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Easton's Bible Dictionary (A)
          Alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as Omega is the
          last. These letters occur in the text of Rev. 1:8, 11; 21:6;
          22:13, and are represented by "Alpha" and "Omega" respectively
          (omitted in R.V., 1:11). They mean "the first and last." (Comp.
          Heb. 12:2; Isa. 41:4; 44:6; Rev. 1:11, 17; 2:8.) In the symbols
          of the early Christian Church these two letters are frequently
          combined with the cross or with Christ's monogram to denote his

          The eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi (Ex.
          6:20). Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others
          mountain of strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three
          years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his
          sister Miriam (2:1, 4; 7:7). He married Elisheba, the daughter
          of Amminadab of the house of Judah (6:23; 1 Chr. 2:10), by whom
          he had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. When the
          time for the deliverance of Isarael out of Egypt drew nigh, he
          was sent by God (Ex. 4:14, 27-30) to meet his long-absent
          brother, that he might co-operate with him in all that they were
          required to do in bringing about the Exodus. He was to be the
          "mouth" or "prophet" of Moses, i.e., was to speak for him,
          because he was a man of a ready utterance (7:1, 2, 9, 10, 19).
          He was faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his
          interviews with Pharaoh.

          When the ransomed tribes fought their first battle with Amalek
          in Rephidim, Moses stood on a hill overlooking the scene of the
          conflict with the rod of God in his outstretched hand. On this
          occasion he was attended by Aaron and Hur, his sister's husband,
          who held up his wearied hands till Joshua and the chosen
          warriors of Israel gained the victory (17:8-13).

          Afterwards, when encamped before Sinai, and when Moses at the
          command of God ascended the mount to receive the tables of the
          law, Aaron and his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, along with seventy
          of the elders of Israel, were permitted to accompany him part of
          the way, and to behold afar off the manifestation of the glory
          of Israel's God (Ex. 19:24; 24:9-11). While Moses remained on
          the mountain with God, Aaron returned unto the people; and
          yielding through fear, or ignorance, or instability of
          character, to their clamour, made unto them a golden calf, and
          set it up as an object of worship (Ex. 32:4; Ps. 106:19). On the
          return of Moses to the camp, Aaron was sternly rebuked by him
          for the part he had acted in this matter; but he interceded for
          him before God, who forgave his sin (Deut. 9:20).

          On the mount, Moses received instructions regarding the system
          of worship which was to be set up among the people; and in
          accordance therewith Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the
          priest's office (Lev. 8; 9). Aaron, as high priest, held
          henceforth the prominent place appertaining to that office.

          When Israel had reached Hazeroth, in "the wilderness of Paran,"
          Aaron joined with his sister Miriam in murmuring against Moses,
          "because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married," probably
          after the death of Zipporah. But the Lord vindicated his servant
          Moses, and punished Miriam with leprosy (Num. 12). Aaron
          acknowledged his own and his sister's guilt, and at the
          intercession of Moses they were forgiven.

          Twenty years after this, when the children of Israel were
          encamped in the wilderness of Paran, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram
          conspired against Aaron and his sons; but a fearful judgment
          from God fell upon them, and they were destroyed, and the next
          day thousands of the people also perished by a fierce
          pestilence, the ravages of which were only stayed by the
          interposition of Aaron (Num. 16). That there might be further
          evidence of the divine appointment of Aaron to the priestly
          office, the chiefs of the tribes were each required to bring to
          Moses a rod bearing on it the name of his tribe. And these,
          along with the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi, were laid up
          overnight in the tabernacle, and in the morning it was found
          that while the other rods remained unchanged, that of Aaron "for
          the house of Levi" budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds (Num.
          17:1-10). This rod was afterwards preserved in the tabernacle
          (Heb. 9:4) as a memorial of the divine attestation of his
          appointment to the priesthood.

          Aaron was implicated in the sin of his brother at Meribah (Num.
          20:8-13), and on that account was not permitted to enter the
          Promised Land. When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the
          edge of the land of Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron
          and his son Eleazar to the top of that mountain, in the sight of
          all the people. There he stripped Aaron of his priestly
          vestments, and put them upon Eleazar; and there Aaron died on
          the top of the mount, being 123 years old (Num. 20:23-29. Comp.
          Deut. 10:6; 32:50), and was "gathered unto his people." The
          people, "even all the house of Israel," mourned for him thirty
          days. Of Aaron's sons two survived him, Eleazar, whose family
          held the high-priesthood till the time of Eli; and Ithamar, in
          whose family, beginning with Eli, the high-priesthood was held
          till the time of Solomon. Aaron's other two sons had been struck
          dead (Lev. 10:1, 2) for the daring impiety of offering "strange
          fire" on the alter of incense.

          The Arabs still show with veneration the traditionary site of
          Aaron's grave on one of the two summits of Mount Hor, which is
          marked by a Mohammedan chapel. His name is mentioned in the
          Koran, and there are found in the writings of the rabbins many
          fabulous stories regarding him.

          He was the first anointed priest. His descendants, "the house of
          Aaron," constituted the priesthood in general. In the time of
          David they were very numerous (1 Chr. 12:27). The other branches
          of the tribe of Levi held subordinate positions in connection
          with the sacred office. Aaron was a type of Christ in his
          official character as the high priest. His priesthood was a
          "shadow of heavenly things," and was intended to lead the people
          of Israel to look forward to the time when "another priest"
          would arise "after the order of Melchizedek" (Heb. 6:20). (See

          The descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the
          father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the
          support of David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32),
          and at a later period Zadok (1 Chr. 27:17), was their chief.

          Destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon,
          i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Rev.
          9:11). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22; 31:12; 26:6;
          Prov. 15:11; 27:20. In the last three of these passages the
          Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this
          word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as
          sheol, the realm of the dead.

          One of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus's court (Esther 1:10;

          Stony (Heb. marg. "Amanah," perennial), the chief river of
          Damascus (2 Kings 5:12). Its modern name is Barada, the
          Chrysorrhoas, or "golden stream," of the Greeks. It rises in a
          cleft of the Anti-Lebanon range, about 23 miles north-west of
          Damascus, and after flowing southward for a little way parts
          into three smaller streams, the central one flowing through
          Damascus, and the other two on each side of the city, diffusing
          beauty and fertility where otherwise there would be barrenness.

          Regions beyond; i.e., on the east of Jordan, a mountain, or
          rather a mountain-chain, over against Jericho, to the east and
          south-east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab. From "the top
          of Pisgah", i.e., Mount Nebo (q.v.), one of its summits, Moses
          surveyed the Promised Land (Deut. 3:27; 32:49), and there he
          died (34:1, 5). The Israelites had one of their encampments in
          the mountains of Abarim (Num. 33:47, 48) after crossing the

          This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New
          Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is
          followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father."
          It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It
          has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into
          European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."

          Servant. (1.) The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the
          tribute (1 Kings 4:6); i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy").

          (2.) A Levite of the family of Jeduthun (Neh. 11:17), also
          called Obadiah (1 Chr. 9:16).

          Servant of God, (Jer. 36:26), the father of Shelemiah.

          My servant. (1.) 1 Chr. 6:44. (2.) 2 Chr. 29:12. (3.) Ezra

          Servant of God, (1 Chr. 5:15), a Gadite chief.

          Servile. (1.) The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge
          of Israel (Judg. 12:13-15). He is probably the Bedan of 1 Sam.

          (2.) The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr.
          8:30; 9:36).

          (3.) The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the
          prophetess Huldah to ascertain from her the meaning of the
          recently discovered book of the law (2 Chr. 34:20). He is called
          Achbor in 2 Kings 22:12.

          (4.) One of the "sons" of Shashak (1 Chr. 8:23).

          This is the name also of a Levitical town of the Gershonites, in
          the tribe of Asher (Josh. 21:30; 1 Chr. 6:74). The ruins of
          Abdeh, some 8 miles north-east of Accho, probably mark its site.

          Servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of
          Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). With Shadrach and
          Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace

          (Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and
          Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1-16).
          Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were
          trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time"
          (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them
          offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labours. Cain, as a
          husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel, as a
          shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock. "The Lord had respect
          unto Abel and his offering; but unto Cain and his offering he
          had not respect" (Gen. 4:3-5). On this account Cain was angry
          with his brother, and formed the design of putting him to death;
          a design which he at length found an opportunity of carrying
          into effect (Gen. 4:8, 9. Comp. 1 John 3:12). There are several
          references to Abel in the New Testament. Our Saviour speaks of
          him as "righteous" (Matt. 23:35). "The blood of sprinkling" is
          said to speak "better things than that of Abel" (Heb. 12:24);
          i.e., the blood of Jesus is the reality of which the blood of
          the offering made by Abel was only the type. The comparison here
          is between the sacrifice offered by Christ and that offered by
          Abel, and not between the blood of Christ calling for mercy and
          the blood of the murdered Abel calling for vengeance, as has
          sometimes been supposed. It is also said (Heb. 11:4) that "Abel
          offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." This
          sacrifice was made "by faith;" this faith rested in God, not
          only as the Creator and the God of providence, but especially in
          God as the great Redeemer, whose sacrifice was typified by the
          sacrifices which, no doubt by the divine institution, were
          offered from the days of Adam downward. On account of that
          "faith" which looked forward to the great atoning sacrifice,
          Abel's offering was accepted of God. Cain's offering had no such
          reference, and therefore was rejected. Abel was the first
          martyr, as he was the first of our race to die.

          Abel (Heb. abhel), lamentation (1 Sam. 6:18), the name given to
          the great stone in Joshua's field whereon the ark was "set
          down." The Revised Version, however, following the Targum and
          the LXX., reads in the Hebrew text 'ebhen (= a stone), and
          accordingly translates "unto the great stone, whereon they set
          down the ark." This reading is to be preferred.

          Abel (Heb. abhel), a grassy place, a meadow. This word enters
          into the composition of the following words:

          Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of
          Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of
          Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and
          importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a
          metropolis (2 Sam. 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2 Sam.
          20:14), by Benhadad (1 Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2
          Kings 15:29) about B.C. 734. It is elsewhere called Abel-maim,
          meadow of the waters, (2 Chr. 16:4). Its site is occupied by the
          modern Abil or Abil-el-kamh, on a rising ground to the east of
          the brook Derdarah, which flows through the plain of Huleh into
          the Jordan, about 6 miles to the west-north-west of Dan.

          (Judg. 11:33, R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village
          of the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.

          Meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and
          residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean (1
          Kings 4:12), in the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady
          el-Maleh emerges into the valley of the Jordan, "the rich
          meadow-land which extends about 4 miles south of Beth-shean;
          moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was found at his plough by
          Elijah on his return up the Jordan valley from Horeb (1 Kings
          19:16). It is now called Ain Helweh.

          Meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e.,
          on the west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here
          the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Gen. 50:4-11). Its
          site is unknown.

          Meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Num.
          25:1; Josh. 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in
          the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the
          forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last
          resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 33:49; 22:1;
          26:3; 31:12; comp. 25:1; 31:16).

          Tin, or white, a town in the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 19:20), at
          the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is probably identified
          with the ruins of el-Beida.

          My father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam
          (Matt. 1:7), instead of Abiah (1 Chr. 7:8). In Luke 1:5, the
          name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses
          into which David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:10).

          Father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard
          of thirty mighty men (2 Sam. 23:31); called also Abiel (1 Chr.

          Father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three
          sons of Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites (Ex.
          6:24); called Ebisaph (1 Chr. 6:37).

          Father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech
          the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in
          descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of
          Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined
          David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1 Sam. 22:20-23;
          23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of
          which he was the leader (1 Sam. 30:7). When David ascended the
          throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed high priest (1 Chr.
          15:11; 1 Kings 2:26) and the "king's companion" (1 Chr. 27:34).
          Meanwhile Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made high
          priest. These appointments continued in force till the end of
          David's reign (1 Kings 4:4). Abiathar was deposed (the sole
          historical instance of the deposition of a high priest) and
          banished to his home at Anathoth by Solomon, because he took
          part in the attempt to raise Adonijah to the throne. The
          priesthood thus passed from the house of Ithamar (1 Sam.
          2:30-36; 1 Kings 1:19; 2:26, 27). Zadok now became sole high
          priest. In Mark 2:26, reference is made to an occurrence in "the
          days of Abiathar the high priest." But from 1 Sam. 22, we learn
          explicitly that this event took place when Ahimelech, the father
          of Abiathar, was high priest. The apparent discrepancy is
          satisfactorily explained by interpreting the words in Mark as
          referring to the life-time of Abiathar, and not to the term of
          his holding the office of high priest. It is not implied in Mark
          that he was actual high priest at the time referred to. Others,
          however, think that the loaves belonged to Abiathar, who was at
          that time (Lev. 24:9) a priest, and that he either himself gave
          them to David, or persuaded his father to give them.

          An ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Ex. 13:4;
          23:15); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the
          seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal
          equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity
          (Neh. 2:1). On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun
          by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord
          on the sixteenth (Lev. 23:4-11).

          Or Abi'dah, father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons
          of Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah (1 Chr. 1:33),
          and apparently the chief of an Arab tribe.

          Father of judgment; judge, head of the tribe of Benjamin at the
          Exodus (Num. 1:11; 2:22).

          Father of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The second of the three
          sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of Gilead. He was the grandson
          of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:18). From his family Gideon sprang (Josh.
          17:2; comp. Judg. 6:34; 8:2). He was also called Jeezer (Num.

          (2.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:27; comp. 1 Chr.

          (3.) The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus (Num. 1:12).

          Father (i.e., "possessor") of God = "pious." (1.) The son of
          Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of Saul (1 Sam.
          14:51; 1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). In 1 Sam. 9:1, he is called the
          "father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish. (2.) An
          Arbathite, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:32); called also
          Abi-albon (2 Sam. 23:31).

          Father of help, a descendant of Abiezer (Judg. 6:11, 24; 8:32).

          Father (i.e., "leader") of the dance, or "of joy." (1.) The
          sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite (1 Chr. 2:16,
          17). She was the mother of Amasa (2 Sam. 17:25).

          (2.) The wife of the churlish Nabal, who dwelt in the district
          of Carmel (1 Sam. 25:3). She showed great prudence and delicate
          management at a critical period of her husband's life. She was
          "a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance."
          After Nabal's death she became the wife of David (1 Sam.
          25:14-42), and was his companion in all his future fortunes (1
          Sam. 27:3; 30:5; 2 Sam. 2:2). By her David had a son called
          Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3), elsewhere called Daniel (1 Chr. 3:1).

          Father of might. (1.) Num. 3:35. (2.) 1 Chr. 2:29. (3.) 1 Chr.

          (4.) The second wife of King Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:18), a
          descendant of Eliab, David's eldest brother.

          (5.) The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15).

          Father of Him; i.e., "worshipper of God", the second of the sons
          of Aaron (Ex. 6:23; Num. 3:2; 26:60; 1 Chr. 6:3). Along with his
          three brothers he was consecrated to the priest's office (Ex.
          28:1). With his father and elder brother he accompanied the
          seventy elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Ex.
          24:1, 9). On one occasion he and Nadab his brother offered
          incense in their censers filled with "strange" (i.e., common)
          fire, i.e., not with fire taken from the great brazen altar
          (Lev. 6:9, etc.), and for this offence they were struck dead,
          and were taken out and buried without the camp (Lev. 10:1-11;
          comp. Num. 3:4; 26:61; 1 Chr. 24:2). It is probable that when
          they committed this offence they were intoxicated, for
          immediately after is given the law prohibiting the use of wine
          or strong drink to the priests.

          Father (i.e., "possessor") of renown. (1.) One of the sons of
          Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:3); called also Ahihud (ver.

          (2.) A descendant of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim (Matt.
          1:13, "Abiud"); called also Juda (Luke 3:26), and Obadiah (1
          Chr. 3:21).

          Father (i.e., "possessor or worshipper") of Jehovah. (1.) 1 Chr.
          7:8. (2.) 1 Chr. 2:24.

          (3.) The second son of Samuel (1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chr. 6:28). His
          conduct, along with that of his brother, as a judge in
          Beer-sheba, to which office his father had appointed him, led to
          popular discontent, and ultimately provoked the people to demand
          a royal form of government.

          (4.) A descendant of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, a chief of one
          of the twenty-four orders into which the priesthood was divided
          by David (1 Chr. 24:10). The order of Abijah was one of those
          which did not return from the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh.
          7:39-42; 12:1).

          (5.) The son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne of
          Judah (1 Chr. 3:10). He is also called Abijam (1 Kings 14:31;
          15:1-8). He began his three years' reign (2 Chr. 12:16; 13:1, 2)
          with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten
          tribes to their allegiance. His address to "Jeroboam and all
          Israel," before encountering them in battle, is worthy of being
          specially noticed (2 Chr. 13:5-12). It was a very bloody battle,
          no fewer than 500,000 of the army of Israel having perished on
          the field. He is described as having walked "in all the sins of
          his father" (1 Kings 15:3; 2 Chr. 11:20-22). It is said in 1
          Kings 15:2 that "his mother's name was Maachah, the daughter of
          Abishalom;" but in 2 Chr. 13:2 we read, "his mother's name was
          Michaiah, the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah." The explanation is
          that Maachah is just a variation of the name Michaiah, and that
          Abishalom is probably the same as Absalom, the son of David. It
          is probable that "Uriel of Gibeah" married Tamar, the daughter
          of Absalom (2 Sam. 14:27), and by her had Maachah. The word
          "daughter" in 1 Kings 15:2 will thus, as it frequently elsewhere
          does, mean grand-daughter.

          (6.) A son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. On account of
          his severe illness when a youth, his father sent his wife to
          consult the prophet Ahijah regarding his recovery. The prophet,
          though blind with old age, knew the wife of Jeroboam as soon as
          she approached, and under a divine impulse he announced to her
          that inasmuch as in Abijah alone of all the house of Jeroboam
          there was found "some good thing toward the Lord," he only would
          come to his grave in peace. As his mother crossed the threshold
          of the door on her return, the youth died, and "all Israel
          mourned for him" (1 Kings 14:1-18).

          (7.) The daughter of Zechariah (2 Chr. 29:1; comp. Isa. 8:2),
          and afterwards the wife of Ahaz. She is also called Abi (2 Kings

          (8.) One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr.
          7:8). "Abiah," A.V.

          Father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings
          of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called
          Abijah (1 Kings 15:1, 7, 8). (See [2]ABIJAH.)

          A plain, a district lying on the east slope of the Anti-Lebanon
          range; so called from its chief town, Abila (Luke 3:1), which
          stood in the Suk Wady Barada, between Heliopolis (Baalbec) and
          Damascus, 38 miles from the former and 18 from the latter.
          Lysanias was governor or tetrarch of this province.

          Father of Mael, one of the sons or descendants of Joktan, in
          Northern Arabia (Gen. 10:28; 1 Chr. 1:22).

          My father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the
          Philistine kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings. (1.)
          The Philistine king of Gerar in the time of Abraham (Gen.
          20:1-18). By an interposition of Providence, Sarah was delivered
          from his harem, and was restored to her husband Abraham. As a
          mark of respect he gave to Abraham valuable gifts, and offered
          him a settlement in any part of his country; while at the same
          time he delicately and yet severely rebuked him for having
          practised a deception upon him in pretending that Sarah was only
          his sister. Among the gifts presented by the king were a
          thousand pieces of silver as a "covering of the eyes" for Sarah;
          i.e., either as an atoning gift and a testimony of her innocence
          in the sight of all, or rather for the purpose of procuring a
          veil for Sarah to conceal her beauty, and thus as a reproof to
          her for not having worn a veil which, as a married woman, she
          ought to have done. A few years after this Abimelech visited
          Abraham, who had removed southward beyond his territory, and
          there entered into a league of peace and friendship with him.
          This league was the first of which we have any record. It was
          confirmed by a mutual oath at Beer-sheba (Gen. 21:22-34).

          (2.) A king of Gerar in the time of Isaac, probably the son of
          the preceeding (Gen. 26:1-22). Isaac sought refuge in his
          territory during a famine, and there he acted a part with
          reference to his wife Rebekah similar to that of his father
          Abraham with reference to Sarah. Abimelech rebuked him for the
          deception, which he accidentally discovered. Isaac settled for a
          while here, and prospered. Abimelech desired him, however, to
          leave his territory, which Isaac did. Abimelech afterwards
          visited him when he was encamped at Beer-sheba, and expressed a
          desire to renew the covenant which had been entered into between
          their fathers (Gen. 26:26-31).

          (3.) A son of Gideon (Judg. 9:1), who was proclaimed king after
          the death of his father (Judg. 8:33-9:6). One of his first acts
          was to murder his brothers, seventy in number, "on one stone,"
          at Ophrah. Only one named Jotham escaped. He was an
          unprincipled, ambitious ruler, often engaged in war with his own
          subjects. When engaged in reducing the town of Thebez, which had
          revolted, he was struck mortally on his head by a mill-stone,
          thrown by the hand of a woman from the wall above. Perceiving
          that the wound was mortal, he desired his armour-bearer to
          thrust him through with his sword, that it might not be said he
          had perished by the hand of a woman (Judg. 9:50-57).

          (4.) The son of Abiathar, and high priest in the time of David
          (1 Chr. 18:16). In the parallel passage, 2 Sam. 8:17, we have
          the name Ahimelech, and Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech. This
          most authorities consider the more correct reading. (5.) Achish,
          king of Gath, in the title of Ps. 34. (Comp. 1 Sam. 21:10-15.)

          Father of nobleness; i.e., "noble." (1.) A Levite of
          Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the covenant was
          deposited after having been brought back from the land of the
          Philistines (1 Sam. 7:1). It remained there twenty years, till
          it was at length removed by David (1 Sam. 7:1, 2; 1 Chr. 13:7).

          (2.) The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:8). He was
          with Saul in the campaign against the Philistines in which
          Goliath was slain (1 Sam. 17:13).

          (3.) One of Saul's sons, who peristed with his father in the
          battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. 31:2; 1 Chr. 10:2).

          (4.) One of Solomon's officers, who "provided victuals for the
          king and his household." He presided, for this purpose, over the
          district of Dor (1 Kings 4:11).

          Father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judg. 4:6; 5:1).

          Father of height; i.e., "proud." (1.) One of the sons of Eliab,
          who joined Korah in the conspiracy against Moses and Aaron. He
          and all the conspirators, with their families and possessions
          (except the children of Korah), were swallowed up by an
          earthquake (Num. 16:1-27; 26:9; Ps. 106:17).

          (2.) The eldest son of Hiel the Bethelite, who perished
          prematurely in consequence of his father's undertaking to
          rebuild Jericho (1 Kings 16:34), according to the words of
          Joshua (6:26). (See [3]JERICHO.)

          Father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem,
          distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to
          David in his old age. She became his wife (1 Kings 1:3, 4, 15).
          After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's
          mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag.
          Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne,
          and therefore caused him to be put to death (1 Kings 2:17-25).

          Father of (i.e., "desirous of") a gift, the eldest son of
          Zeruiah, David's sister. He was the brother of Joab and Asahel
          (2 Sam. 2:18; 1 Chr. 2:16). Abishai was the only one who
          accompanied David when he went to the camp of Saul and took the
          spear and the cruse of water from Saul's bolster (1 Sam.
          26:5-12). He had the command of one of the three divisions of
          David's army at the battle with Absalom (2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12). He
          slew the Philistine giant Ishbi-benob, who threatened David's
          life (2 Sam. 21:15-17). He was the chief of the second rank of
          the three "mighties" (2 Sam. 23:18, 19; 1 Chr. 11:20, 21); and
          on one occasion withstood 300 men, and slew them with his own
          spear (2 Sam. 23:18). Abishai is the name of the Semitic chief
          who offers gifts to the lord of Beni-Hassan. See illustration
          facing page 10.

          Father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate." (1.) The grandson of
          Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:4).

          (2.) The son of Phinehas the high priest (1 Chr. 6:4, 5, 50;
          Ezra 7:5).

          Father of the wall; i.e., "mason", one of the two sons of
          Shammai of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:28, 29).

          Father of dew; i.e., "fresh", David's fifth wife (2 Sam. 3:4).

          Father of goodness, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:11).

          (Ps. 35:15), the translation of a Hebrew word meaning smiters;
          probably, in allusion to the tongue, slanderers. (Comp. Jer.

          Or washing, was practised, (1.) When a person was initiated into
          a higher state: e.g., when Aaron and his sons were set apart to
          the priest's office, they were washed with water previous to
          their investiture with the priestly robes (Lev. 8:6).

          (2.) Before the priests approached the altar of God, they were
          required, on pain of death, to wash their hands and their feet
          to cleanse them from the soil of common life (Ex. 30:17-21). To
          this practice the Psalmist alludes, Ps. 26:6.

          (3.) There were washings prescribed for the purpose of cleansing
          from positive defilement contracted by particular acts. Of such
          washings eleven different species are prescribed in the
          Levitical law (Lev. 12-15).

          (4.) A fourth class of ablutions is mentioned, by which a person
          purified or absolved himself from the guilt of some particular
          act. For example, the elders of the nearest village where some
          murder was committed were required, when the murderer was
          unknown, to wash their hands over the expiatory heifer which was
          beheaded, and in doing so to say, "Our hands have not shed this
          blood, neither have our eyes seen it" (Deut. 21:1-9). So also
          Pilate declared himself innocent of the blood of Jesus by
          washing his hands (Matt. 27:24). This act of Pilate may not,
          however, have been borrowed from the custom of the Jews. The
          same practice was common among the Greeks and Romans.

          The Pharisees carried the practice of ablution to great excess,
          thereby claiming extraordinary purity (Matt. 23:25). Mark
          (7:1-5) refers to the ceremonial ablutions. The Pharisees washed
          their hands "oft," more correctly, "with the fist" (R.V.,
          "diligently"), or as an old father, Theophylact, explains it,
          "up to the elbow." (Compare also Mark 7:4; Lev. 6:28; 11: 32-36;
          15:22) (See [4]WASHING.)

          Father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle
          of Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army (1 Sam. 14:50;
          17:55; 20:25). He first introduced David to the court of Saul
          after the victory over Goliath (1 Sam. 17:57). After the death
          of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron.
          Among the other tribes there was a feeling of hostility to
          Judah; and Abner, at the head of Ephraim, fostered this
          hostility in the interest of the house of Saul, whose son
          Ish-bosheth he caused to be proclaimed king (2 Sam. 2:8). A
          state of war existed between these two kings. A battle fatal to
          Abner, who was the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with
          David's army under Joab at Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:12). Abner, escaping
          from the field, was overtaken by Asahel, who was "light of foot
          as a wild roe," the brother of Joab and Abishai, whom he thrust
          through with a back stroke of his spear (2 Sam. 2: 18-32).

          Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the impropriety of taking to
          wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of King Saul, he found an
          excuse for going over to the side of David, whom he now
          professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over all
          Israel. David received him favourably, and promised that he
          would have command of the armies. At this time Joab was absent
          from Hebron, but on his return he found what had happened. Abner
          had just left the city; but Joab by a stratagem recalled him,
          and meeting him at the gate of the city on his return, thrust
          him through with his sword (2 Sam. 3:27, 31-39; 4:12. Comp. 1
          Kings 2:5, 32). David lamented in pathetic words the death of
          Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man
          fallen this day in Israel?" (2 Sam. 3:33-38.)

          This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians
          considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers
          (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice,
          holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28;
          Acts 10:28; 11:3).

          (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians
          (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews,
          arose probably from the fact that Lower and Middle Egypt had
          formerly been held in oppressive subjection by a tribe of nomad
          shepherds (the Hyksos), who had only recently been expelled, and
          partly also perhaps from this other fact that the Egyptians
          detested the lawless habits of these wandering shepherds.

          (3.) Pharaoh was so moved by the fourth plague, that while he
          refused the demand of Moses, he offered a compromise, granting
          to the Israelites permission to hold their festival and offer
          their sacrifices in Egypt. This permission could not be
          accepted, because Moses said they would have to sacrifice "the
          abomination of the Egyptians" (Ex. 8:26); i.e., the cow or ox,
          which all the Egyptians held as sacred, and which they regarded
          it as sacrilegious to kill.

          (4.) Daniel (11:31), in that section of his prophecies which is
          generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities
          that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus
          Epiphanes, says, "And they shall place the abomination that
          maketh desolate." Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be
          erected on the altar of burnt-offering, on which sacrifices were
          offered to Jupiter Olympus. (Comp. 1 Macc. 1:57). This was the
          abomination of the desolation of Jerusalem. The same language is
          employed in Dan. 9:27 (comp. Matt. 24:15), where the reference
          is probably to the image-crowned standards which the Romans set
          up at the east gate of the temple (A.D. 70), and to which they
          paid idolatrous honours. "Almost the entire religion of the
          Roman camp consisted in worshipping the ensign, swearing by the
          ensign, and in preferring the ensign before all other gods."
          These ensigns were an "abomination" to the Jews, the
          "abomination of desolation."

          This word is also used symbolically of sin in general (Isa.
          66:3); an idol (44:19); the ceremonies of the apostate Church of
          Rome (Rev. 17:4); a detestable act (Ezek. 22:11).

          Father of a multitude, son of Terah, named (Gen. 11:27) before
          his older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of
          the promises. Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his
          kindred in his native country of Chaldea. He then, with his
          father and his family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in
          which he had hitherto dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to
          Haran, where he abode fifteen years. The cause of his migration
          was a call from God (Acts 7:2-4). There is no mention of this
          first call in the Old Testament; it is implied, however, in Gen.
          12. While they tarried at Haran, Terah died at the age of 205
          years. Abram now received a second and more definite call,
          accompanied by a promise from God (Gen. 12:1, 2); whereupon he
          took his departure, taking his nephew Lot with him, "not knowing
          whither he went" (Heb. 11:8). He trusted implicitly to the
          guidance of Him who had called him.

          Abram now, with a large household of probably a thousand souls,
          entered on a migratory life, and dwelt in tents. Passing along
          the valley of the Jabbok, in the land of Canaan, he formed his
          first encampment at Sichem (Gen. 12:6), in the vale or oak-grove
          of Moreh, between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south.
          Here he received the great promise, "I will make of thee a great
          nation," etc. (Gen. 12:2, 3, 7). This promise comprehended not
          only temporal but also spiritual blessings. It implied that he
          was the chosen ancestor of the great Deliverer whose coming had
          been long ago predicted (Gen. 3:15). Soon after this, for some
          reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to the mountain
          district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns about
          two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah." He again
          moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the
          Hebrews the Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine,
          compelled to go down into Egypt. This took place in the time of
          the Hyksos, a Semitic race which now held the Egyptians in
          bondage. Here occurred that case of deception on the part of
          Abram which exposed him to the rebuke of Pharaoh (Gen. 12:18).
          Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents,
          recommending him to withdraw from the country. He returned to
          Canaan richer than when he left it, "in cattle, in silver, and
          in gold" (Gen. 12:8; 13:2. Comp. Ps. 105:13, 14). The whole
          party then moved northward, and returned to their previous
          station near Bethel. Here disputes arose between Lot's shepherds
          and those of Abram about water and pasturage. Abram generously
          gave Lot his choice of the pasture-ground. (Comp. 1 Cor. 6:7.)
          He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was situated, and
          removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were separated.
          Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of the
          promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or
          "oak-grove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. He finally settled
          here, pitching his tent under a famous oak or terebinth tree,
          called "the oak of Mamre" (Gen. 13:18). This was his third
          resting-place in the land.

          Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in
          Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of
          Elam, who brought under tribute to him the five cities in the
          plain to which Lot had removed. This tribute was felt by the
          inhabitants of these cities to be a heavy burden, and after
          twelve years they revolted. This brought upon them the vengeance
          of Chedorlaomer, who had in league with him four other kings. He
          ravaged the whole country, plundering the towns, and carrying
          the inhabitants away as slaves. Among those thus treated was
          Lot. Hearing of the disaster that had fallen on his nephew,
          Abram immediately gathered from his own household a band of 318
          armed men, and being joined by the Amoritish chiefs Mamre, Aner,
          and Eshcol, he pursued after Chedorlaomer, and overtook him near
          the springs of the Jordan. They attacked and routed his army,
          and pursued it over the range of Anti-Libanus as far as to
          Hobah, near Damascus, and then returned, bringing back all the
          spoils that had been carried away. Returning by way of Salem,
          i.e., Jerusalem, the king of that place, Melchizedek, came forth
          to meet them with refreshments. To him Abram presented a tenth
          of the spoils, in recognition of his character as a priest of
          the most high God (Gen. 14:18-20).

          In a recently-discovered tablet, dated in the reign of the
          grandfather of Amraphel (Gen. 14:1), one of the witnesses is
          called "the Amorite, the son of Abiramu," or Abram.

          Having returned to his home at Mamre, the promises already made
          to him by God were repeated and enlarged (Gen. 13:14). "The word
          of the Lord" (an expression occurring here for the first time)
          "came to him" (15:1). He now understood better the future that
          lay before the nation that was to spring from him. Sarai, now
          seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to
          take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that
          whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own.
          Ishmael was accordingly thus brought up, and was regarded as the
          heir of these promises (Gen. 16). When Ishmael was thirteen
          years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his
          gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that
          purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to
          Abraham (Gen. 17:4, 5), and the rite of circumcision was
          instituted as a sign of the covenant. It was then announced that
          the heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai,
          though she was now ninety years old; and it was directed that
          his name should be Isaac. At the same time, in commemoration of
          the promises, Sarai's name was changed to Sarah. On that
          memorable day of God's thus revealing his design, Abraham and
          his son Ishmael and all the males of his house were circumcised
          (Gen. 17). Three months after this, as Abraham sat in his tent
          door, he saw three men approaching. They accepted his proffered
          hospitality, and, seated under an oak-tree, partook of the fare
          which Abraham and Sarah provided. One of the three visitants was
          none other than the Lord, and the other two were angels in the
          guise of men. The Lord renewed on this occasion his promise of a
          son by Sarah, who was rebuked for her unbelief. Abraham
          accompanied the three as they proceeded on their journey. The
          two angels went on toward Sodom; while the Lord tarried behind
          and talked with Abraham, making known to him the destruction
          that was about to fall on that guilty city. The patriarch
          interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. But as not
          even ten righteous persons were found in it, for whose sake the
          city would have been spared, the threatened destruction fell
          upon it; and early next morning Abraham saw the smoke of the
          fire that consumed it as the "smoke of a furnace" (Gen.

          After fifteen years' residence at Mamre, Abraham moved
          southward, and pitched his tent among the Philistines, near to
          Gerar. Here occurred that sad instance of prevarication on his
          part in his relation to Abimelech the King (Gen. 20). (See
          [5]ABIMELECH.) Soon after this event, the patriarch left the
          vicinity of Gerar, and moved down the fertile valley about 25
          miles to Beer-sheba. It was probably here that Isaac was born,
          Abraham being now an hundred years old. A feeling of jealousy
          now arose between Sarah and Hagar, whose son, Ishmael, was no
          longer to be regarded as Abraham's heir. Sarah insisted that
          both Hagar and her son should be sent away. This was done,
          although it was a hard trial to Abraham (Gen. 21:12). (See
          [6]HAGAR; [7]ISHMAEL.)

          At this point there is a blank in the patriarch's history of
          perhaps twenty-five years. These years of peace and happiness
          were spent at Beer-sheba. The next time we see him his faith is
          put to a severe test by the command that suddenly came to him to
          go and offer up Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a
          sacrifice on one of the mountains of Moriah. His faith stood the
          test (Heb. 11:17-19). He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating
          obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his
          son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was
          arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled
          in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead.
          From this circumstance that place was called Jehovah-jireh,
          i.e., "The Lord will provide." The promises made to Abraham were
          again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to
          the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and
          returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Gen. 22:19), where he
          resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron.

          Some years after this Sarah died at Hebron, being 127 years old.
          Abraham acquired now the needful possession of a burying-place,
          the cave of Machpelah, by purchase from the owner of it, Ephron
          the Hittite (Gen. 23); and there he buried Sarah. His next care
          was to provide a wife for Isaac, and for this purpose he sent
          his steward, Eliezer, to Haran (or Charran, Acts 7:2), where his
          brother Nahor and his family resided (Gen. 11:31). The result
          was that Rebekah, the daughter of Nahor's son Bethuel, became
          the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24). Abraham then himself took to wife
          Keturah, who became the mother of six sons, whose descendants
          were afterwards known as the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3),
          and later as "Saracens." At length all his wanderings came to an
          end. At the age of 175 years, 100 years after he had first
          entered the land of Canaan, he died, and was buried in the old
          family burying-place at Machpelah (Gen. 25:7-10).

          The history of Abraham made a wide and deep impression on the
          ancient world, and references to it are interwoven in the
          religious traditions of almost all Eastern nations. He is called
          "the friend of God" (James 2:23), "faithful Abraham" (Gal. 3:9),
          "the father of us all" (Rom. 4:16).

   Abraham's bosom
          (Luke 16:22, 23) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at
          table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which
          brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one
          who sat or reclined above him. To "be in Abraham's bosom" thus
          meant to enjoy happiness and rest (Matt. 8:11; Luke 16:23) at
          the banquet in Paradise. (See [8]banquet; [9]MEALS.)

          Exalted father. (see [10]ABRAHAM.)

          R.V., one of Israel's halting-places in the desert (Num. 33:34,
          35), just before Ezion-gaber. In A.V., "Ebronah."

          Father of peace; i.e., "peaceful" David's son by Maacah (2 Sam.
          3:3; comp. 1 Kings 1:6). He was noted for his personal beauty
          and for the extra-ordinary profusion of the hair of his head (2
          Sam. 14:25,26). The first public act of his life was the
          blood-revenge he executed against Amnon, David's eldest son, who
          had basely wronged Absalom's sister Tamar. This revenge was
          executed at the time of the festivities connected with a great
          sheep-shearing at Baal-hazor. David's other sons fled from the
          place in horror, and brought the tidings of the death of Amnon
          to Jerusalem. Alarmed for the consequences of the act, Absalom
          fled to his grandfather at Geshur, and there abode for three
          years (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:23-38).

          David mourned his absent son, now branded with the guilt of
          fratricide. As the result of a stratagem carried out by a woman
          of Tekoah, Joab received David's sanction to invite Absalom back
          to Jerusalem. He returned accordingly, but two years elapsed
          before his father admitted him into his presence (2 Sam. 14:28).
          Absalom was now probably the oldest surviving son of David, and
          as he was of royal descent by his mother as well as by his
          father, he began to aspire to the throne. His pretensions were
          favoured by the people. By many arts he gained their affection;
          and after his return from Geshur (2 Sam. 15:7; marg., R.V.) he
          went up to Hebron, the old capital of Judah, along with a great
          body of the people, and there proclaimed himself king. The
          revolt was so successful that David found it necessary to quit
          Jerusalem and flee to Mahanaim, beyond Jordan; where upon
          Absalom returned to Jerusalem and took possession of the throne
          without opposition. Ahithophel, who had been David's chief
          counsellor, deserted him and joined Absalom, whose chief
          counsellor he now became. Hushai also joined Absalom, but only
          for the purpose of trying to counteract the counsels of
          Ahithophel, and so to advantage David's cause. He was so far
          successful that by his advice, which was preferred to that of
          Ahithophel, Absalom delayed to march an army against his father,
          who thus gained time to prepare for the defence.

          Absalom at length marched out against his father, whose army,
          under the command of Joab, he encountered on the borders of the
          forest of Ephraim. Twenty thousand of Absalom's army were slain
          in that fatal battle, and the rest fled. Absalom fled on a swift
          mule; but his long flowing hair, or more probably his head, was
          caught in the bough of an oak, and there he was left suspended
          till Joab came up and pierced him through with three darts. His
          body was then taken down and cast into a pit dug in the forest,
          and a heap of stones was raised over his grave. When the tidings
          of the result of that battle were brought to David, as he sat
          impatiently at the gate of Mahanaim, and he was told that
          Absalom had been slain, he gave way to the bitter lamentation:
          "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died
          for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!" (2 Sam. 18:33. Comp. Ex.
          32:32; Rom. 9:3).

          Absalom's three sons (2 Sam. 14:27; comp. 18:18) had all died
          before him, so that he left only a daughter, Tamar, who became
          the grandmother of Abijah.

          (Heb. shittim) Ex. 25:5, R.V. probably the Acacia seyal (the
          gum-arabic tree); called the "shittah" tree (Isa. 41:19). Its
          wood is called shittim wood (Ex. 26:15, 26; 25:10, 13, 23, 28,
          etc.). This species (A. seyal) is like the hawthorn, a gnarled
          and thorny tree. It yields the gum-arabic of commerce. It is
          found in abundance in the Sinaitic peninsula.

          The high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has
          been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to
          the north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the
          cities of Nimrod's kingdom (Ge 10:10). It stood close to the
          Euphrates, opposite Sippara. (See [11]SEPHARVAIM.)

          It is also the name of the country of which this city was the
          capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. The Accadians who
          came from the "mountains of the east," where the ark rested,
          attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian
          inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black
          faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. They
          invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and
          also the cuneiform system, in which they wrote many books partly
          on papyrus and partly on clay. The Semitic Babylonians ("the
          white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites,
          and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded
          and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language
          ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its
          literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated
          classes of Babylonia. A large portion of the Ninevite tablets
          brought to light by Oriental research consists of interlinear or
          parallel translations from Accadian into Assyrian; and thus that
          long-forgotten language has been recovered by scholars. It
          belongs to the class of languages called agglutinative, common
          to the Tauranian race; i.e., it consists of words "glued
          together," without declension of conjugation. These tablets in a
          remarkable manner illustrate ancient history. Among other
          notable records, they contain an account of the Creation which
          closely resembles that given in the book of Genesis, of the
          Sabbath as a day of rest, and of the Deluge and its cause. (See
          [12]BABYLON; [13]CHALDEA.)

          Sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe
          of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judg. 1:31). It was known
          to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from
          Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100. Here
          Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During
          the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and
          subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights
          Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St. Jean d'Acre, or
          simply Acre.

          Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" (Rev. 12:10. Comp.
          Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1), as seeking to uphold his influence among
          men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view
          of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which
          they are identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser
          of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the
          law of which they were guilty, and demanding their punishment.
          The same Greek word, rendered "accuser," is found in John 8:10
          (but omitted in the Revised Version); Acts 23:30, 35; 24:8;
          25:16, 18, in all of which places it is used of one who brings a
          charge against another.

          The name which the Jews gave in their proper tongue, i.e., in
          Aramaic, to the field which was purchased with the money which
          had been given to the betrayer of our Lord. The word means
          "field of blood." It was previously called "the potter's field"
          (Matt. 27:7, 8; Acts 1:19), and was appropriated as the
          burial-place for strangers. It lies on a narrow level terrace on
          the south face of the valley of Hinnom. Its modern name is Hak

          The name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on
          the north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied
          by the Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea,
          and the south of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces
          (Macedonia being the other) into which they divided the country
          when it fell under their dominion. It is in this latter enlarged
          meaning that the name is always used in the New Testament (Acts
          18:12, 27; 19:21; Rom. 15: 26; 16:5, etc.). It was at the time
          when Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles under the proconsular
          form of government; hence the appropriate title given to Gallio
          as the "deputy," i.e., proconsul, of Achaia (Acts 18:12).

          (1 Cor. 16:17), one of the members of the church of Corinth who,
          with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at
          Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the
          church. These three probably were the bearers of the letter from
          Corinth to the apostle to which he alludes in 1 Cor. 7:1.

          Called also Achar, i.e., one who troubles (1 Chr. 2:7), in
          commemoration of his crime, which brought upon him an awful
          destruction (Josh. 7:1). On the occasion of the fall of Jericho,
          he seized, contrary to the divine command, an ingot of gold, a
          quantity of silver, and a costly Babylonish garment, which he
          hid in his tent. Joshua was convinced that the defeat which the
          Israelites afterwards sustained before Ai was a proof of the
          divine displeasure on account of some crime, and he at once
          adopted means by the use of the lot for discovering the
          criminal. It was then found that Achan was guilty, and he was
          stoned to death in the valley of Achor. He and all that belonged
          to him were then consumed by fire, and a heap of stones was
          raised over the ashes.

          Gnawing = mouse. (1.) An Edomitish king (Gen. 36:38; 1 Chr.

          (2.) One of Josiah's officers sent to the prophetess Huldah to
          inquire regarding the newly-discovered book of the law (2 Kings
          22:12, 14). He is also called Abdon (2 Chr. 34:20).

          Angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the
          Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge
          when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10-15). He is called Abimelech
          in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king
          to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of
          600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on
          war against the surrounding tribes (1 Sam. 27:5-12). Achish had
          great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David (1 Sam.
          28:1, 2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit
          him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1 Sam.
          29:2-11). David remained with Achish a year and four months.
          (2.) Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing,
          to whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go
          to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon
          put him to death (1 Kings 2:39-46).

          (Ezra 6:2), called Ecbatana by classical writers, the capital of
          northern Media. Here was the palace which was the residence of
          the old Median monarchs, and of Cyrus and Cambyses. In the time
          of Ezra, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon.
          But Cyrus held his court at Achmetha; and Ezra, writing a
          century after, correctly mentions the place where the decree of
          Cyrus was found.

          Trouble, a valley near Jericho, so called in consequence of the
          trouble which the sin of Achan caused Israel (Josh. 7:24, 26).
          The expression "valley of Achor" probably became proverbial for
          that which caused trouble, and when Isaiah (Isa. 65:10) refers
          to it he uses it in this sense: "The valley of Achor, a place
          for herds to lie down in;" i.e., that which had been a source of
          calamity would become a source of blessing. Hosea also (Hos.
          2:15) uses the expression in the same sense: "The valley of
          Achor for a door of hope;" i.e., trouble would be turned into
          joy, despair into hope. This valley has been identified with the
          Wady Kelt.

          Anklet, Caleb's only daughter (1 Chr. 2:49). She was offered in
          marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of
          Debir, or Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who
          accordingly obtained her as his wife (Josh. 15:16-19; Judg.

          Fascination, a royal city of the Canaanites, in the north of
          Palestine (Josh. 11:1; 12:20; 19:25). It was in the eastern
          boundary of the tribe of Asher, and is identified with the
          modern ruined village of Kesaf or Yasif, N.E. of Accho.

          Falsehood. (1.) A town in the Shephelah, or plain country of
          Judah (Josh. 15:44); probably the same as Chezib of Gen. 38:5 =
          Ain Kezbeh.

          (2.) A Phoenician city (the Gr. Ecdippa), always retained in
          their possession though assigned to the tribe of Asher (Josh.
          19:29; Judg. 1:31). It is identified with the modern es-Zib, on
          the Mediterranean, about 8 miles north of Accho.

          Is the translation of a word (tse'med), which properly means a
          yoke, and denotes a space of ground that may be ploughed by a
          yoke of oxen in a day. It is about an acre of our measure (Isa.
          5:10; 1 Sam. 14:14).

   Acts of the Apostles
          The title now given to the fifth and last of the historical
          books of the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise"
          (1:1). It was early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy
          Ghost," and "The Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains
          properly no account of any of the apostles except Peter and
          Paul. John is noticed only three times; and all that is recorded
          of James, the son of Zebedee, is his execution by Herod. It is
          properly therefore not the history of the "Acts of the
          Apostles," a title which was given to the book at a later date,
          but of "Acts of Apostles," or more correctly, of "Some Acts of
          Certain Apostles."

          As regards its authorship, it was certainly the work of Luke,
          the "beloved physician" (comp. Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1). This is
          the uniform tradition of antiquity, although the writer nowhere
          makes mention of himself by name. The style and idiom of the
          Gospel of Luke and of the Acts, and the usage of words and
          phrases common to both, strengthen this opinion. The writer
          first appears in the narrative in 16:11, and then disappears
          till Paul's return to Philippi two years afterwards, when he and
          Paul left that place together (20:6), and the two seem
          henceforth to have been constant companions to the end. He was
          certainly with Paul at Rome (28; Col. 4:14). Thus he wrote a
          great portion of that history from personal observation. For
          what lay beyond his own experience he had the instruction of
          Paul. If, as is very probable, 2 Tim. was written during Paul's
          second imprisonment at Rome, Luke was with him then as his
          faithful companion to the last (2 Tim. 4:11). Of his subsequent
          history we have no certain information.

          The design of Luke's Gospel was to give an exhibition of the
          character and work of Christ as seen in his history till he was
          taken up from his disciples into heaven; and of the Acts, as its
          sequel, to give an illustration of the power and working of the
          gospel when preached among all nations, "beginning at
          Jerusalem." The opening sentences of the Acts are just an
          expansion and an explanation of the closing words of the Gospel.
          In this book we have just a continuation of the history of the
          church after Christ's ascension. Luke here carries on the
          history in the same spirit in which he had commenced it. It is
          only a book of beginnings, a history of the founding of
          churches, the initial steps in the formation of the Christian
          society in the different places visited by the apostles. It
          records a cycle of "representative events."

          All through the narrative we see the ever-present,
          all-controlling power of the ever-living Saviour. He worketh all
          and in all in spreading abroad his truth among men by his Spirit
          and through the instrumentality of his apostles.

          The time of the writing of this history may be gathered from the
          fact that the narrative extends down to the close of the second
          year of Paul's first imprisonment at Rome. It could not
          therefore have been written earlier than A.D. 61 or 62, nor
          later than about the end of A.D. 63. Paul was probably put to
          death during his second imprisonment, about A.D. 64, or, as some
          think, 66.

          The place where the book was written was probably Rome, to which
          Luke accompanied Paul.

          The key to the contents of the book is in 1:8, "Ye shall be
          witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in
          Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth." After
          referring to what had been recorded in a "former treatise" of
          the sayings and doings of Jesus Christ before his ascension, the
          author proceeds to give an account of the circumstances
          connected with that event, and then records the leading facts
          with reference to the spread and triumphs of Christianity over
          the world during a period of about thirty years. The record
          begins with Pentecost (A.D. 33) and ends with Paul's first
          imprisonment (A.D. 63 or 64). The whole contents of the book may
          be divided into these three parts:

          (1.) Chaps. 1-12, describing the first twelve years of the
          Christian church. This section has been entitled "From Jerusalem
          to Antioch." It contains the history of the planting and
          extension of the church among the Jews by the ministry of Peter.

          (2.) Chaps. 13-21, Paul's missionary journeys, giving the
          history of the extension and planting of the church among the

          (3.) Chaps. 21-28, Paul at Rome, and the events which led to
          this. Chaps. 13-28 have been entitled "From Antioch to Rome."

          In this book it is worthy of note that no mention is made of the
          writing by Paul of any of his epistles. This may be accounted
          for by the fact that the writer confined himself to a history of
          the planting of the church, and not to that of its training or
          edification. The relation, however, between this history and the
          epistles of Paul is of such a kind, i.e., brings to light so
          many undesigned coincidences, as to prove the genuineness and
          authenticity of both, as is so ably shown by Paley in his Horae
          Paulinae. "No ancient work affords so many tests of veracity;
          for no other has such numerous points of contact in all
          directions with contemporary history, politics, and topography,
          whether Jewish, or Greek, or Roman." Lightfoot. (See [14]PAUL.)

          Ornament. (1.) The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother
          of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19, 20, 23).

          (2.) The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the
          Hittite (Gen. 36:2, 4), called also Bashemath (26:34).

          Red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the
          same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was
          the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and
          subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in
          the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27-ch. 5). "God created man
          [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he
          him; male and female created he them."

          Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created. He was
          formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and
          God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and gave him
          dominion over all the lower creatures (Gen. 1:26; 2:7). He was
          placed after his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate
          it, and to enjoy its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the
          tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it;
          for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."

          The first recorded act of Adam was his giving names to the
          beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, which God brought
          to him for this end. Thereafter the Lord caused a deep sleep to
          fall upon him, and while in an unconscious state took one of his
          ribs, and closed up his flesh again; and of this rib he made a
          woman, whom he presented to him when he awoke. Adam received her
          as his wife, and said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh
          of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken
          out of Man." He called her Eve, because she was the mother of
          all living.

          Being induced by the tempter in the form of a serpent to eat the
          forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam, and he also did eat. Thus
          man fell, and brought upon himself and his posterity all the sad
          consequences of his transgression. The narrative of the Fall
          comprehends in it the great promise of a Deliverer (Gen. 3:15),
          the "first gospel" message to man. They were expelled from Eden,
          and at the east of the garden God placed a flame, which turned
          every way, to prevent access to the tree of life (Gen. 3). How
          long they were in Paradise is matter of mere conjecture.

          Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her first-born,
          and called him Cain. Although we have the names of only three of
          Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth, yet it is obvious that
          he had several sons and daughters (Gen. 5:4). He died aged 930

          Adam and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human race.
          Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity of
          the human race. The investigations of science, altogether
          independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that
          God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on
          all the face of the earth" (Acts 17:26. Comp. Rom. 5:12-12; 1
          Cor. 15:22-49).

          Red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern
          Damieh, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias (Josh. 19:33,

          (Heb. shamir), Ezek. 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond.
          This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard
          steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of
          the truth (Zech. 7:12), and of hard-heartedness against the
          truth (Jer. 17:1).

   Adam, a type
          The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to
          come." On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second
          Adam. This typical relation is described in Rom. 5:14-19.

   Adam, the city of
          Is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the
          west bank of Jordan (1 Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the
          water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the
          Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16).

          Large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the
          ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7, 13; 8:12; 9:1, 15,
          17, 19, 21). It included the days extending from the new moon of
          our March to the new moon of April. The name was first used
          after the Captivity. When the season was backward, and the lambs
          not yet of a paschal size, or the barley not forward enough for
          abib, then a month called Veadar, i.e., a second Adar, was

          Miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and
          head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29).

          Ample, splendid, son of Bela (1 Chr. 8:3); called also "Ard"
          (Gen. 46:21)

          (Ps. 140:3; Rom. 3:13, "asp") is the rendering of, (1.) Akshub
          ("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper, found
          only in this passage. (2.) Pethen ("twisting"), a viper or
          venomous serpent identified with the cobra (Naja haje) (Ps.
          58:4; 91:13); elsewhere "asp." (3.) Tziphoni ("hissing") (Prov.
          23:32); elsewhere rendered "cockatrice," Isa. 11:8; 14:29; 59:5;
          Jer. 8:17, as it is here in the margin of the Authorized
          Version. The Revised Version has "basilisk." This may have been
          the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and most
          dangerous of the vipers of Palestine. (4.) Shephiphon
          ("creeping"), occurring only in Gen. 49:17, the small speckled
          venomous snake, the "horned snake," or cerastes. Dan is compared
          to this serpent, which springs from its hiding-place on the

          Ornament, (Luke 3:28), the son of Cosam, and father of Melchi,
          one of the progenitors of Christ.

          Low, one of the persons named in Neh. 7:61 who could not "shew
          their father's house" on the return from captivity. This, with
          similar instances (ver. 63), indicates the importance the Jews
          attached to their genealogies.

          Ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer
          under David and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25). (2.) A family head of
          the tribe of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:36). (3.) A priest (1 Chr. 9:12).

          Effeminate. (1.) Ezra 8:6. (2.) Neh. 10:16.

          Slender, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:42), a Reubenite.

          The Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2 Sam. 23:8). (See

          A solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the
          obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1 Sam.
          14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 22:16).

          We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt.
          26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to
          avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the
          person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer.

          The word "adjure", i.e., cause to swear is used with reference
          to the casting out of demons (Acts 19:13).

          Earth, one of the five cities of the vale of Siddim (Gen.
          10:19). It was destroyed along with Sodom and Gomorrah (19:24;
          Deut. 29:23). It is supposed by some to be the same as the Adam
          of Josh. 3:16, the name of which still lingers in Damieh, the
          ford of Jordan. (See [16]ZEBOIM.)

          Delight. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David
          at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20). (2.) A general under Jehoshaphat,
          chief over 300,000 men (2 Chr. 17:14).

          Lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of
          the chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the
          armies of Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a
          captive to Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut
          off. He confessed that God had requited him for his like cruelty
          to the seventy kings whom he had subdued (Judg. 1:4-7; comp. 1
          Sam. 15:33).

          My Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2 Sam. 3:4).
          After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he
          became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger
          brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his
          father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But
          Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon
          should at once be proclaimed and admitted to the throne.
          Adonijah fled and took refuge at the altar, and received pardon
          for his conduct from Solomon on the condition that he showed
          himself "a worthy man" (1 Kings 1:5-53). He afterwards made a
          second attempt to gain the throne, but was seized and put to
          death (1 Kings 2:13-25).

          (2.) A Levite sent with the princes to teach the book of the law
          to the inhabitants of Judah (2 Chr. 17:8).

          (3.) One of the "chiefs of the people" after the Captivity (Neh.

          Whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel"
          (Ezra 2:13). His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666,
          came up to Jerusalem (8:13).

          (Adoram, 1 Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the
          tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to
          death by the people of Israel (1 Kings 4:6; 5:14)

          Lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the
          time when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Josh. 10:1, 3). He
          formed a confederacy with the other Canaanitish kings against
          the Israelites, but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was
          engaged in besieging the Gibeonites. The history of this victory
          and of the treatment of the five confederated kings is recorded
          in Josh. 10:1-27. (Comp. Deut. 21:23). Among the Tell Amarna
          tablets (see [17]EGYPT) are some very interesting letters from
          Adoni-zedec to the King of Egypt. These illustrate in a very
          remarkable manner the history recorded in Josh. 10, and indeed
          throw light on the wars of conquest generally, so that they may
          be read as a kind of commentary on the book of Joshua. Here the
          conquering career of the Abiri (i.e., Hebrews) is graphically
          described: "Behold, I say that the land of the king my lord is
          ruined", "The wars are mighty against me", "The Hebrew chiefs
          plunder all the king's lands", "Behold, I the chief of the
          Amorites am breaking to pieces." Then he implores the king of
          Egypt to send soldiers to help him, directing that the army
          should come by sea to Ascalon or Gaza, and thence march to
          Wru-sa-lim (Jerusalem) by the valley of Elah.

          The giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son
          who is not a son by birth.

          (1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Ex. 2:10),
          and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7).

          (2.) National. God adopted Israel (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos.
          11:1; Rom. 9:4).

          (3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men
          into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers
          of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption
          represents the new relations into which the believer is
          introduced by justification, and the privileges connected
          therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (John 17:23;
          Rom. 5:5-8), a spiritual nature (2 Pet. 1:4; John 1:13), the
          possession of a spirit becoming children of God (1 Pet. 1:14; 2
          John 4; Rom. 8:15-21; Gal. 5:1; Heb. 2:15), present protection,
          consolation, supplies (Luke 12:27-32; John 14:18; 1 Cor.
          3:21-23; 2 Cor. 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb. 12:5-11), and
          a future glorious inheritance (Rom. 8:17, 23; James 2:5; Phil.

          See [18]ADONIRAM.

          To worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of
          adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Ex. 3:5;
          Josh. 5:15), and prostration (Gen. 17:3; Ps. 95:6; Isa. 44:15,
          17, 19; 46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Ps. 2:12 is to adore and
          worship him. (See Dan. 3:5, 6.) The word itself does not occur
          in Scripture.

          Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by
          the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:31), and brought by
          the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of
          Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).

          A city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times
          was called AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea
          belonged to this city (Acts 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to
          Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to
          Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of
          Palestine direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti,
          and is a place of some traffic.

          (Acts 27:27; R.V., "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea,
          including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying
          between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the
          Mare Superum_ of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare
          Inferum_ or Tyrrhenian Sea.

          Flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom
          Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1 Sam. 18:19). The
          five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the
          Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8, 9. Here it is said that Michal "brought
          up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them
          as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we
          should read "Merab," as in 1 Sam. 18:19).

          One of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now Aid-el-ma (Josh.
          12:15; 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of
          Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory
          over Goliath (1 Sam. 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of
          the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2 Chr. 11:7).
          It was called "the glory of Israel" (Micah 1:15).

          The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of
          the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from
          Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced
          with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together
          "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt,
          and every one that was discontented" (1 Sam. 22:2). Some of
          these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According
          to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem
          and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.

          An inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Gen. 38:1, 12, 20).

          Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit
          intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a
          woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and
          an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a
          great social wrong, as well as a great sin.

          The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected wife
          should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of jealousy." There
          is, however, no recorded instance of the application of this
          law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations
          with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing
          about a divorce. It has been inferred from John 8:1-11 that this
          sin became very common during the age preceding the destruction
          of Jerusalem.

          Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery
          spiritually (Jer. 3:6, 8, 9; Ezek. 16:32; Hos. 1:2:3; Rev.
          2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isa. 1:21; Ezek.
          23:4, 7, 37), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation"
          (Matt. 12:39). (Comp. Rev. 12.)

          The red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and
          Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking
          toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7; 18:17. It was nearly
          half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name
          of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place
          referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke
          10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and
          carriages for the first time have come along this road from

          (Heb. satan), an opponent or foe (1 Kings 5:4; 11:14, 23, 25;
          Luke 13:17); one that speaks against another, a complainant
          (Matt. 5:25; Luke 12:58); an enemy (Luke 18:3), and specially
          the devil (1 Pet. 5:8).

          (Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps
          another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by
          Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7,
          where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is
          applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is
          rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all
          the places where it occurs. Tertullus "the orator" (Acts 24:1)
          was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul
          before Felix.

          Springs, a place near Salim where John baptized (John 3:23). It
          was probably near the upper source of the Wady Far'ah, an open
          valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of
          springs. A place has been found called Ainun, four miles north
          of the springs.

          Feeling or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" (Rom.
          1:26) and "inordinate affection" (Col. 3:5). Christians are
          exhorted to set their affections on things above (Col. 3:2).
          There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious
          affections (Ezek. 33:32).

          Relationship by alliance (2 Chr. 18:1) or by marriage (1 Kings
          3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of
          affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6-17. Consanguinity is relationship
          by blood.

          Common to all (Job 5:7; 14:1; Ps. 34:19); are for the good of
          men (James 1:2, 3, 12; 2 Cor. 12:7) and the glory of God (2 Cor.
          12:7-10; 1 Pet. 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the
          Lord's people (Ps. 94:12; Prov. 3:12). They are all directed by
          God (Lam. 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his
          people (2 Cor. 4:16-18) in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8:35-39).

          A "prophet," probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He
          prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, 28).
          Many years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of
          the bonds and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he
          persist in going thither (Acts 21:10-12).

          Flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was
          of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by
          Balaam (Num. 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus.

          (2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully,
          but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in
          retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and cut in
          pieces (1 Sam. 15:8-33. Comp. Ex. 17:11; Num. 14:45).

          A name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, 10;
          8:3, 5). Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.

          (Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high
          priest (Ex. 28:19; 39:12), the second in the third row. This may
          be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized
          quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa.
          54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew
          cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely
          crystalline silica more or less in bands of different tints.

          This word is from the Greek name of a stone found in the river
          Achates in Sicily.

          Used to denote the period of a man's life (Gen. 47:28), the
          maturity of life (John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job
          11:17), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8), and an
          indefinite period (Eph. 2:7; 3:5, 21; Col. 1:26). Respect to be
          shown to the aged (Lev. 19:32). It is a blessing to communities
          when they have old men among them (Isa. 65:20; Zech. 8:4). The
          aged supposed to excel in understanding (Job 12:20; 15:10; 32:4,
          9; 1 Kings 12:6, 8). A full age the reward of piety (Job 5:26;
          Gen. 15:15).

          Fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty
          men (2 Sam. 23:11)

          Contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering.
          Anguish is the reflection on evil that is already past, while
          agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is only
          used in the New Testament by Luke (22:44) to describe our Lord's
          fearful struggle in Gethsemane.

          The verb from which the noun "agony" is derived is used to
          denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [agonize] to
          enter" (Luke 13:24); "Then would my servants fight" [agonize]
          (John 18:36). Comp. 1 Cor. 9:25; Col. 1:29; 4:12; 1 Tim. 6:12; 2
          Tim. 4:7, where the words "striveth," "labour," "conflict,"
          "fight," are the renderings of the same Greek verb.

          Tilling the ground (Gen. 2:15; 4:2, 3, 12) and rearing cattle
          were the chief employments in ancient times. The Egyptians
          excelled in agriculture. And after the Israelites entered into
          the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances
          favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this
          art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic

          The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural

          I. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal
          equinox.) Marchesvan. Kisleu, former half. Early rain due =
          first showers of autumn.

          II. UNRIPE TIME. Kisleu, latter half. Tebet. Sebat, former half.

          III. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half. Adar. [Veadar.] Nisan,
          former half. Latter rain due (Deut. 11:14; Jer. 5:24; Hos. 6:3;
          Zech. 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23).

          IV. HARVEST TIME. Nisan, latter half. (Beginning about vernal
          equinox. Barley green. Passover.) Ijar. Sivan, former half.,
          Wheat ripe. Pentecost.

          V. SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half. Tammuz.
          Ab, former half.

          VI. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half. Elul. Tisri, former half.,
          Ingathering of fruits.

          The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan
          were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the
          year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits. The extensive
          and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and
          streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of
          Palestine richly productive (Ps. 1:3; 65:10; Prov. 21:1; Isa.
          30:25; 32:2, 20; Hos. 12:11), and the appliances of careful
          cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an
          extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant
          population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to
          Hiram in exchange for timber (1 Kings 5:11), and in large
          quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the
          merchandise in which they traded (Ezek. 27:17). The wheat
          sometimes produced an hundredfold (Gen. 26:12; Matt. 13:23).
          Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful (Num. 13:23), and the
          vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit
          (Deut. 33:24).

          Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was
          enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year,
          when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Lev. 25:1-7;
          Deut. 15:1-10).

          It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deut. 22:9).
          A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or
          grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deut. 23:24,
          25; Matt. 12:1). The poor were permitted to claim the corners of
          the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the field was
          to be left also for the poor. (See Lev. 19:9, 10; Deut. 24:19.)

          Agricultural implements and operations.

          The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria
          throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations
          of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple construction were known in
          the time of Moses (Deut. 22:10; comp. Job 1:14). They were very
          light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground
          (Luke 9:62). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14), cows (1 Sam.
          6:7), and asses (Isa. 30:24); but an ox and an ass must not be
          yoked together in the same plough (Deut. 22:10). Men sometimes
          followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isa. 28:24).
          The oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the
          end, so that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also
          (Judg. 3:31; 1 Sam. 13:21).

          When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the
          field (Matt. 13:3-8). The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was
          not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being
          little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated
          spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isa. 32:20); but
          doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the
          seed scattered in the furrows of the field.

          The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by
          the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to
          circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves
          (Gen. 37:7; Lev. 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7, 15; Job 24:10; Jer. 9:22;
          Micah 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the
          threshing-floor or stored in barns (Matt. 6:26).

          The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading
          the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle
          to tread repeatedly over them (Deut. 25:4; Isa. 28:28). On
          occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth
          2:17; Isa. 28:27). There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isa.
          41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn. It was called by
          the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2 Sam. 24:22;
          1 Chr. 21:23; Isa. 3:15). It was somewhat like the Roman
          tribulum, or threshing instrument.

          When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up
          against the wind (Jer. 4:11), and afterwards tossed with wooden
          scoops (Isa. 30:24). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are
          mentioned in Ps. 35:5, Job 21:18, Isa. 17:13. The refuse of
          straw and chaff was burned (Isa. 5:24). Freed from impurities,
          the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deut. 28:8;
          Prov. 3:10; Matt. 6:26; 13:30; Luke 12:18).

   Agrippa I.
          The grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and
          Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of
          the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias,
          with the title of king ("king Herod"), and finally of that of
          Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he
          became ruler over the whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of
          the early Christians. He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts
          12:1-4). He died at Caesarea, being "eaten of worms" (Acts
          12:23), A.D. 44. (Comp. Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)

   Agrippa II.
          Son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27. He was the
          brother of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48)
          invested him with the office of superintendent of the Temple of
          Jerusalem, and made him governor (A.D. 50) of Chalcis. He was
          afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor over
          the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13; 26:2, 7). It
          was before him that Paul delivered (A.D. 59) his speech recorded
          in Acts 26. His private life was very profligate. He died (the
          last of his race) at Rome, at the age of about seventy years,
          A.D. 100.

          The translation in Lev. 26:16 (R.V., "fever") of the Hebrew word
          kaddah'ath, meaning "kindling", i.e., an inflammatory or burning
          fever. In Deut. 28:22 the word is rendered "fever."

          Gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in
          Prov. 30. Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.

          An exclamation of sorrow or regret (Ps. 35:25; Isa. 1:4, 24;
          Jer. 1:6; 22:18; Mark 15:29).

          An exclamation of ridicule (Ps. 35:21; 40:15; 70:3). In Isa.
          44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25, R.V.

          Father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the
          seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings
          16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil
          influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam
          he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by
          Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account
          kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He
          undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of
          Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a
          complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and
          was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all
          the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other
          concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause
          Ahab renewed war (1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the
          city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him
          that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who
          encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was
          imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose.
          Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible
          escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn
          at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot
          for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1
          Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years.
          Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is
          referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2 Kings
          8:18; 2 Chr. 22:3; Micah 6:16).

          (2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jer. 29:21), of
          whom nothing further is known.

          There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.)
          The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was
          probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history,
          the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.

          (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of
          profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529).

          (3.) The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of
          Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and
          Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was in all probability
          the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius
          (B.C. 485). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name
          Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years
          (B.C. 486-465). He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of
          more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with
          him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the
          Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by
          Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this
          invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.

          Water, the river (Ezra 8:21) by the banks of which the Jewish
          exiles assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem
          from Babylon. In all probability this was one of the streams of
          Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the
          north-west of Babylonia. It has, however, been supposed to be
          the name of a place (Ezra 8:15) now called Hit, on the
          Euphrates, east of Damascus.

          Possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1 Chr. 8:35; 9:42).

          (2.) The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 16;
          Isa. 7-9; 2 Chr. 28). He gave himself up to a life of wickedness
          and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of
          Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin,
          king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened
          Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great
          injury of his kingdom and his own humilating subjection to the
          Assyrians (2 Kings 16:7, 9; 15:29). He also introduced among his
          people many heathen and idolatrous customs (Isa. 8:19; 38:8; 2
          Kings 23:12). He died at the age of thirty-five years, after
          reigning sixteen years (B.C. 740-724), and was succeeded by his
          son Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness he was "not brought into
          the sepulchre of the kings."

          Held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed
          the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness
          the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from
          under his authority (2 Kings 3:5-7). He united with Jehoshaphat
          in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which
          proved a failure (2 Chr. 20:35-37). His messengers, sent to
          consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects
          of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the
          way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would
          never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18).

          (2.) The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah.
          Called Jehoahaz (2 Chr. 21:17; 25:23), and Azariah (2 Chr.
          22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was
          disastrous (2 Kings 8:24-29; 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram,
          king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of
          Damascus; but was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to
          escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died (2
          Kings 9:22-28). He reigned only one year.

          Mother's brother, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:33; 1
          Chr. 11:35).

          Brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of
          Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25; 10:25).

          (2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David
          at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).

          Brother (i.e., "friend") of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son
          of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:7).

          (2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief
          of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to
          superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Num. 34:27).

          Brother (i.e., "friend") of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of
          Bela (1 Chr. 8:7, R.V.). In A.V. called "Ahiah."

          (2.) One of the five sons of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson
          of Judah (1 Chr. 2:25).

          (3.) Son of Ahitub (1 Sam. 14:3, 18), Ichabod's brother; the
          same probably as Ahimelech, who was high priest at Nob in the
          reign of Saul (1 Sam. 22:11). Some, however, suppose that
          Ahimelech was the brother of Ahijah, and that they both
          officiated as high priests, Ahijah at Gibeah or Kirjath-jearim,
          and Ahimelech at Nob.

          (4.) A Pelonite, one of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:36); called
          also Eliam (2 Sam. 23:34).

          (5.) A Levite having charge of the sacred treasury in the temple
          (1 Chr. 26:20).

          (6.) One of Solomon's secretaries (1 Kings 4:3).

          (7.) A prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 14:2), called the
          "Shilonite," in the days of Rehoboam. We have on record two of
          his remarkable prophecies, 1 Kings 11:31-39, announcing the
          rending of the ten tribes from Solomon; and 1 Kings 14:6-16,
          delivered to Jeroboam's wife, foretelling the death of Abijah
          the king's son, the destruction of Jeroboam's house, and the
          captivity of Israel "beyond the river." Jeroboam bears testimony
          to the high esteem in which he was held as a prophet of God (1
          Kings 14:2, 3).

          Brother of support = helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to
          consult the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery
          of the book of the law (2 Kings 22:12-14; 2 Chr. 34:20). He was
          the son of Shaphan, the royal secretary, and the father of
          Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem
          by the Babylonians (2 Kings 25:22; Jer. 40:5-16; 43:6). On one
          occasion he protected Jeremiah against the fury of Jehoiakim
          (Jer. 26:24). It was in the chamber of another son (Germariah)
          of Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people
          Jeremiah's roll.

          Brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife
          of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).

          (2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest
          (1 Chr. 6:8, 53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he
          remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in
          conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in
          Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:24-37; 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and
          was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of
          Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from
          telling him of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-33).

          Brother of a gift = liberal. (1.) One of the three giant Anakim
          brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount Hebron (Num.
          13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were
          afterwards driven out and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).

          (2.) One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile (1 Chr.

          Brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (1
          Sam. 22:20-23). He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In
          1 Chr. 18:16 he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as
          Ahiah (1 Sam. 14:3, 18). He was the twelfth high priest, and
          officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and
          his companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he
          fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:1-9). He was summoned into Saul's
          presence, and accused, on the information of Doeg the Edomite,
          of disloyalty because of his kindness to David; whereupon the
          king commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside
          him (86 in all), should be put to death. This sentence was
          carried into execution by Doeg in the most cruel manner (1 Sam.
          22:9-23). Possibly Abiathar had a son also called Ahimelech, or
          the two names, as some think, may have been accidentally
          transposed in 2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chr. 18:16, marg.; 24:3, 6, 31.

          Brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat
          officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his
          kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household.
          He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1 Kings 4:14),
          east of Jordan.

          Brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of
          Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).

          (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1 Sam. 25:43;
          27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2 Sam. 3:2). (See 1 Sam.
          30:5, 18; 2 Sam. 2:2.)

          Brotherly. (1.) One of the sons of Beriah (1 Chr. 8:14).

          (2.) One of the sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite (1 Chr. 8:31;

          (3.) One of the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by
          the side of the ark, he walked before it guiding the oxen which
          drew the cart on which it was carried, after having brought it
          from his father's house in Gibeah (1 Chr. 13:7; 2 Sam. 6:3, 4).

          Brother of evil = unlucky, or my brother is friend, chief of the
          tribe of Naphtali at the Exodus (Num. 1:15; 2:29).

          Brother of song = singer, the officer who was "over the
          household" of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6).

          Brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his
          sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he
          deserted David (Ps. 41:9; 55:12-14) and espoused the cause of
          Absalom (2 Sam. 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to
          Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of
          Ahithophel (2 Sam. 15:31-37). This end was so far gained that
          Ahithophel saw he had no longer any influence, and accordingly
          he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned to Giloh, his
          native place, where, after arranging his wordly affairs, he
          hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers
          (2 Sam. 17:1-23). He was the type of Judas (Ps. 41:9).

          Brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the
          death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high
          priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1 Sam.
          14:3; 22:9, 11, 12, 20).

          (2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after
          the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1 Chr. 6:7, 8; 2
          Sam. 8:17).

          Fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician
          border (Judg. 1:31), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly
          identified with Giscala, now el-Jish.

          Brotherly, one of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chr.
          8:4). He is also called Ahiah (ver. 7) and Iri (1 Chr. 7:7). His
          descendants were called Ahohites (2 Sam. 23:9, 28).

          An epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains (1 Chr.
          27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David's three mightiest heroes
          (2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chr. 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the thirty (2
          Sam. 23:28; 1 Chr. 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.

          She has her own tent, a name used by Ezekiel (23:4, 5, 36, 44)
          as a symbol of the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This
          kingdom is described as a lewdwoman, an adulteress, given up to
          the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and Assyrians.
          Because of her crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased
          to be a kingdom. (Comp. Ps. 78:67-69; 1 Kings 12:25-33; 2 Chr.

          Tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to
          the work of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Ex. 31:6;
          35:34; 36:1, 2; 38:23).

          My tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied
          symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship
          of the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of
          foreign nations. (Ezek. 23:4, 11, 22, 36, 44).

          Tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of
          Beeri = Anah (Gen. 26:34; 36:2), when she became the wife of
          Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near
          Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she
          received her name from the district. From her descended three
          tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons.

          Ruins. (1.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Josh.
          10:1; Gen. 12:8; 13:3). It was the scene of Joshua's defeat, and
          afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite city
          taken by Israel (Josh. 7:2-5; 8:1-29). It lay rebuilt and
          inhibited by the Benjamites (Ezra 2:28; Neh. 7:32; 11:31). It
          lay to the east of Bethel, "beside Beth-aven." The spot which is
          most probably the site of this ancient city is Haiyan, 2 miles
          east from Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged
          valley, extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.

          (2.) A city in the Ammonite territory (Jer. 49:3). Some have
          thought that the proper reading of the word is Ar (Isa. 15:1).

   Aijeleth Shahar
          Hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is
          probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which
          the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the
          name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the
          subject of the psalm.

          The atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (1
          Thess. 4:17; Rev. 9:2; 16:17). This word occurs once as the
          rendering of the Hebrew ruah (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the
          rendering of shamaiyim, usually translated "heavens."

          The expression "to speak into the air" (1 Cor. 14:9) is a
          proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the air" (1 Cor.
          9:26) denotes to labour in vain.

          And Aij'alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally
          assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could
          not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one of the Levitical
          cities given to the Kohathites (1 Chr. 6:69). It was not far
          from Beth-shemesh (2 Chr. 28:18). It was the boundary between
          the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in
          Jewish history (2 Chr. 11:10; 1 Sam. 14:31; 1 Chr. 8:13). With
          reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the
          celebrated command, "Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou,
          Moon, in the valley of Ajalon" (Josh. 10:12). It has been
          identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon
          pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.)
          speaks of the destruction of the "city of Ajalon" by the
          invaders, and describes himself as "afflicted, greatly
          afflicted" by the calamities that had come on the land, urging
          the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.

          (2.) A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:12), the modern
          Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.

          (another form of Jacob). (1.) The head of one of the families of
          Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).

          (2.) A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return
          from Babylon (1 Chr. 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).

          (3.) A descendant of David (1 Chr. 3:24).

          Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge
          containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin,
          es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land
          of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole
          district, and hence the name (Num. 34:4). It is called
          "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Josh. 15:3, and "the ascent of Akrabbim" in
          Num. 34:4.

          Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of
          "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of
          which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in
          the house of Simon the leper (Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37).
          These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in
          Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name
          of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the
          stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume
          vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman
          "broke" the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done,
          the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone
          resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very
          easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (14:5) that this box of
          ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of
          the value of sevenpence halfpenny of our money, and therefore
          worth about 10 pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day's
          wage of a labourer (Matt. 20:2), say two shillings of our money,
          then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so costly was
          Mary's offering.

          Virgins, a musical term (1 Chr. 15:20), denoting that the psalm
          which bears this inscription (Ps. 46) was to be sung by soprano
          or female voices.

          A particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give
          warning to the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness
          (Num. 10:5, 6), a call to arms, or a war-note (Jer. 4:19; 49:2;
          Zeph. 1:16).

          Covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of
          Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:8).

          (2.) One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz (1 Chr.

          (3.) A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (1 Chr. 6:60), called also
          Almon (Josh. 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient

          Man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present
          when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts

          (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of
          Christ (Mark 15:21).

          (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar
          raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put
          him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably
          intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no
          sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is
          possible that this man was the same as the following.

          (4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated
          certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim.
          4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience.
          Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).

   Alexander the Great
          The king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented
          in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard
          and the he-goat (7:6; 11:3, 4). He succeeded his father Philip,
          and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of
          intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four

          The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its
          founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long
          period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and
          Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to
          greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200
          years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only
          incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the
          Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). Many Jews
          from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue
          (Acts 6:9), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it
          is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It
          possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned
          by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible
          was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint
          version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were
          engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at
          one time. It was begun B.C. 280, and finished about B.C. 200 or
          150. (See [19]VERSION.)

          (2 Chr. 2:8; 9:10, 11), the same as almug (1 Kings 10:11).

          A foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore
          not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where
          he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens.

          (1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed

          (2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being
          naturalized (Lev. 22:10; Ps. 39:12).

          Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions,
          the same rights as other citizens (Lev. 19:33, 34; Deut. 10:19).
          They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the
          congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and
          abandoning idolatry (Deut. 23:3-8).

          This term is used (Eph. 2:12) to denote persons who have no
          interest in Christ.

          Used only in Gal. 4:24, where the apostle refers to the history
          of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes
          use of it allegorically.

          Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2 Sam. 12:1-4) addresses
          David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there
          is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt,"
          etc. In Eccl. 12:2-6, there is a striking allegorical
          description of old age.

          The Greek form (Rev. 19:1, 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah =
          Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms
          (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).

          A treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their
          mutual advantage.

          Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes
          (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22-32). Joshua and the
          elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites
          (Josh. 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were
          forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the
          country (Lev. 18:3, 4; 20:22, 23).

          Solomon formed a league with Hiram (1 Kings 5:12). This
          "brotherly covenant" is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos
          1:9). He also appears to have entered into an alliance with
          Pharaoh (1 Kings 10:28, 29).

          In the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel
          various alliances were formed between them and also with
          neighbouring nations at different times.

          From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the
          blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was cut
          in two (except birds), and between these two parts the persons
          contracting the alliance passed (Gen. 15:10). There are frequent
          allusions to this practice (Jer. 34:18). Such alliances were
          called "covenants of salt" (Num. 18:19; 2 Chr. 13:5), salt being
          the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a memorial of
          the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Gen. 31:52). The Jews
          throughout their whole history attached great importance to
          fidelity to their engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the
          violators of them (Josh. 9:18; 2 Sam. 21:1, 2; Ezek. 17:16).

          Oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh.
          19:33, "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in
          the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word
          denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and
          which served as a landmark.

          (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who
          expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1 Chr. 4:37).

          Oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah,
          Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their
          rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as
          landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the
          "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).

          Immeasurable, the first named of the sons of Joktan (Gen.
          10:26), the founder of an Arabian tribe.

          Hidden, one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18),
          called also Alemeth (1 Chr. 6:60).

          A native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it
          resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink
          colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, shaked,
          signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of
          its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February,
          and sometimes even in January. In Eccl. 12:5, it is referred to
          as illustrative, probably, of the haste with which old age
          comes. There are others, however, who still contend for the old
          interpretation here. "The almond tree bears its blossoms in the
          midst of winter, on a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms
          (reddish or flesh-coloured in the beginning) seem at the time of
          their fall exactly like white snow-flakes. In this way the
          almond blossom is a very fitting symbol of old age, with its
          silvery hair and its wintry, dry, barren, unfruitful condition."
          In Jer. 1:11 "I see a rod of an almond tree [shaked]...for I
          will hasten [shaked] my word to perform it" the word is used as
          an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons (Gen. 43:11) to
          take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land,
          almonds, etc., as a present to Joseph, probably because this
          tree was not a native of Egypt. Aaron's rod yielded almonds
          (Num. 17:8; Heb. 9:4). Moses was directed to make certain parts
          of the candlestick for the ark of carved work "like unto
          almonds" (Ex. 25:33, 34). The Hebrew word luz, translated
          "hazel" in the Authorized Version (Gen. 30:37), is rendered in
          the Revised Version "almond." It is probable that luz denotes
          the wild almond, while shaked denotes the cultivated variety.

          Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The
          Mosaic legislation (Lev. 25:35; Deut. 15:7) tended to promote a
          spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of destitution
          among the people. Such passages as these, Ps. 41:1; 112:9; Prov.
          14:31; Isa. 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jer. 5:28; Ezek. 22:29, would also
          naturally foster the same benevolent spirit.

          In the time of our Lord begging was common (Mark 10:46; Acts
          3:2). The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings
          (Matt. 6:2). The spirit by which the Christian ought to be
          actuated in this duty is set forth in 1 John 3:17. A regard to
          the state of the poor and needy is enjoined as a Christian duty
          (Luke 3:11; 6:30; Matt. 6:1; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4), a duty which
          was not neglected by the early Christians (Luke 14:13; Acts
          20:35; Gal. 2:10; Rom. 15:25-27; 1 Cor. 16:1-4). They cared not
          only for the poor among themselves, but contributed also to the
          necessities of those at a distance (Acts 11:29; 24:17; 2 Cor.
          9:12). Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in
          this (John 13:29).

          In modern times the "poor-laws" have introduced an element which
          modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge this
          Christian duty.

          (1 Kings 10:11, 12) = algum (2 Chr. 2:8; 9:10, 11), in the
          Hebrew occurring only in the plural almuggim (indicating that
          the wood was brought in planks), the name of a wood brought from
          Ophir to be used in the building of the temple, and for other
          purposes. Some suppose it to have been the white sandal-wood of
          India, the Santalum album of botanists, a native of the
          mountainous parts of the Malabar coasts. It is a fragrant wood,
          and is used in China for incense in idol-worship. Others, with
          some probability, think that it was the Indian red sandal-wood,
          the pterocarpus santalinus, a heavy, fine-grained wood, the
          Sanscrit name of which is valguka. It is found on the Coromandel
          coast and in Ceylon.

          (Heb. ahalim), a fragrant wood (Num. 24:6; Ps. 45:8; Prov. 7:17;
          Cant. 4:14), the Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some
          suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted from the wood. It
          is found in China, Siam, and Northern India, and grows to the
          height sometimes of 120 feet. This species is of great rarity
          even in India. There is another and more common species, called
          by Indians aghil, whence Europeans have given it the name of
          Lignum aquile, or eagle-wood. Aloewood was used by the Egyptians
          for embalming dead bodies. Nicodemus brought it (pounded
          aloe-wood) to embalm the body of Christ (John 19:39); but
          whether this was the same as that mentioned elsewhere is

          The bitter aloes of the apothecary is the dried juice of the
          leaves Aloe vulgaris.

          (1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the
          epistle (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the
          husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is
          Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).

          (2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).

          (Heb. mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of
          earth (Ex. 20:24) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices
          were offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous
          places (Gen. 22:9; Ezek. 6:3; 2 Kings 23:12; 16:4; 23:8; Acts
          14:13). The word is used in Heb. 13:10 for the sacrifice offered
          upon it--the sacrifice Christ offered.

          Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens one bearing
          the inscription, "To the unknown God" (Acts 17:23), or rather
          "to an [i.e., some] unknown God." The reason for this
          inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the
          apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of

          The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah (Gen. 8:20).
          Altars were erected by Abraham (Gen. 12:7; 13:4; 22:9), by Isaac
          (Gen. 26:25), by Jacob (33:20; 35:1, 3), and by Moses (Ex.
          17:15, "Jehovah-nissi").

          In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple, two altars were

          (1.) The altar of burnt offering (Ex. 30:28), called also the
          "brasen altar" (Ex. 39:39) and "the table of the Lord" (Mal.

          This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Ex.
          27:1-8. It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in
          breadth, and 3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood,
          and was overlaid with plates of brass. Its corners were
          ornamented with "horns" (Ex. 29:12; Lev. 4:18).

          In Ex. 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are
          enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Sam. 2:13, 14;
          Lev. 16:12; Num. 16:6, 7.)

          In Solomon's temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2 Chr.
          4:1. Comp. 1 Kings 8:22, 64; 9:25), and was made wholly of
          brass, covering a structure of stone or earth. This altar was
          renewed by Asa (2 Chr. 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2 Kings
          16:14), and "cleansed" by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose
          reign it was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away
          by the Babylonians (Jer. 52:17).

          After the return from captivity it was re-erected (Ezra 3:3, 6)
          on the same place where it had formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Macc.
          4:47.) When Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of
          burnt offering was taken away.

          Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its place
          till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (70 A.D.).

          The fire on the altar was not permitted to go out (Lev. 6:9).

          In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome,
          which occupies the site of the old temple, there is a rough
          projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme
          length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part
          about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have
          been left intact when Solomon's temple was built. It was in all
          probability the site of the altar of burnt offering. Underneath
          this rock is a cave, which may probably have been the granary of
          Araunah's threshing-floor (1 Chr. 21:22).

          (2.) The altar of incense (Ex. 30:1-10), called also "the golden
          altar" (39:38; Num. 4:11), stood in the holy place "before the
          vail that is by the ark of the testimony." On this altar sweet
          spices were continually burned with fire taken from the brazen
          altar. The morning and the evening services were commenced by
          the high priest offering incense on this altar. The burning of
          the incense was a type of prayer (Ps. 141:2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).

          This altar was a small movable table, made of acacia wood
          overlaid with gold (Ex. 37:25, 26). It was 1 cubit in length and
          breadth, and 2 cubits in height.

          In Solomon's temple the altar was similar in size, but was made
          of cedar-wood (1 Kings 6:20; 7:48) overlaid with gold. In Ezek.
          41:22 it is called "the altar of wood." (Comp. Ex. 30:1-6.)

          In the temple built after the Exile the altar was restored.
          Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored
          by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Macc. 1:23; 4:49). Among the trophies
          carried away by Titus on the destruction of Jerusalem the altar
          of incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it in Heb.
          9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel
          appeared to him (Luke 1:11). It is the only altar which appears
          in the heavenly temple (Isa. 6:6; Rev. 8:3, 4).

          Destroy not, the title of Ps. 57, 58, 59, and 75. It was
          probably the name of some song to the melody of which these
          psalms were to be chanted.

          One of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the
          Hebrews rested on their way to Sinai (Num. 33:13, 14). It was
          probably situated on the shore of the Red Sea.

          Dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau
          (Gen. 36:12; 1 Chr. 1:36); the chief of an Idumean tribe (Gen.
          36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the
          descendants of Esau had seized.

          A tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and
          the Red Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of
          Eliphaz, for they existed in the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:7).
          They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the
          Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. "They dwelt in the land of
          the south...from Havilah until thou comest to Shur" (Num. 13:29;
          1 Sam. 15:7). They were a pastoral, and hence a nomadic race.
          Their kings bore the hereditary name of Agag (Num. 24:7; 1 Sam.
          15:8). They attempted to stop the Israelites when they marched
          through their territory (Deut. 25:18), attacking them at
          Rephidim (Ex. 17:8-13; comp. Deut. 25:17; 1 Sam. 15:2). They
          afterwards attacked the Israelites at Hormah (Num. 14:45). We
          read of them subsequently as in league with the Moabites (Judg.
          3:13) and the Midianites (Judg. 6:3). Saul finally desolated
          their territory and destroyed their power (1 Sam. 14:48; 15:3),
          and David recovered booty from them (1 Sam. 30:18-20). In the
          Babylonian inscriptions they are called Sute, in those of Egypt
          Sittiu, and the Amarna tablets include them under the general
          name of Khabbati, or "plunderers."

          Perennial. (1.) The Hebrew margin of 2 Kings 5:12 gives this as
          another reading of Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus.

          (2.) A mountain (Cant. 4:8), probably the southern summit of
          Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the sources of the Abana.

          Said by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar
          (1 Chr. 6:7, 52). He was probably the last of the high priests
          of Eleazar's line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli,
          of the line of Ithamar.

          (2.) A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1 Chr.
          23:19; 24:23).

          (3.) A "chief priest" who took an active part in the reformation
          under Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 19:11); probably the same as mentioned
          in 1 Chr. 6:9.

          (4.) 1 Chr. 6:11; Ezra 7:3. (5.) One of the high priests in the
          time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:15). (6.) Zeph. 1:1. (7.) Neh. 11:4.
          (8.) Neh. 10:3. (9.) Ezra 10:42.

          Burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1 Chr.
          2:17; 2 Sam. 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the
          army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Sam. 19:13), who afterwards
          treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2 Sam.

          (2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2 Chr. 28:12) in the
          reign of Ahaz.

          Burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of
          Samuel (1 Chr. 6:25, 35).

          (2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the
          "stronghold," probably of Adullam (1 Chr. 12:18).

          (3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with
          blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom
          (1 Chr. 15:24).

          (4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who took
          a prominent part at the instance of Hezekiah in the cleansing of
          the temple (2 Chr. 29:12).

          The son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem
          and do the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).

          Burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri,
          who willingly offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over
          thousands under Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:16; comp. Judg. 5:9).

          Strengthened by Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the
          descendants of Ethan the Merarite (1 Chr. 6:45).

          (2.) The son and successor of Joash, and eighth king of the
          separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 14:1-4). He began his reign
          by punishing the murderers of his father (5-7; 2 Chr. 25:3-5).
          He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite
          soldiers, which he did in his attempt to bring the Edomites
          again under the yoke of Judah (2 Chr. 25:5, 6). He was commanded
          by a prophet of the Lord to send back the mercenaries, which he
          did (2 Chr. 25:7-10, 13), much to their annoyance. His obedience
          to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the
          Edomites (2 Chr. 25:14-16). Amaziah began to worship some of the
          idols he took from the Edomites, and this was his ruin, for he
          was vanquished by Joash, king of Israel, whom he challenged to
          battle. The disaster he thus brought upon Judah by his
          infatuation in proclaiming war against Israel probably
          occasioned the conspiracy by which he lost his life (2 Kings
          14:8-14, 19). He was slain at Lachish, whither he had fled, and
          his body was brought upon horses to Jerusalem, where it was
          buried in the royal sepulchre (2 Kings 14:19, 20; 2 Chr. 25:27,

          (3.) A priest of the golden calves at Bethel (Amos 7:10-17).

          (4.) The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs in the
          time of Hezekiah (1 Chr. 4:34).

          In the Old Testament the Hebrew word tsir, meaning "one who goes
          on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17; Isa.
          18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of
          melits, meaning "an interpreter," in 2 Chr. 32:31; and of malak,
          a "messenger," in 2 Chr. 35:21; Isa. 30:4; 33:7; Ezek. 17:15.
          This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who
          are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph.

          The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had
          recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract
          alliances (Josh. 9:4), to solicit favours (Num. 20:14), to
          remonstrate when wrong was done (Judg. 11:12), to condole with a
          young king on the death of his father (2 Sam. 10:2), and to
          congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1 Kings

          To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent
          him (2 Sam. 10:5).

          (Ezek. 1:4, 27; 8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX.
          elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of
          silver and gold. Some translate the word by "polished brass,"
          others "fine brass," as in Rev. 1:15; 2:18. It was probably the
          mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection,
          however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy
          substance, reckoned as belonging to the mineral kingdom though
          of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.

          Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the
          inhabitants that he gained an easy victory (Josh. 8:4-26).
          Shechem was taken in this manner (Judg. 9:30-45. Comp. Jer.

          This Hebrew word means firm, and hence also faithful (Rev.
          3:14). In Isa. 65:16, the Authorized Version has "the God of
          truth," which in Hebrew is "the God of Amen." It is frequently
          used by our Saviour to give emphasis to his words, where it is
          translated "verily." Sometimes, only, however, in John's Gospel,
          it is repeated, "Verily, verily." It is used as an epithet of
          the Lord Jesus Christ (Rev. 3:14).

          It is found singly and sometimes doubly at the end of prayers
          (Ps. 41:13; 72:19; 89:52), to confirm the words and invoke the
          fulfilment of them. It is used in token of being bound by an
          oath (Num. 5:22; Deut. 27:15-26; Neh. 5:13; 8:6; 1 Chr. 16:36).
          In the primitive churches it was common for the general audience
          to say "Amen" at the close of the prayer (1 Cor. 14:16).

          The promises of God are Amen; i.e., they are all true and sure
          (2 Cor. 1:20).

          One of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest
          (Ex. 28:19; 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
          (Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power
          of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and
          hence its Greek name formed from a_, "privative," and _methuo,
          "to get drunk." Its Jewish name, ahlamah', was derived by the
          rabbins from the Hebrew word halam, "to dream," from its
          supposed power of causing the wearer to dream.

          It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark purple
          blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different parts
          of Europe.

          True, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher
          (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).

          A cubit, the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai reached as
          the sun went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner (2 Sam.
          2:24). It lay to the east of Gibeon.

          My people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel (Hos.
          2:1, 23. Comp. 1:9; Ezek. 16:8; Rom. 9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10).

          People of God. (1.) One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to
          search the land of Canaan (Num. 13:12). He was one of the ten
          who perished by the plague for their unfavourable report (Num.

          (2.) The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house
          Mephibosheth resided (2 Sam. 9:4, 5; 17:27).

          (3.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and afterwards
          of David (1 Chr. 3:5). He is called Eliam in 2 Sam. 11:3.

          (4.) One of the sons of Obed-edom the Levite (1 Chr. 26:5).

          People of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the
          Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;
          2:18; 7:48, 53).

          (2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28.

          (4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled
          after the murder of Amnon (2 Sam. 13:37).

          (5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1 Chr. 9:4).

          Kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief
          of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7; 2:3; 7:12, 17; 10:14). His
          daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Ex. 6:23).

          (2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1 Chr. 6:22),
          called also Izhar (2, 18).

          (3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1 Chr.
          15:10, 11).

          A person mentioned in Cant. 6:12, whose chariots were famed for
          their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing
          people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."

          People of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of
          the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12; 2:25). This is
          one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai,

          People of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and
          chief captain of the host under David (1 Chr. 27:6).

          Another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38).
          This name is also used for his posterity (Ps. 83:7).

          The usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot (Gen.
          19:38). From the very beginning (Deut. 2:16-20) of their history
          till they are lost sight of (Judg. 5:2), this tribe is closely
          associated with the Moabites (Judg. 10:11; 2 Chr. 20:1; Zeph.
          2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel (Deut.
          23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe,
          moving from place to place, while the Moabites were more
          settled. They inhabited the country east of the Jordan and north
          of Moab and the Dead Sea, from which they had expelled the
          Zamzummims or Zuzims (Deut. 2:20; Gen. 14:5). They are known as
          the Beni-ammi (Gen. 19:38), Ammi or Ammon being worshipped as
          their chief god. They were of Semitic origin, and closely
          related to the Hebrews in blood and language. They showed no
          kindness to the Israelites when passing through their territory,
          and therefore they were prohibited from "entering the
          congregation of the Lord to the tenth generation" (Deut. 23:3).
          They afterwards became hostile to Israel (Judg. 3:13). Jephthah
          waged war against them, and "took twenty cities with a very
          great slaughter" (Judg. 11:33). They were again signally
          defeated by Saul (1 Sam. 11:11). David also defeated them and
          their allies the Syrians (2 Sam. 10:6-14), and took their chief
          city, Rabbah, with much spoil (2 Sam. 10:14; 12:26-31). The
          subsequent events of their history are noted in 2 Chr. 20:25;
          26:8; Jer. 49:1; Ezek. 25:3, 6. One of Solomon's wives was
          Naamah, an Ammonite. She was the mother of Rehoboam (1 Kings
          14:31; 2 Chr. 12:13).

          The prophets predicted fearful judgments against the Ammonites
          because of their hostility to Israel (Zeph. 2:8; Jer. 49:1-6;
          Ezek. 25:1-5, 10; Amos 1:13-15).

          The national idol worshipped by this people was Molech or
          Milcom, at whose altar they offered human sacrifices (1 Kings
          11:5, 7). The high places built for this idol by Solomon, at the
          instigation of his Ammonitish wives, were not destroyed till the
          time of Josiah (2 Kings 23:13).

          Faithful. (1.) One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of
          Ezra (1 Chr. 4:20; comp. 17).

          (2.) The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel (1 Chr. 3:1;
          2 Sam. 3:2). Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great
          crime in the matter of Tamar (2 Sam. 13:28, 29).

          Builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The
          prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1 Kings 22:26; 2
          Chr. 18:25).

          (2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He
          restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had
          cast down. Zephaniah (1:4; 3:4, 11) refers to the moral
          depravity prevailing in this king's reign.

          He was assassinated (2 Kings 21:18-26: 2 Chr. 33:20-25) by his
          own servants, who conspired against him.

          (3.) An Egyptian god, usually depicted with a human body and the
          head of a ram, referred to in Jer. 46:25, where the word
          "multitudes" in the Authorized Version is more appropriately
          rendered "Amon" in the Revised Version. In Nah. 3:8 the
          expression "populous No" of the Authorized version is rendered
          in the Revised Version "No-amon." Amon is identified with Ra,
          the sun-god of Heliopolis.

          (4.) Neh. 7:59.

          Highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of
          one of the sons of Canaan (Gen. 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri
          in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early
          Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, is known as
          "the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains
          of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deut. 1:7, 19,
          20). They seem to have originally occupied the land stretching
          from the heights west of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7) to Hebron (13.
          Comp. 13:8; Deut. 3:8; 4:46-48), embracing "all Gilead and all
          Bashan" (Deut. 3:10), with the Jordan valley on the east of the
          river (4:49), the land of the "two kings of the Amorites," Sihon
          and Og (Deut. 31:4; Josh. 2:10; 9:10). The five kings of the
          Amorites were defeated with great slaughter by Joshua (10:10).
          They were again defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua, who
          smote them till there were none remaining (Josh. 11:8). It is
          mentioned as a surprising circumstance that in the days of
          Samuel there was peace between them and the Israelites (1 Sam.
          7:14). The discrepancy supposed to exist between Deut. 1:44 and
          Num. 14:45 is explained by the circumstance that the terms
          "Amorites" and "Amalekites" are used synonymously for the
          "Canaanites." In the same way we explain the fact that the
          "Hivites" of Gen. 34:2 are the "Amorites" of 48:22. Comp. Josh.
          10:6; 11:19 with 2 Sam. 21:2; also Num. 14:45 with Deut. 1:44.
          The Amorites were warlike mountaineers. They are represented on
          the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes,
          aquiline noses, and pointed beards. They are supposed to have
          been men of great stature; their king, Og, is described by Moses
          as the last "of the remnant of the giants" (Deut. 3:11). Both
          Sihon and Og were independent kings. Only one word of the
          Amorite language survives, "Shenir," the name they gave to Mount
          Hermon (Deut. 3:9).

          Borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets. He was a
          native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles
          south-east of Bethlehem. He was a man of humble birth, neither a
          "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of
          sycomore trees," R.V. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king
          of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea (Amos 1:1;
          7:14, 15; Zech. 14:5), who survived him a few years. Under
          Jeroboam II. the kingdom of Israel rose to the zenith of its
          prosperity; but that was followed by the prevalence of luxury
          and vice and idolatry. At this period Amos was called from his
          obscurity to remind the people of the law of God's retributive
          justice, and to call them to repentance.

          The Book of Amos consists of three parts:

          (1.) The nations around are summoned to judgment because of
          their sins (1:1-2:3). He quotes Joel 3:16.

          (2.) The spiritual condition of Judah, and especially of Israel,
          is described (2:4-6:14).

          (3.) In 7:1-9:10 are recorded five prophetic visions. (a) The
          first two (7:1-6) refer to judgments against the guilty people.
          (b) The next two (7:7-9; 8:1-3) point out the ripeness of the
          people for the threatened judgements. 7:10-17 consists of a
          conversation between the prophet and the priest of Bethel. (c)
          The fifth describes the overthrow and ruin of Israel (9:1-10);
          to which is added the promise of the restoration of the kingdom
          and its final glory in the Messiah's kingdom.

          The style is peculiar in the number of the allusions made to
          natural objects and to agricultural occupations. Other allusions
          show also that Amos was a student of the law as well as a "child
          of nature." These phrases are peculiar to him: "Cleanness of
          teeth" [i.e., want of bread] (4:6); "The excellency of Jacob"
          (6:8; 8:7); "The high places of Isaac" (7:9); "The house of
          Isaac" (7:16); "He that createth the wind" (4:13). Quoted, Acts

          Strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2, 20;
          20:1; Isa. 1:1; 2:1). As to his personal history little is
          positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man
          of God" spoken of in 2 Chr. 25:7, 8.

          City on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military
          station, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from
          Philippi to Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from
          Philippi (Acts 17:1).

          A Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Rom. 16:8).

          Kindred of the High; i.e., "friend of Jehovah." (1.) The son of
          Kohath, the son of Levi. He married Jochebed, "his father's
          sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses (Ex.
          6:18, 20; Num. 3:19). He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years
          (Ex. 6:20). His descendants were called Amramites (Num. 3:27; 1
          Chr. 26:23). (2.) Ezra 10:34.

          King of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of
          Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of
          the plain (Gen. 14:1, 4). It is now found that Amraphel (or
          Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on
          recently-discovered monuments. (See [20]CHEDORLAOMER). After
          defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule, and
          made Babylon his capital.

          Grape-town, one of the cities in the mountains of Judah, from
          which Joshua expelled the Anakim (Josh. 11:21; 15:50). It still
          retains its ancient name. It lies among the hills, 10 miles
          south-south-west of Hebron.

          Speech. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean
          tribe, called a Horite, as in course of time all the branches of
          this tribe were called from their dwelling in caves in Mount
          Seir (Gen. 36:20, 29; 1 Chr. 1:38).

          (2.) One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of
          Esau's wife Aholibamah (Gen. 36:18, 24).

          Long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. 15:13;
          21:11, Heb. Anok).

          The descendants of Anak (Josh. 11:21; Num. 13:33; Deut. 9:2).
          They dwelt in the south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of
          Hebron (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). In the days of Abraham (Gen.
          14:5, 6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and
          Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the
          original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a
          Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the
          Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings. Their formidable
          warlike appearance, as described by the spies sent to search the
          land, filled the Israelites with terror. They seem to have
          identified them with the Nephilim, the "giants" (Gen. 6:4; Num.
          13:33) of the antediluvian age. There were various tribes of
          Anakim (Josh. 15:14). Joshua finally expelled them from the
          land, except a remnant that found a refuge in the cities of
          Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Josh. 11:22). The Philistine giants whom
          David encountered (2 Sam. 21:15-22) were descendants of the
          Anakim. (See [21]GIANTS.)

          The name of an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim (Gen.
          10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11).

          One of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who
          colonized Samaria (2 Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king."
          It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech
          (q.v.) was the male representing the sun.

          Cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the
          return from Babylon (Neh. 10:26).

          Protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of
          Benjamin between Nob and Hazor (Neh. 11:32). It is probably the
          modern Beit Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.

          A common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the
          members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife
          Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and
          immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts
          5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian
          community devoted their property to the work of furthering the
          gospel and of assisting the poor and needy. The proceeds of the
          possessions they sold were placed at the disposal of the
          apostles (Acts 4:36, 37). Ananias might have kept his property
          had he so chosen; but he professed agreement with the brethren
          in the common purpose, and had of his own accord devoted it all,
          as he said, to these sacred ends. Yet he retained a part of it
          for his own ends, and thus lied in declaring that he had given
          it all. "The offence of Ananias and Sapphira showed contempt of
          God, vanity and ambition in the offenders, and utter disregard
          of the corruption which they were bringing into the society.
          Such sin, committed in despite of the light which they
          possessed, called for a special mark of divine indignation."

          (2.) A Christian at Damascus (Acts 9:10). He became Paul's
          instructor; but when or by what means he himself became a
          Christian we have no information. He was "a devout man according
          to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt" at
          Damascus (22:12).

          (3.) The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the
          procuratorship of Felix (Acts 23:2, 5, 24). He was so enraged at
          Paul's noble declaration, "I have lived in all good conscience
          before God until this day," that he commanded one of his
          attendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this
          unprovoked insult, Paul quickly replied, "God shall smite thee,
          thou whited wall." Being reminded that Ananias was the high
          priest, to whose office all respect was to be paid, he answered,
          "I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest" (Acts 23:5).
          This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is
          scarcely probable that Paul should have been ignorant of so
          public a fact. The expression may mean (a) that Paul had at the
          moment overlooked the honour due to the high priest; or (b), as
          others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said,
          "The high priest breaking the law! God's high priest a tyrant
          and a lawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his
          voice, but surely it cannot, it ought not to be, the voice of
          the high priest." (See Dr. Lindsay on Acts, in loco.) (c) Others
          think that from defect of sight Paul could not observe that the
          speaker was the high priest. In all this, however, it may be
          explained, Paul, with all his excellency, comes short of the
          example of his divine Master, who, when he was reviled, reviled
          not again.

          An answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one
          of the judges of Israel (Judg. 3:31).

          Anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a
          temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the
          word is anath(ee)ma, once in plural used in the Greek New
          Testament, in Luke 21:5, where it is rendered "gifts." In the
          LXX. the form anathema is generally used as the rendering of the
          Hebrew word herem, derived from a verb which means (1) to
          consecrate or devote; and (2) to exterminate. Any object so
          devoted to the Lord could not be redeemed (Num. 18:14; Lev.
          27:28, 29); and hence the idea of exterminating connected with
          the word. The Hebrew verb (haram) is frequently used of the
          extermination of idolatrous nations. It had a wide range of
          application. The anathema_ or _herem was a person or thing
          irrevocably devoted to God (Lev. 27:21, 28); and "none devoted
          shall be ransomed. He shall surely be put to death" (27:29). The
          word therefore carried the idea of devoted to destruction (Num.
          21:2, 3; Josh. 6:17); and hence generally it meant a thing
          accursed. In Deut. 7:26 an idol is called a herem = anathema, a
          thing accursed.

          In the New Testament this word always implies execration. In
          some cases an individual denounces an anathema on himself unless
          certain conditions are fulfilled (Acts 23:12, 14, 21). "To call
          Jesus accursed" [anathema] (1 Cor. 12:3) is to pronounce him
          execrated or accursed. If any one preached another gospel, the
          apostle says, "let him be accursed" (Gal. 1:8, 9); i.e., let his
          conduct in so doing be accounted accursed.

          In Rom. 9:3, the expression "accursed" (anathema) from Christ,
          i.e., excluded from fellowship or alliance with Christ, has
          occasioned much difficulty. The apostle here does not speak of
          his wish as a possible thing. It is simply a vehement expression
          of feeling, showing how strong was his desire for the salvation
          of his people.

          The anathema in 1 Cor. 16:22 denotes simply that they who love
          not the Lord are rightly objects of loathing and execration to
          all holy beings; they are guilty of a crime that merits the
          severest condemnation; they are exposed to the just sentence of
          "everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord."

          The name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of
          Benjamin (Josh. 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the
          names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may
          be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was
          the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2 Sam.
          23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1 Chr. 12:3). It
          is chiefly notable, however, as the birth-place and usual
          residence of Jeremiah (Jer. 1:1; 11:21-23; 29:27; 32:7-9). It
          suffered greatly from the army of Sennacherib, and only 128 men
          returned to it from the Exile (Neh. 7:27; Ezra 2:23). It lay
          about 3 miles north of Jerusalem. It has been identified with
          the small and poor village of Anata, containing about 100

          From Acts 27:29, 30, 40, it would appear that the Roman vessels
          carried several anchors, which were attached to the stern as
          well as to the prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had
          two teeth or flukes. In Heb. 6:19 the word is used
          metaphorically for that which supports or keeps one steadfast in
          the time of trial or of doubt. It is an emblem of hope.

          "If you fear, Put all your trust in God: that anchor holds."

   Ancient of Days
          An expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of
          Daniel (7:9, 13, 22) in the sense of eternal. In contrast with
          all earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.

          Manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was
          of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of
          Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18; 10:2). On one occasion John the
          Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said,
          "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him,
          immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his
          disciples. After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the
          Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to
          Jesus. The two brothers seem to have after this pursued for a
          while their usual calling as fishermen, and did not become the
          stated attendants of the Lord till after John's imprisonment
          (Matt. 4:18, 19; Mark 1:16, 17). Very little is related of
          Andrew. He was one of the confidential disciples (John 6:8;
          12:22), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord
          privately regarding his future coming (Mark 13:3). He was
          present at the feeding of the five thousand (John 6:9), and he
          introduced the Greeks who desired to see Jesus (John 12:22); but
          of his subsequent history little is known. It is noteworthy that
          Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad
          with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks. These incidents may be
          regarded as a key to his character.

          Man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and
          fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the

          Two fountains, a Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr.
          6:73). It is also called En-gannim (q.v.) in Josh. 19:21; the
          modern Jenin.

          A boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those
          of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13, 24).

          (2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family
          (1 Chr. 6:70).

          A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger,"
          and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to
          execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job
          1:14: 1 Sam. 11:3; Luke 7:24; 9:52), of prophets (Isa. 42:19;
          Hag. 1:13), of priests (Mal. 2:7), and ministers of the New
          Testament (Rev. 1:20).

          It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence
          (2 Sam. 24:16, 17; 2 Kings 19:35), the wind (Ps. 104:4).

          But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly
          intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of
          the world. The name does not denote their nature but their
          office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Gen.
          18:2, 22. Comp. 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Gen. 32:24, 30), to
          Joshua at Gilgal (Josh. 5:13, 15), of the Angel of the Lord,
          were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence,
          "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the
          "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.

          (1.) The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be
          discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not
          treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous
          incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their
          personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Gen.
          16:7, 10, 11; Judg. 13:1-21; Matt. 28:2-5; Heb. 1:4, etc.

          These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands,"
          etc. (Dan. 7:10; Matt. 26:53; Luke 2:13; Heb. 12:22, 23). They
          are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power
          (Zech. 1:9, 11; Dan. 10:13; 12:1; 1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9; Eph.
          1:21; Col. 1:16).

          (2.) As to their nature, they are spirits (Heb. 1:14), like the
          soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the
          angels" (Luke 20:36), and the fact that whenever angels appeared
          to man it was always in a human form (Gen. 18:2; 19:1, 10; Luke
          24:4; Acts 1:10), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons
          of God," Job 1:6; 38:7; Dan. 3:25; comp. 28) and to men (Luke
          3:38), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and
          the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures
          (Job 4:18; Matt. 24:36; 1 Pet. 1:12). As finite creatures they
          may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen
          angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly
          ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate"
          (Matt. 25:41; Rev. 12:7, 9), and that they are "reserved unto
          judgement" (2 Pet. 2:4). When the manna is called "angels'
          food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Ps. 78:25).
          Angels never die (Luke 20:36). They are possessed of superhuman
          intelligence and power (Mark 13:32; 2 Thess. 1:7; Ps. 103:20).
          They are called "holy" (Luke 9:26), "elect" (1 Tim. 5:21). The
          redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Luke 20:36). They
          are not to be worshipped (Col. 2:18; Rev. 19:10).

          (3.) Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they
          are agents of God's providence (Ex. 12:23; Ps. 104:4; Heb.
          11:28; 1 Cor. 10:10; 2 Sam. 24:16; 1 Chr. 21:16; 2 Kings 19:35;
          Acts 12:23). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on
          his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic
          appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that
          time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on
          earth (Gen. 18; 19; 24:7, 40; 28:12; 32:1). They appear to
          rebuke idolatry (Judg. 2:1-4), to call Gideon (Judg. 6:11, 12),
          and to consecrate Samson (13:3). In the days of the prophets,
          from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1
          Kings 19:5; 2 Kings 6:17; Zech. 1-6; Dan. 4:13, 23; 10:10, 13,
          20, 21).

          The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of
          angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service
          while here. They predict his advent (Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26-38),
          minister to him after his temptation and agony (Matt. 4:11; Luke
          22:43), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Matt.
          28:2-8; John 20:12, 13; Acts 1:10, 11). They are now ministering
          spirits to the people of God (Heb. 1:14; Ps. 34:7; 91:11; Matt.
          18:10; Acts 5:19; 8:26; 10:3; 12:7; 27:23). They rejoice over a
          penitent sinner (Luke 15:10). They bear the souls of the
          redeemed to paradise (Luke 16:22); and they will be the
          ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matt. 13:39,
          41, 49; 16:27; 24:31). The passages (Ps. 34:7, Matt. 18:10)
          usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual
          has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They
          merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to
          deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the
          angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to
          children and to the least among Christ's disciples.

          The "angel of his presence" (Isa. 63:9. Comp. Ex. 23:20, 21;
          32:34; 33:2; Num. 20:16) is probably rightly interpreted of the
          Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the
          expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19).

          The emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil
          that presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original
          susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not
          necessarily sinful. It may, however, become sinful when
          causeless, or excessive, or protracted (Matt. 5:22; Eph. 4:26;
          Col. 3:8). As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure
          with sin and with sinners (Ps. 7:11).

          Fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:50), now
          el-Ghuwein, near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.

          An organized living creature endowed with sensation. The
          Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although
          the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Gen.
          7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All
          animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were
          unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth
          in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:3-20; Lev. 11).

          This word is found only in Matt. 23:23. It is the plant commonly
          known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the
          botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which
          means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of
          allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an
          annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and
          the south of Europe generally. There is also a species of dill
          cultivated in Eastern countries known by the name of shubit. It
          was this species of garden plant of which the Pharisees were in
          the habit of paying tithes. The Talmud requires that the seeds,
          leaves, and stem of dill shall pay tithes. It is an
          umbelliferous plant, very like the caraway, its leaves, which
          are aromatic, being used in soups and pickles. The proper anise
          is the Pimpinella anisum.

          Grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a
          "prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (2 Chr. 34:22).
          After seven years of married life her husband died, and during
          her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When
          she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the
          moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of
          praise and thanks to God that he had fulfilled his ancient
          promise in sending his Son into the world (Luke 2:36, 37).

          Was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married
          the daughter of Annas (John 18:13), was raised to that office,
          and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or
          deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called
          high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law
          the high-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although
          Annas had been deposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may
          still have regarded him as legally the high priest. Our Lord was
          first brought before Annas, and after a brief questioning of him
          (John 18:19-23) was sent to Caiaphas, when some members of the
          Sanhedrim had met, and the first trial of Jesus took place
          (Matt. 26:57-68). This examination of our Lord before Annas is
          recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim
          before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6).

          The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the
          Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of
          consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the
          high priest (Ex. 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Ex.
          30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the
          anointed" (Lev. 4:3, 5, 16; 6:20; Ps. 132:10). Anointing a king
          was equivalent to crowning him (1 Sam. 16:13; 2 Sam. 2:4, etc.).
          Prophets were also anointed (1 Kings 19:16; 1 Chr. 16:22; Ps.
          105:15). The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isa. 21:5), refers
          to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as
          to make it supple and fit for use in war.

          (2.) Anointing was also an act of hospitality (Luke 7:38, 46).
          It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint
          themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating
          their bodies (Deut. 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 14:2; Ps. 104:15,
          etc.). This custom is continued among the Arabians to the
          present day.

          (3.) Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to
          the sick, and also to wounds (Ps. 109:18; Isa. 1:6; Mark 6:13;
          James 5:14).

          (4.) The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Mark 14:8;
          Luke 23:56).

          (5.) The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or
          Messiah (Ps. 2:2; Dan. 9:25, 26), because he was anointed with
          the Holy Ghost (Isa. 61:1), figuratively styled the "oil of
          gladness" (Ps. 45:7; Heb. 1:9). Jesus of Nazareth is this
          anointed One (John 1:41; Acts 9:22; 17:2, 3; 18:5, 28), the
          Messiah of the Old Testament.

          (Heb. nemalah, from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy),
          referred to in Prov. 6:6; 30:25, as distinguished for its
          prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal
          substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or
          exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant
          to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the
          season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that
          has been observed in ants in Texas, India, and Italy.

          Against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The
          word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false
          teachers, he says (1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 1:7), "Even now
          are there many antichrists."

          (1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the
          "king of fierce countenance" (Dan. 7:24, 25; 8:23-25).

          (2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spoken of
          by our Lord (Matt. 24:5, 23, 24).

          (3.) To the "man of sin" described by Paul (2 Thess. 2:3, 4,

          (4.) And to the "beast from the sea" (Rev. 13:1; 17:1-18).

          (1.) In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the
          Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was the
          metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of the
          Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and
          Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman
          empire. It was called the "first city of the East." Christianity
          was early introduced into it (Acts 11:19, 21, 24), and the name
          "Christian" was first applied here to its professors (Acts
          11:26). It is intimately connected with the early history of the
          gospel (Acts 6:5; 11:19, 27, 28, 30; 12:25; 15:22-35; Gal. 2:11,
          12). It was the great central point whence missionaries to the
          Gentiles were sent forth. It was the birth-place of the famous
          Christian father Chrysostom, who died A.D. 407. It bears the
          modern name of Antakia, and is now a miserable, decaying Turkish
          town. Like Philippi, it was raised to the rank of a Roman
          colony. Such colonies were ruled by "praetors" (R.V. marg., Acts
          16:20, 21).

          (2.) In the extreme north of Pisidia; was visited by Paul and
          Barnabas on the first missionary journey (Acts 13:14). Here they
          found a synagogue and many proselytes. They met with great
          success in preaching the gospel, but the Jews stirred up a
          violent opposition against them, and they were obliged to leave
          the place. On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the
          purpose of confirming the disciples (Acts 14:21). It has been
          identified with the modern Yalobatch, lying to the east of

          The name of several Syrian kings from B.C. 280 to B.C. 65. The
          most notable of these were, (1.) Antiochus the Great, who
          ascended the throne B.C. 223. He is regarded as the "king of the
          north" referred to in Dan. 11:13-19. He was succeeded (B.C. 187)
          by his son, Seleucus Philopater, spoken of by Daniel (11:20) as
          "a raiser of taxes", in the Revised Version, "one that shall
          cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom."

          (2.) Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the Illustrious,
          succeeded his brother Seleucus (B.C. 175). His career and
          character are prophetically described by Daniel (11:21-32). He
          was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he organized an
          expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, putting vast
          multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most cruel manner.
          From this time the Jews began the great war of independence
          under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success,
          defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them.
          Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person,
          threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he
          was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B.C. 164).

          (1.) Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan
          wife Malthace. He was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea during the
          whole period of our Lord's life on earth (Luke 23:7). He was a
          frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many infamous
          crimes (Mark 8:15; Luke 3:19; 13:31, 32). He beheaded John the
          Baptist (Matt. 14:1-12) at the instigation of Herodias, the wife
          of his half-brother Herod-Philip, whom he had married. Pilate
          sent Christ to him when he was at Jerusalem at the Passover
          (Luke 23:7). He asked some idle questions of him, and after
          causing him to be mocked, sent him back again to Pilate. The
          wife of Chuza, his house-steward, was one of our Lord's
          disciples (Luke 8:3).

          (2.) A "faithful martyr" (Rev. 2:13), of whom nothing more is
          certainly known.

          A city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in
          honour of his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and
          Lydda, two miles inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea
          to Jerusalem. To this place Paul was brought by night (Acts
          23:31) on his way to Caesarea, from which it was distant 28
          miles. It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-Ain, where rise
          the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in Palestine.

          A fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple
          area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, 37). From the
          stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the
          multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1-21). It was originally a
          place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod
          fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark
          Antony. It was of great size, and commanded the temple. It was
          built on a plateau of rock, separated on the north from the hill
          Bezetha by a ditch about 30 feet deep and 165 feet wide.

          An inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1 Chr. 11:28; 12:3. In
          2 Sam. 23:27 it is Anethothite; in 1 Chr. 27:12, Anetothite.
          (R.V., "Anathothite.")

          The rendering of the Hebrew word , "beaten," found only in Isa.

          An animal of the monkey tribe (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chr. 9:21). It
          was brought from India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and
          was called by the Hebrews koph_, and by the Greeks _kepos, both
          words being just the Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi,
          i.e., swift, nimble, active. No species of ape has ever been
          found in Palestine or the adjacent regions.

          A Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:10), and styles
          "approved in Christ."

          A company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in
          Samaria (Ezra 5:6; 6:6).

          Another of the tribes removed to Samaria (Ezra 4:9), or perhaps
          the same as the preceding.

          (Judg. 1:31); Aphek (Josh. 13:4; 19:30), stronghold. (1.) A city
          of the tribe of Asher. It was the scene of the licentious
          worship of the Syrian Aphrodite. The ruins of the temple,
          "magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty",
          are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon,
          near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12 miles
          east of Gebal.

          (2.) A city of the tribe of Issachar, near to Jezreel (1 Sam.
          4:1; 29:1; comp. 28:4).

          (3.) A town on the road from Damascus to Palestine, in the level
          plain east of Jordan, near which Benhadad was defeated by the
          Israelites (1 Kings 20:26, 30; 2 Kings 13:17). It has been
          identified with the modern Fik, 6 miles east of the Sea of
          Galilee, opposite Tiberias.

          The Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).

          Hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which
          found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old
          Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made
          from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to
          be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word.

          (1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who
          frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles
          confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which
          was the same in all respects as we now have it.

          (2.) These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and
          during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after
          which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the
          Christian era.

          (3.) The contents of the books themselves show that they were no
          part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of
          fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the
          Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the
          Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit,
          Judith, etc.

          The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive
          literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic
          origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.

          A city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from
          which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed
          through it on their way to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1).

          A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures
          and eloquent (Acts 18:24; R.V., "learned"). He came to Ephesus
          (about A.D. 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue
          (18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth
          was the Messiah. Aquila and Priscilla instructed him more
          perfectly in "the way of God", i.e., in the knowledge of Christ.
          He then proceeded to Corinth, where he met Paul (Acts 18:27;
          19:1). He was there very useful in watering the good seed Paul
          had sown (1 Cor. 1:12), and in gaining many to Christ. His
          disciples were much attached to him (1 Cor. 3:4-7, 22). He was
          with Paul at Ephesus when he wrote the First Epistle to the
          Corinthians; and Paul makes kindly reference to him in his
          letter to Titus (3:13). Some have supposed, although without
          sufficient ground, that he was the author of the Epistle to the

          Destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented
          by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the
          Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).

          A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once
          used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of
          the Father (Heb. 3:1; John 20:21). It is, however, generally
          used as designating the body of disciples to whom he intrusted
          the organization of his church and the dissemination of his
          gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Matt. 10:1-5; Mark
          3:14; 6:7; Luke 6:13; 9:1). We have four lists of the apostles,
          one by each of the synoptic evangelists (Matt. 10:2-4; Mark
          3:16; Luke 6:14), and one in the Acts (1:13). No two of these
          lists, however, perfectly coincide.

          Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom," and by the gift of
          his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his
          church (John 14:16, 17, 26; 15:26, 27; 16:7-15). To them, as
          representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the
          gospel to every creature" (Matt. 28:18-20). After his ascension
          he communicated to them, according to his promise, supernatural
          gifts to qualify them for the discharge of their duties (Acts
          2:4; 1 Cor. 2:16; 2:7, 10, 13; 2 Cor. 5:20; 1 Cor. 11:2). Judas
          Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression, and
          Matthias was substituted in his place (Acts 1:21). Saul of
          Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20; 20:4;
          26:15-18; 1 Tim. 1:12; 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11).

          Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two Jameses
          (Acts 12:2, 17; 15:13; 21:18), but beyond this we know nothing
          from authentic history of the rest of the original twelve. After
          the martyrdom of James the Greater (Acts 12:2), James the Less
          usually resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the
          uncircumcision," usually travelled as a missionary among the
          Gentiles (Gal. 2:8). It was characteristic of the apostles and
          necessary (1) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able
          to testify of him and of his resurrection from personal
          knowledge (John 15:27; Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Cor. 9:1; Acts 22:14,
          15). (2.) They must have been immediately called to that office
          by Christ (Luke 6:13; Gal. 1:1). (3.) It was essential that they
          should be infallibly inspired, and thus secured against all
          error and mistake in their public teaching, whether by word or
          by writing (John 14:26; 16:13; 1 Thess. 2:13).

          (4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles
          (Mark 16:20; Acts 2:43; 1 Cor. 12:8-11). The apostles therefore
          could have had no successors. They are the only authoritative
          teachers of the Christian doctrines. The office of an apostle
          ceased with its first holders.

          In 2 Cor. 8:23 and Phil. 2:25 the word "messenger" is the
          rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere rendered "apostle."

          Rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in
          Ex. 30:25; 37:29; Eccl. 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were
          prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The
          feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered
          "confectionaries" in 1 Sam. 8:13.

          In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female
          attire was not very marked. The statute forbidding men to wear
          female apparel (Deut. 22:5) referred especially to ornaments and
          head-dresses. Both men and women wore (1) an under garment or
          tunic, which was bound by a girdle. One who had only this tunic
          on was spoken of as "naked" (1 Sam. 19:24; Job 24:10; Isa.
          20:2). Those in high stations sometimes wore two tunics, the
          outer being called the "upper garment" (1 Sam. 15:27; 18:4;
          24:5; Job 1:20). (2.) They wore in common an over-garment
          ("mantle," Isa. 3:22; 1 Kings 19:13; 2 Kings 2:13), a loose and
          flowing robe. The folds of this upper garment could be formed
          into a lap (Ruth 3:15; Ps. 79:12; Prov. 17:23; Luke 6:38).
          Generals of armies usually wore scarlet robes (Judg. 8:26; Nah.
          2:3). A form of conspicuous raiment is mentioned in Luke 20:46;
          comp. Matt. 23:5.

          Priests alone wore trousers. Both men and women wore turbans.
          Kings and nobles usually had a store of costly garments for
          festive occasions (Isa. 3:22; Zech. 3:4) and for presents (Gen.
          45:22; Esther 4:4; 6:8, 11; 1 Sam. 18:4; 2 Kings 5:5; 10:22).
          Prophets and ascetics wore coarse garments (Isa. 20:2; Zech.
          13:4; Matt. 3:4).

          A reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court.
          Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories
          such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Ex.

          Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that
          of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the
          emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, 12, 21, 25). Paul availed himself
          of the privilege of a Roman citizen in this matter.

          Increasing, a female Christian at Colosse (Philemon 1:2),
          supposed by some to have been the wife of Philemon.

   Appii Forum
          I.e., "the market of Appius" (Acts 28:15, R.V.), a town on the
          road, the "Appian Way," from Rome to Brundusium. It was 43 miles
          from Rome. Here Paul was met by some Roman Christians on his way
          to the capital. It was natural that they should halt here and
          wait for him, because from this place there were two ways by
          which travellers might journey to Rome.

          (Heb. tappuah, meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or
          quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the
          growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most
          valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12), and frequently referred
          to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (2:3, 5; 8:5). There
          is nothing to show that it was the "tree of the knowledge of
          good and evil." Dr. Tristram has suggested that the apricot has
          better claims than any other fruit-tree to be the apple of
          Scripture. It grows to a height of 30 feet, has a roundish mass
          of glossy leaves, and bears an orange coloured fruit that gives
          out a delicious perfume. The "apple of the eye" is the Heb.
          ishon, meaning manikin, i.e., the pupil of the eye (Prov. 7:2).
          (Comp. the promise, Zech. 2:8; the prayer, Ps. 17:8; and its
          fulfilment, Deut. 32:10.)

          The so-called "apple of Sodom" some have supposed to be the
          Solanum sanctum (Heb. hedek), rendered "brier" (q.v.) in Micah
          7:4, a thorny plant bearing fruit like the potato-apple. This
          shrub abounds in the Jordan valley. (See [22]ENGEDI.)

          Found in the Authorized Version in Gen. 3:7, of the bands of
          fig-leaves made by our first parents. In Acts 19:12, it denotes
          the belt or half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the
          waist for the purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In
          marg. of Authorized Version, Ruth 3:15, correctly rendered
          instead of "vail." (R.V., "mantle.")

          Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul
          met on his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Along with his
          wife Priscilla he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree
          (A.D. 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city.
          Paul sojourned with him at Corinth, and they wrought together at
          their common trade, making Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On
          Paul's departure from Corinth after eighteen months, Aquila and
          his wife accompanied him to Ephesus, where they remained, while
          he proceeded to Syria (Acts 18:18, 26). When they became
          Christians we are not informed, but in Ephesus they were (1 Cor.
          16:19) Paul's "helpers in Christ Jesus." We find them afterwards
          at Rome (Rom. 16:3), interesting themselves still in the cause
          of Christ. They are referred to some years after this as being
          at Ephesus (2 Tim. 4:19). This is the last notice we have of

          Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:52), now

          Plain, in the Revised Version of 2 Kings 14:25; Josh. 3:16;
          8:14; 2 Sam. 2:29; 4:7 (in all these passages the A.V. has
          "plain"); Amos 6:14 (A.V. "wilderness"). This word is found in
          the Authorized Version only in Josh. 18:18. It denotes the
          hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake
          of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by the Arabs
          el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken of as extending 10
          miles south of the Dead Sea, and thence to the Gulf of Akabah on
          the Red Sea is called the Wady el-Arabah.

          Arid, an extensive region in the south-west of Asia. It is
          bounded on the west by the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, on
          the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the east by the Persian
          Gulf and the Euphrates. It extends far into the north in barren
          deserts, meeting those of Syria and Mesopotamia. It is one of
          the few countries of the world from which the original
          inhabitants have never been expelled.

          It was anciently divided into three parts:, (1.) Arabia Felix
          (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility. It embraced a
          large portion of the country now known by the name of Arabia.
          The Arabs call it Yemen. It lies between the Red Sea and the
          Persian Gulf. (2.) Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great
          Wilderness" of the Arabs. From this name is derived that which
          is usually given to the nomadic tribes which wander over this
          region, the "Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin," (3.)
          Arabia Petraea, i.e., the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky
          mountains and stony plains. It comprehended all the north-west
          portion of the country, and is much better known to travellers
          than any other portion. This country is, however, divided by
          modern geographers into (1) Arabia Proper, or the Arabian
          Peninsula; (2) Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and (3)
          Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the
          Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites (Gen. 14:6,
          etc.), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known
          as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or
          Mount Seir.

          The whole land appears (Gen. 10) to have been inhabited by a
          variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians,
          Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming
          amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of
          Arabs. The modern nation of Arabs is predominantly Ishmaelite.
          Their language is the most developed and the richest of all the
          Semitic languages, and is of great value to the student of

          The Israelites wandered for forty years in Arabia. In the days
          of Solomon, and subsequently, commercial intercourse was to a
          considerable extent kept up with this country (1 Kings 10:15; 2
          Chr. 9:14; 17:11). Arabians were present in Jerusalem at
          Pentecost (Acts 2:11). Paul retired for a season into Arabia
          after his conversion (Gal. 1:17). This country is frequently
          referred to by the prophets (Isa. 21:11; 42:11; Jer. 25:24,

          (1.) Now Tell Arad, a Canaanite city, about 20 miles south of
          Hebron. The king of Arad "fought against Israel and took of them
          prisoners" when they were retreating from the confines of Edom
          (Num. 21:1; 33:40; Judg. 1:16). It was finally subdued by Joshua

          (2.) One of the sons of Beriah (1 Chr. 8:15).

          The son of Shem (Gen. 10:22); according to Gen. 22:21, a
          grandson of Nahor. In Matt. 1:3, 4, and Luke 3:33, this word is
          the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab (1 Chr. 2:10).

          The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a country
          denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of
          Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the
          Syria and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans. In Gen. 25:20;
          31:20, 24; Deut. 26:5, the word "Syrian" is properly "Aramean"
          (R.V., marg.). Damascus became at length the capital of the
          several smaller kingdoms comprehended under the designation
          "Aram" or "Syria."

          Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in
          Gen. 24:10), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east
          and the Euphrates on the west (Ps. 60, title); called also the
          "field of Aram" (Hos. 12:12, R.V.) i.e., the open country of
          Aram; in the Authorized Version, "country of Syria." Padan-aram
          (q.v.) was a portion of this country.

          (Ps. 60, title), probably the region between the Euphrates and
          the Orontes.

          Wild goat, a descendant of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36:28).

          Sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the
          mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Gen.
          8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range
          of South Armenia. In 2 Kings 19:37, Isa. 37:38, the word is
          rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised
          Version, "Land of Ararat." In Jer. 51:27, the name denotes the
          central or southern portion of Armenia. It is, however,
          generally applied to a high and almost inaccessible mountain
          which rises majestically from the plain of the Araxes. It has
          two conical peaks, about 7 miles apart, the one 14,300 feet and
          the other 10,300 feet above the level of the plain. Three
          thousand feet of the summit of the higher of these peaks is
          covered with perpetual snow. It is called Kuh-i-nuh, i.e.,
          "Noah's mountain", by the Persians. This part of Armenia was
          inhabited by a people who spoke a language unlike any other now
          known, though it may have been related to the modern Georgian.
          About B.C. 900 they borrowed the cuneiform characters of
          Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of
          kings who at times contended with Assyria. At the close of the
          seventh century B.C. the kingdom of Ararat came to an end, and
          the country was occupied by a people who are ancestors of the
          Armenians of the present day.

          Agile; also called Ornan 1 Chr. 21:15, a Jebusite who dwelt in
          Jerusalem before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying
          angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of
          the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a
          threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount
          Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together
          with the oxen and the threshing instruments; but the king
          insisted on purchasing it at its full price (2 Sam. 24:24; 1
          Chr. 21:24, 25), for, according to the law of sacrifices, he
          could not offer to God what cost him nothing. On the same place
          Solomon afterwards erected the temple (2 Sam. 24:16; 2 Chr.
          3:1). (See [23]ALTAR.)

          Four, a giant, father of Anak. From him the city of Hebron
          derived its name of Kirjath-arba, i.e., the city of Araba (Josh.
          14:15; 15:13; 21:11; Gen. 13:18; 23:2). (See [24]HEBRON.)

          A name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one
          of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:31; 1 Chr. 11:32), probably as
          being an inhabitant of Arabah (Josh. 15:61), a town in the
          wilderness of Judah.

          An architectural term found only in Ezek. 40:16, 21, 22, 26, 29.
          There is no absolute proof that the Israelites employed arches
          in their buildings. The arch was employed in the building of the
          pyramids of Egypt. The oldest existing arch is at Thebes, and
          bears the date B.C. 1350. There are also still found the remains
          of an arch, known as Robinson's Arch, of the bridge connecting
          Zion and Moriah. (See TYROPOEON [25]VALLEY.)

          (1Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9), the prince of the angels.

          Ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a
          Samaritan woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas
          at Rome. He inherited from his father a third part of his
          kingdom viz., Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called
          "king" (Matt. 2:22). It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary
          turned aside on their way back from Egypt. Till a few days
          before his death Herod had named Antipas as his successor, but
          in his last moments he named Archelaus.

          A shooter with the bow (1 Chr. 10:3). This art was of high
          antiquity (Gen. 21:20; 27:3). Saul was wounded by the Philistine
          archers (1 Sam. 31:3). The phrase "breaking the bow" (Hos. 1:5;
          Jer. 49:35) is equivalent to taking away one's power, while
          "strengthening the bow" is a symbol of its increase (Gen.
          49:24). The Persian archers were famous among the ancients (Isa.
          13:18; Jer. 49:35; 50:9, 14, 29, 42. (See [26]BOW).

          One of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra
          4:9); the men of Erech.

          A city on the boundary of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2),
          between Bethel and Beth-horon the nether.

          Master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's (Philemon
          1:2), whom he exhorts to renewed activity (Col. 4:17). He was a
          member of Philemon's family, probably his son.

          The usual designation of Hushai (2 Sam. 15:32; 17:5, 14; 1 Chr.
          27:33), who was a native of Archi. He was "the king's friend",
          i.e., he held office under David similar to that of our modern
          privy councillor.

          Bear-keeper, the name given by the ancients to the brightest
          star in the constellation Bootes. In the Authorized Version (Job
          9:9; 38:32) it is the rendering of the Hebrew word 'ash, which
          probably designates the constellation the Great Bear. This word
          (ash) is supposed to be derived from an Arabic word meaning
          night-watcher, because the Great Bear always revolves about the
          pole, and to our nothern hemisphere never sets.

          Descent, a grandson of Benjamin (Num. 26:38-40). In 1 Chr. 8:3
          he is called Addar. His descendants are mentioned in Num. 26:40.

          Descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first
          wife Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).

          A member of the court of Areopagus (Acts 17:34).

          The Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it
          denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the
          open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the
          Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the
          council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted
          of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office,
          and the ex-archons of blameless life.

          On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable
          address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31).

          The father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea.
          His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's
          entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of
          Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, 20; Mark 6:17; Matt.
          14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas.
          Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking
          advantage of the complications of the times on account of the
          death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of
          Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time Paul
          returned to Damascus from Arabia.

          Stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
          miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of
          Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the
          extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over
          by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
          Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the
          Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the
          Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space
          of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive.
          Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
          cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
          the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by
          ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having
          been called the land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have
          more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken
          possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace.
          Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect,
          as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
          unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These
          ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest
          specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant
          Cities). (See [27]BASHAN.)

          The lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah
          at Samaria (2 Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.

          The lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to
          procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16).

          (2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, 2, 7) as
          "victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, 16, for the altar
          (marg., Heb. ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's
          lion-like strength.

          A "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in
          whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, 60; John 19:38).
          It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the
          birth-place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1, 19). Others identify it with
          Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).

          Lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate
          with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1, 9). The tablets recently discovered
          by Mr. Pinches (see [28]CHALDEA) show the true reading is
          Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the
          moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O
          moon-god." (2.) Dan. 2:14.

          Best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4), a companion of
          Paul (Acts 19:29; 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome
          (Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).

          A Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose
          "household" is saluated.

          Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch,
          300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Gen.
          6:14-16); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door
          in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in
          building (Gen. 5:32; 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain
          persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring
          over the earth. It contained eight persons (Gen. 7:13; 2 Pet.
          2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean"
          one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Gen. 7:2, 3).
          It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and
          sloping roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man
          was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found
          existing among all nations.

          The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Ex.
          2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the
          Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and
          with pitch. The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus

          The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word, 'aron',
          which is the common name for a chest or coffer used for any
          purpose (Gen. 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9, 10). It is distinguished from
          all others by such titles as the "ark of God" (1 Sam. 3:3), "ark
          of the covenant" (Josh. 3:6; Heb. 9:4), "ark of the testimony"
          (Ex. 25:22). It was made of acacia or shittim wood, a cubit and
          a half broad and high and two cubits long, and covered all over
          with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid, the mercy-seat,
          was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each of the two sides
          were two gold rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles
          by which the ark could be carried (Num. 7:9; 10:21; 4:5, 19, 20;
          1 Kings 8:3, 6). Over the ark, at the two extremities, were two
          cherubim, with their faces turned toward each other (Lev. 16:2;
          Num. 7:89). Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed
          the throne of God, while the ark itself was his footstool (Ex.
          25:10-22; 37:1-9). The ark was deposited in the "holy of
          holies," and was so placed that one end of the poles by which it
          was carried touched the veil which separated the two apartments
          of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8). The two tables of stone which
          constituted the "testimony" or evidence of God's covenant with
          the people (Deut. 31:26), the "pot of manna" (Ex. 16:33), and
          "Aaron's rod that budded" (Num. 17:10), were laid up in the ark
          (Heb. 9:4). (See [29]TABERNACLE) The ark and the sanctuary were
          "the beauty of Israel" (Lam. 2:1). During the journeys of the
          Israelites the ark was carried by the priests in advance of the
          host (Num. 4:5, 6; 10:33-36; Ps. 68:1; 132:8). It was borne by
          the priests into the bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening
          a pathway for the whole of the host to pass over (Josh. 3:15,
          16; 4:7, 10, 11, 17, 18). It was borne in the procession round
          Jericho (Josh. 6:4, 6, 8, 11, 12). When carried it was always
          wrapped in the veil, the badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and
          carefully concealed even from the eyes of the Levites who
          carried it. After the settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark
          remained in the tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then
          removed to Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400
          years (Jer. 7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle
          so as to secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and
          was taken by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:3-11), who sent it back
          after retaining it seven months (1 Sam. 5:7, 8). It remained
          then at Kirjath-jearim (7:1, 2) till the time of David (twenty
          years), who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper
          mode of removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten
          with death for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and
          in consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in
          Gath-rimmon for three months (2 Sam. 6:1-11), at the end of
          which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem,
          where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (12-19). It
          was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1 Kings
          8:6-9). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered
          the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar
          and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The
          absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points
          in which it was inferior to the first temple.

          (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15), a designation of certain descendants
          from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12
          miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of

          Used to denote power (Ps. 10:15; Ezek. 30:21; Jer. 48:25). It is
          also used of the omnipotence of God (Ex. 15:16; Ps. 89:13; 98:1;
          77:15; Isa. 53:1; John 12:38; Acts 13:17)

          Occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically
          designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God
          Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the
          "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict
          between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was
          suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of
          Esdraelon (q.v.).

          High land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in
          Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country
          in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea.
          Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen. 8:4). It is
          for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras,
          the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the
          name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia
          are mentioned in Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some,
          however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See

          Inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of
          Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David,
          and hanged by them (2 Sam. 21:8, 9).

          Is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment,
          both offensive and defensive.

          (1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods
          of history. The "rod of iron" (Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a
          mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a
          strong arm. The "maul" (Prov. 25:18; cognate Hebrew word
          rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in
          Ezek. 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual
          translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real
          sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always
          double-edged), was also used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings
          20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon (Josh. 8:18; 1
          Sam. 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Num. 25:7, 8;
          1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1 Sam. 19:9, 10),
          and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was,
          however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows were carried in
          a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action
          (Gen. 27:3; 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite weapon
          of the Benjamites (1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2. Comp. 1 Sam.

          (2.) Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the
          shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the
          tzinnah), for the protection of the whole person (Gen. 15:1; Ps.
          47:9; 1 Sam. 17:7; Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb. mageen) or
          small shield (1 Kings 10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps. 91:4 "buckler"
          is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or slingers. The
          helmet (Ezek. 27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering for the head; the
          coat of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or habergeon (Neh.
          4;16), harness or breat-plate (Rev. 9:9), for the covering of
          the back and breast and both upper arms (Isa. 59:17; Eph. 6:14).
          The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather or quilted cloth,
          were also for the covering of the body. Greaves, for the
          covering of the legs, were worn in the time of David (1 Sam.
          17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Eph. 6:14-17) to the panoply
          of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon, a door-like
          oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole person, not
          the small round shield. There is no armour for the back, but
          only for the front.

          An officer selected by kings and generals because of his
          bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by
          them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our
          modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:7; 16:21; 31:6).

          The place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh.
          3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own
          arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or
          magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large
          collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his
          tabernacle (1 Sa,. 21:9; 2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26, 27).

          The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Ex.
          13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed
          a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Num. 2:2; 10:14).
          In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under
          their several captains (Num. 31:14), and also into families
          (Num. 2:34; 2 Chr. 25:5; 26:12). From the time of their entering
          the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made
          little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in
          warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a
          bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus
          of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select
          warriors (1 Sam. 13:2; 14:52; 24:2). David also had a band of
          soldiers around him (1 Sam. 23:13; 25:13). To this band he
          afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2 Sam.
          15:18; 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1
          Sam. 4:10; 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deut.
          17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (2 Sam.
          8:4; 1 Kings 10:26, 28, 29; 1 Kings 9:19). In 1 Kings 9:22 there
          is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those
          who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army
          were at the public expense (2 Sam. 17:28, 29; 1 Kings 4:27;
          10:16, 17; Judg. 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above
          twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Ex. 12:37). In
          David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2 Sam.

          Swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond
          Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deut. 3:8, 16).
          This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in
          the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about
          80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly
          opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now
          called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the
          Arnon to the Jabbok.

          Ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48;
          Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the
          kingdom of Sihon (Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles
          west of the Dead Sea.

          (2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34)
          "before Rabbah" (Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was
          famous in the history of Jephthah (Judg. 11:33) and of David (2
          Sam. 24:5). (Comp. Isa. 17:2; 2 Kings 15:29.)

          (3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of
          Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the
          spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:26, 28). It was
          the native city of two of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:44). It is
          now called Ar'arah.

          (Isa. 10:9; 36:19; 37:13), also Arphad, support, a Syrian city
          near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2
          Kings 19:13; 18:34; Isa. 10:9), and Damascus (Jer. 49:23). After
          a siege of three years it fell (B.C. 742) before the Assyrian
          king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.

          Son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age
          of 438 years (Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chr. 1:17, 18; Luke 3:36). He
          dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish
          historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The
          tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country
          nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the
          word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name of Ur
          Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.

          At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron.
          Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deut.
          32:23, 42; Ps. 7:13; 18:14; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They were used
          in war as well as in the chase (Gen. 27:3; 49:23). They were
          also used in divination (Ezek. 21:21).

          The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or
          disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4; 34:6; Ps. 38:2; Deut. 32:23.
          Comp. Ezek. 5:16), or of some sudden danger (Ps. 91:5), or
          bitter words (Ps. 64:3), or false testimony (Prov. 25:18).

          The Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The
          king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He
          was probably the Smerdis of profane history.

          (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C.
          458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
          Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
          (B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years
          later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

          A person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Gen. 4:22;
          Isa. 3:3).

          1 Sam. 20:40, (Heb. keli, meaning "apparatus;" here meaning
          collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In
          Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin
          artillaria = equipment of war.

          Wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of
          Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre.
          The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written
          Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.

          Physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third
          king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of
          God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying
          immoralities, out of the land (1 Kings 15:8-14). The Lord gave
          him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him,
          however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to
          the Lord, but to the physicians" (comp. Jer. 17:5). He died in
          the forty-first year of his reign, greatly honoured by his
          people (2 Chr. 16:1-13), and was succeeded by his son

          Made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was
          celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against
          Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was
          put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle
          (2 Sam. 2:18, 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty
          men (2 Sam. 23:24; 1 Chr. 11:26). Others of the same name are
          mentioned (2 Chr. 17:8; 31:13; Ezra 10:15).

          Convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of
          David's choir (1 Chr. 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive are
          attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled
          in music, and a "seer" (2 Chr. 29:30). The "sons of Asaph,"
          mentioned in 1 Chr. 25:1, 2 Chr. 20:14, and Ezra 2:41, were his
          descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who
          recognized him as their master.

          (2.) The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18, 37).

          (3.) The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah
          requested from Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him
          timber for the temple at Jerusalem (Neh. 2:8).

          See [31]CHRIST.

          An Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
          Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
          41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;

          (Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned only Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "fir
          tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate
          versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs aran, found still
          in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of
          the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is
          not known in Syria.

          Stronghold, a Philistine city (Josh. 15:47), about midway
          between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It
          was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1 Sam. 5:5).
          It belonged to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:47), but it never
          came into their actual possession. It was an important city, as
          it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was
          strongly fortified (2 Chr. 26:6; Isa. 20:1). Uzziah took it, but
          fifty years after his death it was taken by the Assyrians (B.C.
          758). According to Sargon's record, it was captured by him in
          B.C. 711. The only reference to it in the New Testament, where
          it is called Azotus, is in the account of Philip's return from
          Gaza (Acts 8:40). It is now called Eshdud.

          (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 12:3; 13:20) in Authorized Version, but in
          Revised Version translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deut. 4:49 it
          is translated in the Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The
          name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version,
          but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Josh. 10:40 and 12:8. It
          has been identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now
          called Ayun Musa.

          Happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
          (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded
          beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;
          46:17; Ex. 1:4, etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine
          percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of
          this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan
          and Naphtali (Num. 2:27). The boundaries of the inheritance
          given to it, which contained some of the richest soil in
          Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Josh.
          19:24-31; Judg. 1:31, 32. Asher and Simeon were the only tribes
          west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge for the
          nation. Anna the prophetess was of this tribe (Luke 2:36).

          And pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and
          "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a
          sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the
          Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of
          its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the
          ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded
          to in Scripture (Ex. 34:13; Judg. 6:25; 2 Kings 23:6; 1 Kings
          16:33, etc.). These images were also sometimes made of silver or
          of carved stone (2 Kings 21:7; "the graven image of Asherah,"
          R.V.). (See [32]GROVE [1].).

          The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when
          sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb.

          To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and
          humiliation (2 Sam. 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, etc.).

          To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will
          prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the
          unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Comp. Hos. 12:1).

          =Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines
          (Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 6:17). It stood on the shore of the
          Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an
          inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king
          Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the
          judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of
          Judah; but it was soon after retaken by the Philistines (2 Sam.
          1:20), who were not finally dispossessed till the time of
          Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from
          Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets
          foretold its destruction (Jer. 25:20; 47:5, 7). It became a
          noted place in the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a
          bloody battle between the Saracens and the Crusaders. It was
          beseiged and taken by Richard the Lion-hearted, and "within its
          walls and towers now standing he held his court." Among the Tell
          Amarna tablets (see [33]EGYPT) are found letters or official
          despatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of the king's
          feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from Ascalon. It is
          now called Askalan.

          One of the three sons of Gomer (Gen. 10:3), and founder of one
          of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in
          connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat
          must have been in Armenia (Jer. 51:27), probably near the Black
          Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and
          afterwards the Euxine.

          The master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the
          "Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the
          Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.

          A city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4;
          13:12; 9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh.
          13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1
          Chr. 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:44), is
          named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in
          the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name
          Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27) is a contraction for Beth-eshterah,
          i.e., "the house of Ashtaroth."

   Ashteroth Karnaim
          Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen.
          14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called
          "Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The
          Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present
          es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.

          The moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive
          principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently
          associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male
          deity (Judg. 10:6; 1 Sam. 7:4; 12:10). These names often occur
          in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either
          different statues or different modifications of the deities.
          This deity is spoken of as Ashtoreth of the Zidonians. She was
          the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of the Greeks (Jer.
          44:17; 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13). There was a temple of
          this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul (1 Sam.
          31:10). Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great
          deities of the Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte.
          Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1 Kings 11:33).
          Jezebel's 400 priests were probably employed in its service (1
          Kings 18:19). It was called the "queen of heaven" (Jer. 44:25).

          Mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2
          Sam. 2:9).

          Is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which
          embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus
          was the capital, in Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10, 22; 20:4, 16,
          18, etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, 27; 21:27;
          24:18; 27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of
          the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31)
          were certain wealthy citizens who were annually elected to
          preside over the games and religious festivals of the several
          cities to which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were
          Paul's friends.

          Probably the same as Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos of the
          Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10), was the son
          and successor (B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was
          "luxurious, ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of
          literature." He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets,
          numbering about 10,000. These are now mostly in the British
          Museum. They throw much light on the history and antiquities of

          Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of literature, and the
          conqueror of Elam. Towards the middle of his reign his empire
          was shaken by a great rebellion headed by his brother in
          Babylon. The rebellion was finally put down, but Egypt was lost,
          and the military power of Assyria was so exhausted that it could
          with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians who poured over
          Western Asia. (See [34]NINEVEH.)

          (Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, 16; Isa. 11:8. It was
          probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very
          poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as
          the uraeus, and it was found in the desert and in the fields.
          The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the
          figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See

          Frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated
          species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. athon), so named from
          its slowness (Gen. 12:16; 45:23; Num. 22:23; 1 Sam. 9:3). (2.)
          The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western
          Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a
          strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an
          ass and an ox in the plough (Deut. 22:10). (3.) The ass's colt
          (Heb. air), mentioned Judg. 10:4; 12:14. It is rendered "foal"
          in Gen. 32:15; 49:11. (Comp. Job 11:12; Isa. 30:6.) The ass is
          an unclean animal, because it does not chew the cud (Lev. 11:26.
          Comp. 2 Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a considerable portion of
          wealth in ancient times (Gen. 12:16; 30:43; 1 Chr. 27:30; Job
          1:3; 42:12). They were noted for their spirit and their
          attachment to their master (Isa. 1:3). They are frequently
          spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham (Gen. 22:3),
          Balaam (Num. 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1 Kings 13:23),
          the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number (Judg. 12:14),
          Zipporah (Ex. 4:20), the Shunammite (1 Sam. 25:30), etc.
          Zechariah (9:9) predicted our Lord's triumphal entrance into
          Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon a colt," etc. (Matt.
          21:5, R.V.).

          Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in Hebrew
          'arod, mentioned Job 39:5 and Dan. 5:21, noted for its
          swiftness; and (2) that called pe're, the wild ass of Asia (Job
          39:6-8; 6:5; 11:12; Isa. 32:14; Jer. 2:24; 14:6, etc.). The wild
          ass was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme shyness.
          In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to a wild
          ass (Gen. 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered "wild" in the
          Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass among

          Second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17). He went from the
          land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:11, 12). He
          probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual
          translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes
          retained (Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:23, etc.). In Gen. 2:14
          "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital
          of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat,
          on the west bank of the Tigris. This city was founded by
          Bel-kap-kapu about B.C. 1700. At a later date the capital was
          shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank
          of the river. (See [36]CALAH; [37]NINEVEH.)

          A sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia,
          on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither
          on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, 14), a
          distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas
          by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles

          The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr.
          pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that
          his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full
          assurance [Gr. plerophoria, full bearing'] of faith" (Heb.
          10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for
          doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an
          entire unwavering conviction of the truth of the declarations of
          Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the part of any one of
          conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The "full
          assurance of hope" (Heb. 6:11) is a sure and well-grounded
          expectation of eternal glory (2 Tim. 4:7, 8). This assurance of
          hope is the assurance of a man's own particular salvation.

          This infallible assurance, which believers may attain unto as to
          their own personal salvation, is founded on the truth of the
          promises (Heb. 6:18), on the inward evidence of Christian
          graces, and on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption (Rom.
          8:16). That such a certainty may be attained appears from the
          testimony of Scripture (Rom. 8:16; 1 John 2:3; 3:14), from the
          command to seek after it (Heb. 6:11; 2 Pet. 1:10), and from the
          fact that it has been attained (2 Tim. 1:12; 4:7, 8; 1 John 2:3;

          This full assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It is
          the result of faith, and posterior to it in the order of nature,
          and so frequently also in the order of time. True believers may
          be destitute of it. Trust itself is something different from the
          evidence that we do trust. Believers, moreover, are exhorted to
          go on to something beyond what they at present have when they
          are exhorted to seek the grace of full assurance (Heb. 10:22; 2
          Pet. 1:5-10). The attainment of this grace is a duty, and is to
          be diligently sought.

          "Genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding
          peace and joy, and to love and thankfulness to God; and these
          from the very laws of our being to greater buoyancy, strength,
          and cheerfulness in the practice of obedience in every
          department of duty."

          This assurance may in various ways be shaken, diminished, and
          intermitted, but the principle out of which it springs can never
          be lost. (See [38]FAITH.)

          The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the
          original capital of the country, was originally a colony from
          Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a
          mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending
          along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of
          Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded
          in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a
          conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian
          masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians
          were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite
          tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military
          people, the "Romans of the East."

          Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is
          positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest
          of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the
          kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and
          advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be
          regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this
          the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the
          states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel,
          Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose
          allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to
          Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with
          Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army
          against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that
          city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre
          and Sidon.

          About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was seized
          by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of
          Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which
          had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. 740)
          Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced
          Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and
          thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a
          yearly tribute.

          In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul
          invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings
          15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against
          Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by
          means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8); who
          accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to
          death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his
          army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province
          east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of
          Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and
          was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 722. He
          also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5), but was deposed in favour of
          Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who
          took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an
          end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into
          captivity, B.C. 722 (2 Kings 17:1-6, 24; 18:7, 9). He also
          overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isa.
          10:6, 12, 22, 24, 34). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C.
          705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13; 19:37;
          Isa. 7:17, 18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor,
          who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some
          time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian
          kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37; Isa.

          Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra
          4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria
          had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon,
          the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered
          Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and
          Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In B.C. 727 the
          Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the
          leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan (2
          Kings 20:12), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon,
          who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But
          on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst
          forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their
          independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria fell according to the
          prophecies of Isaiah (10:5-19), Nahum (3:19), and Zephaniah
          (3:13), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed
          ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19; Isa. 36:4).
          Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was
          overthrown. It ceases to be a nation. (See [39]NINEVEH;

          (Dan. 1:20; 2:2, 10, 27, etc.) Heb. ashshaph', an enchanter, one
          who professes to divine future events by the appearance of the
          stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was
          positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19; 18:10; Isa.

          The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry
          firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the
          oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations
          are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning
          star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and
          "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job
          9:9; 38:31), "the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13), the
          Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11). The stars
          were called "the host of heaven" (Isa. 40:26; Jer. 33:22).

          The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the
          observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the
          "ordinances of heaven" (Gen. 1:14-18; Job 38:33; Jer. 31:35;
          33:25). Such observations led to the division of the year into
          months and the mapping out of the appearances of the stars into
          twelve portions, which received from the Greeks the name of the
          "zodiac." The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin
          notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical
          observations were also necessary among the Jews in order to the
          fixing of the proper time for sacred ceremonies, the "new
          moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions are found to the
          display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry heavens
          (Ps. 8; 19:1-6; Isa. 51:6, etc.)

          (1 Chr. 26:15, 17, Authorized Version; but in Revised Version,
          "storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In
          Neh. 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg.
          "treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."

          Buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their
          way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob,
          made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this
          account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Gen. 50:10,
          11). It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble"
          in Judg. 9:14, 15, and "thorns" in Ps. 58:9.

          Crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Num.

          (2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2,
          7), called also Ataroth-adar (16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh.

          (3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1 Chr. 2:54), a town of Judah
          inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.

          Shut; lame. (1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.) Neh. 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.

          Whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and
          the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18), who "walked
          in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2 Chr. 21:6), called
          "daughter" of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband
          and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the
          vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the
          youngest (2 Kings 11:1, 2). After a reign of six years she was
          put to death in an insurrection (2 Kings 11:20; 2 Chr. 21:6;
          22:10-12; 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with
          Josiah's being crowned as king.

          (2.) Ezra 8:7. (3.) 1 Chr. 8:26.

          The capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient
          world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden
          period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty
          (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship
          of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist
          that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man."

          On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts
          17:15; comp. 1 Thess. 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his
          famous speech (17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks
          as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was
          probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is
          supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a
          flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the
          occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at
          the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."

          This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New
          Testament except in Rom. 5:11, where in the Revised Version the
          word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of
          frequent occurrence.

          The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state
          of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is
          reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows
          from the death of Christ.

          But the word is also used to denote that by which this
          reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ
          itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this
          sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for
          his offences (Ex. 32:30; Lev. 4:26; 5:16; Num. 6:11), and, as
          regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his

          By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which
          he expiated our sins. But in Scripture usage the word denotes
          the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is
          effected. When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word
          "satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the
          Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement."
          Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of
          sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God.
          Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these
          were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit, but were
          in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or
          substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our
          vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now
          consistent with his justice to manifest his love to
          transgressors. Expiation has been made for sin, i.e., it is
          covered. The means by which it is covered is vicarious
          satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement
          or reconciliation. To make atonement is to do that by virtue of
          which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about.
          Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or
          efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify the
          disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the
          obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The
          reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners
          toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward
          sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so
          that consistently with the other attributes of his character his
          love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men. The
          primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the
          Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of
          infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (q.v.),
          and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had
          incurred. It must also be constantly kept in mind that the
          atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to
          guilty men (John 3:16; Rom. 3:24, 25; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:9;
          4:9). The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an
          absolute but in a relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved,
          there is no other way than this which God has devised and
          carried out (Ex. 34:7; Josh. 24:19; Ps. 5:4; 7:11; Nahum 1:2, 6;
          Rom. 3:5). This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and that is
          enough for us to know.

   Atonement, Day of
          The great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins
          of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one
          commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is
          described in Lev. 16:3-10; 23:26-32; and Num. 29:7-11.

          It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days
          before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to
          sunset. (See [41]AZAZEL.)

          The cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar
          Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His
          decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely
          ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy
          (Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title
          meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the
          senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his
          death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire
          (Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.

   Augustus band
          (Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta,
          the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar).
          Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers
          belonging to Caesarea.

          A place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria
          (2 Kings 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah (18:34;
          19:13; Isa. 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the

          Nothingness; vanity. (1.) Hosea speaks of the "high places of
          Aven" (10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls it
          Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (4:15), on account of the
          golden calves Jeroboam had set up there (1 Kings 12:28).

          (2.) Translated by the LXX. "On" in Ezek. 30:17. The Egyptian
          Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.).

          (3.) In Amos 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern

   Avenger of blood
          (Heb. goel, from verb gaal, "to be near of kin," "to redeem"),
          the nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and
          duty to slay the murderer (2 Sam. 14:7, 11) if he found him
          outside of a city of refuge. In order that this law might be
          guarded against abuse, Moses appointed six cities of refuge (Ex.
          21:13; Num. 35:13; Deut. 19:1, 9). These were in different parts
          of the country, and every facility was afforded the manslayer
          that he might flee to the city that lay nearest him for safety.
          Into the city of refuge the avenger durst not follow him. This
          arrangement applied only to cases where the death was not
          premeditated. The case had to be investigated by the authorities
          of the city, and the wilful murderer was on no account to be
          spared. He was regarded as an impure and polluted person, and
          was delivered up to the goel (Deut. 19:11-13). If the offence
          was merely manslaughter, then the fugitive must remain within
          the city till the death of the high priest (Num. 35:25).

          A people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments"
          on the south-west corner of the sea-coast (Deut. 2:23). They
          were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of
          them is afterwards found in Josh. 13:3, where they are called

          An instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of
          boring the ear of a slave (Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17), in token of
          his volunteering perpetual service when he might be free. (Comp.
          Ps. 40:6; Isa. 50:5).

          Used in the Authorized Version of Deut. 19:5; 20:19; 1 Kings
          6:7, as the translation of a Hebrew word which means "chopping."
          It was used for felling trees (Isa. 10:34) and hewing timber for
          building. It is the rendering of a different word in Judg. 9:48,
          1 Sam. 13:20, 21, Ps. 74:5, which refers to its sharpness. In 2
          Kings 6:5 it is the translation of a word used with reference to
          its being made of iron. In Isa. 44:12 the Revised Version
          renders by "axe" the Hebrew maatsad, which means a "hewing"
          instrument. In the Authorized Version it is rendered "tongs." It
          is also used in Jer. 10:3, and rendered "axe." The "battle-axe"
          (army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jer. 51:20 was
          probably, as noted in the margin of the Revised Version, a
          "maul" or heavy mace. In Ps. 74:6 the word so rendered means
          "feller." (See the figurative expression in Matt. 3:10; Luke

          (Zech. 14:5) should perhaps be rendered "very near" = "the way
          of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote
          some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken
          of near Jerusalem.

          Whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1
          Chr. 2:8).

          (2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as high
          priest (1 Chr. 6:9; 1 Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He
          officiated at the consecration of the temple (1 Chr. 6:10).

          (3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah and
          Asa (2 Chr. 6:10, 11).

          (4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2 Kings
          14:21; 2 Chr. 26:17-20). He was contemporary with the prophets
          Isaiah, Amos, and Joel.

          (5.) High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:10-13). Of
          the house of Zadok.

          (6.) Several other priests and Levites of this name are
          mentioned (1 Chr. 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 3:23, etc.).

          (7.) The original name of Abed-nego (Dan. 1:6, 7, 11, 16). He
          was of the royal family of Judah, and with his other two
          companions remarkable for his personal beauty and his
          intelligence as well as piety.

          (8.) The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa (2
          Chr. 15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great
          national reformation.

          (Lev. 16:8, 10, 26, Revised Version only here; rendered
          "scape-goat" in the Authorized Version). This word has given
          rise to many different views. Some Jewish interpreters regard it
          as the name of a place some 12 miles east of Jerusalem, in the
          wilderness. Others take it to be the name of an evil spirit, or
          even of Satan. But when we remember that the two goats together
          form a type of Christ, on whom the Lord "laid the iniquity of us
          all," and examine into the root meaning of this word (viz.,
          "separation"), the interpretation of those who regard the one
          goat as representing the atonement made, and the other, that
          "for Azazel," as representing the effect of the great work of
          atonement (viz., the complete removal of sin), is certainly to
          be preferred. The one goat which was "for Jehovah" was offered
          as a sin-offering, by which atonement was made. But the sins
          must also be visibly banished, and therefore they were
          symbolically laid by confession on the other goat, which was
          then "sent away for Azazel" into the wilderness. The form of
          this word indicates intensity, and therefore signifies the total
          separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. It was important
          that the result of the sacrifices offered by the high priest
          alone in the sanctuary should be embodied in a visible
          transaction, and hence the dismissal of the "scape-goat." It was
          of no consequence what became of it, as the whole import of the
          transaction lay in its being sent into the wilderness bearing
          away sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness to the
          demerit of sin and the need of the blood of atonement, so the
          goat "for Azazel" was to witness to the efficacy of the
          sacrifice and the result of the shedding of blood in the taking
          away of sin.

          Whom Jehovah strengthened. (1.) One of the Levitical harpers in
          the temple (1 Chr. 15:21).

          (2.) The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the
          Ephraimites (1 Chr. 27:20).

          (3.) One who had charge of the temple offerings (2 Chr. 31:13).

          Dug over, a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah (Josh.
          15:35), where the five confederated Amoritish kings were
          defeated by Joshua and their army destroyed by a hailstrom
          (10:10, 11). It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on
          their return from the Captivity (Neh. 11:30).

          Noble, a descendant of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:37; 9:43, 44).

          Strong as death. (1.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam.

          (2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David
          and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25).

          (3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Neh. 12:29;
          Ezra 2:24).

          (4.) 1 Chr. 8:36

          The Grecized form (Acts 8:40, etc.) of Ashdod (q.v.).

          Deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18, 19).

          (2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1
          Kings 22:42).

   Azur and Azzur
          Helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer.

          (2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1).

          (3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the
          return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).