraving of precious stones.” (2 Chr. 2:7, 14).
The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently
denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted
(Isa. 23:1; Jer. 25:22; Ezek. 26; 28:1-19; Amos 1:9, 10; Zech.
Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and
Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a
week in intercourse with the disciples there (Acts 21:4). Here
the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all,
with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore.
The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38
miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5-8).
“It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1500, and claiming,
according to Herodotus, to have been founded about B.C. 2700. It
had two ports still existing, and was of commercial importance
in all ages, with colonies at Carthage (about B.C. 850) and all
over the Mediterranean. It was often attacked by Egypt and
Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great after a terrible siege
in B.C. 332. It is now a town of 3,000 inhabitants, with ancient
tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short Phoenician text of the
fourth century B.C. is the only monument yet recovered.”
(i.e., “Valley of the Cheesemongers”), the name given by
Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in
ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This
valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and
almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which
was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of
communication between the royal palace on Zion and the temple. A
fragment of the arch (q.v.) of this bridge (called “Robinson’s
Arch”), where it projects from the sanctuary wall, was
discovered by Robinson in 1839. This arch was destroyed by the
Romans when Jerusalem was taken.
The western wall of the temple area rose up from the bottom of
this valley to the height of 84 feet, where it was on a level
with the area, and above this, and as a continuance of it, the
wall of Solomon’s cloister rose to the height of about 50 feet,
“so that this section of the wall would originally present to
view a stupendous mass of masonry scarcely to be surpassed by
any mural masonry in the world.”